Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (film)

Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (Japanese: 風の谷のナウシカ, Hepburn: Kaze no Tani no Naushika) is a 1984 Japanese animated post-apocalyptic fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, based on his 1982–94 manga series of the same name. It was produced by Topcraft and distributed by Toei Company. Joe Hisaishi, in his first collaboration with Miyazaki, composed the score. The film stars the voices of Sumi Shimamoto, Gorō Naya, Yōji Matsuda, Yoshiko Sakakibara and Iemasa Kayumi.[1] Set in a post-nuclear futuristic world, it tells the story of Nausicaä (Shimamoto), the teenage princess of the Valley of the Wind who becomes embroiled in a struggle with Tolmekia, a kingdom that tries to use an ancient weapon to eradicate a jungle full of giant mutant insects.

Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind
Theatrical release poster by Yoshiyuki Takani
Japanese name
Revised HepburnKaze no Tani no Naushika
Directed byHayao Miyazaki
Screenplay byHayao Miyazaki
Based onNausicaä of the Valley of the Wind
by Hayao Miyazaki
Produced byIsao Takahata
  • Koji Shiragami
  • Yukitomo Shudo
  • Yasuhiro Shimizu
  • Mamoru Sugiura
Edited by
  • Tomoko Kida
  • Naoko Kaneko
  • Masatsugu Sakai
Music byJoe Hisaishi
Distributed byToei Company
Release date
  • 11 March 1984 (1984-03-11) (Japan)
Running time
117 minutes
Budget¥180 million ($758,000)
Box office$14.3 million

Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind was released in Japan on 11 March 1984. The film received critical acclaim, with praise being directed at the story, themes, characters and animation. It is the second-highest-ranked Japanese anime in a survey published by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs in 2007.[2] Though it was made before Studio Ghibli was founded, it is often considered a Ghibli work, and is usually released as part of DVD and Blu-ray collections of Ghibli work.[3]

A heavily edited version of the film created by Manson International, Warriors of the Wind, was released in the United States and other markets throughout the mid-to-late 1980s. The Manson cut was derided by Miyazaki. It was eventually replaced in circulation by an uncut, redubbed version produced by Walt Disney Pictures in 2005.



One thousand years have passed since the Seven Days of Fire, an apocalyptic war that destroyed civilization and caused an ecocide, creating the vast Toxic Jungle,[a] a poisonous forest swarming with giant mutant insects.[4] In the kingdom of the Valley of the Wind, a prophecy predicts a savior "clothed in a blue robe, descending onto a golden field". The Valley's princess Nausicaä explores the jungle and communicates with its creatures, including the gigantic, trilobite-like armored Ohm.[b] She hopes to understand the jungle and find a way for it and humans to coexist.

One morning, a massive cargo aircraft from the military kingdom of Tolmekia crashes in the Valley despite Nausicaä's efforts to save it. Its sole survivor, Princess Lastelle of Pejite, asks Nausicaä to destroy the cargo before she dies. The cargo is an embryo of a Giant Warrior, one of the lethal, gargantuan humanoid bioweapons that caused the Seven Days of Fire. Tolmekia seized the embryo and Lastelle from Pejite, but their plane was attacked by insects and crashed. One of the insects emerges wounded from the wreckage and poises to attack, but Nausicaä uses a bullroarer to calm it and guides it away from the village.

Soon after, Tolmekian soldiers under the command of Princess Kushana invade the Valley and kill Nausicaä's father, Jihl. Nausicaä briefly fights the Tolmekians, but the Valley's elderly swordsmaster, Yupa, rescues her. Kushana, having retrieved the Giant Warrior's embryo, plans to mature and use the bioweapon to burn the Toxic Jungle. Yupa discovers a secret garden of jungle plants that had been cared for by Nausicaä; according to her findings, plants that grow in clean soil and water are not toxic, but the jungle's soil has been tainted by pollution.

Kushana leaves for Tolmekian-occupied Pejite with Nausicaä and five hostages from the Valley, but a Pejite interceptor shoots down the Tolmekian airships carrying them. Nausicaä, Kushana and the hostages crash-land in the jungle, disturbing several Ohm, which Nausicaä soothes. She leaves to rescue Princess Lastelle's twin brother, Asbel, but both crash through a stratum of quicksand into a non-toxic area below the Toxic Jungle. Nausicaä realizes that the jungle plants purify the polluted topsoil, producing clean water and soil underground.

Nausicaä and Asbel reach Pejite but find it ravaged by insects. They learn that the local survivors lured the insects to eradicate the Tolmekians, and are doing the same to the Valley. Nausicaä is taken prisoner, but escapes with the help of a group of Pejite sympathizers, including Asbel and his mother. She soon discovers two Pejite soldiers using a wounded baby Ohm to lure thousands of Ohm into the Valley. As the Tolmekians fight against the Ohm, the Giant Warrior, having hatched prematurely, disintegrates after killing a fraction of the Ohm.

Meanwhile, Nausicaä fights the Pejite soldiers and liberates the baby Ohm, but the pink dress she received from Asbel's mother is drenched in blue by the Ohm's blood. Nausicaä and the Ohm return to the Valley and stand before the herd but are run over. The Ohm calm down and resuscitate her with their golden tentacles. Nausicaä walks atop the tentacles as through golden fields, fulfilling the savior prophecy. With the Valley saved, the Ohm and Tolmekians leave as the Pejites remain with the Valley people, helping them rebuild. Deep underneath the Toxic Jungle, a non-toxic tree sprouts.

Voice cast

Sumi Shimamoto, who voiced Nausicaä in the original Japanese version[5]
Alison Lohman, who voiced Nausicaä in the Disney English dub[5]
Patrick Stewart, who voiced Lord Yupa in the Disney English dub[5]
Character name Voice actor[5]
English Japanese Japanese English
Manson/Showmen, Inc., 1985[c] Disney, 2005
Nausicaä Naushika (ナウシカ) Sumi Shimamoto Susan Davis (Princess Zandra) Alison Lohman
Lord Yupa Yupa Miraruda (ユパ・ミラルダ) Gorō Naya Hal Smith Patrick Stewart
Asbel Asuberu (アスベル) Yōji Matsuda Cam Clarke (Prince Milo) Shia LaBeouf
Kushana Kushana (クシャナ) Yoshiko Sakakibara Linda Gary (Queen Selena) Uma Thurman
Kurotowa Kurotowa (クロトワ) Iemasa Kayumi Un­known Chris Sarandon
Mito Mito (ミト) Ichirō Nagai Hal Smith (Axel) Edward James Olmos
Obaba Ōbaba (大ババ) Hisako Kyōda Linda Gary (Old Lady) Tress MacNeille
Gol Goru (ゴル) Kōhei Miyauchi Un­known Frank Welker
Gikkuri Gikkuri (ギックリ) Jōji Yanami Jeff Bennett
Niga Niga (ニガ) Minoru Yada Mark Silverman
King Jihl Jiru (ジル) Mahito Tsujimura
Muzu Muzu (ムズ) James Arnold Taylor
Lastelle Rasuteru (ラステル) Miina Tominaga Emily Bauer
Mayor of Pejite Pejite shichō (ペジテ市長) Makoto Terada Mark Hamill
Asbel and Lastelle's mother Rasuteru no haha (ラステルの母) Akiko Tsuboi Jodi Benson
Teto Teto (テト) Rihoko Yoshida
Commando Komando (コマンド) Tetsuo Mizutori Un­known
Pejite peasant girl Pejite no shōjo (ペジテの少女) Takako Ōta Susan Davis Ashley Rose Orr
Narrator Hal Smith Tony Jay



Hayao Miyazaki made his feature directorial debut in 1979 with Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro, a film which went on to receive the Ōfuji Noburō Award at the 1979 Mainichi Film Awards.[7] Miyazaki had previously co-directed episodes of the television series Lupin The Third Part I with Isao Takahata.[8]: 47–48  Although The Castle of Cagliostro was not a box office success, Toshio Suzuki, editor of the magazine Animage, was impressed by the film and encouraged Miyazaki to produce works for Animage's publisher Tokuma Shoten.[9] Miyazaki began writing the manga Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind in 1981, and it quickly became Animage's most popular feature.[9] Toshio Suzuki and the magazine's other editors encouraged Miyazaki to work on a film adaptation.[10]: 70  Miyazaki initially refused, as he had a deal with Tokuma to never adapt the manga into a film, but agreed on the condition that he could direct.[11]

In the early stages, Isao Takahata, credited as executive producer, reluctantly joined the project even before the animation studio was chosen.[12] An outside studio to produce the film was needed because Tokuma Shoten did not own an animation studio: Miyazaki and Takahata chose the minor studio Topcraft.[12] The production studio's work was known to both Miyazaki and Takahata and was chosen because its artistic talent could transpose the sophisticated atmosphere of the manga to the film.[12] On 31 May 1983, work began on the pre-production of the film.[12] With at that point only sixteen chapters of the manga to work with, Miyazaki encountered difficulties in creating the screenplay. He ended up taking elements of the story and refocusing the narrative and characters on the Tolmekian invasion of Nausicaä's homeland.[12] Takahata enlisted the experimental and minimalist composer Joe Hisaishi to do the score for the film.[12]

Animation work began in August 1983, produced by animators who were paid by the frame.[12][13] One notable animator was Hideaki Anno, a founding member of Gainax, who among later works wrote and directed Neon Genesis Evangelion. Anno was assigned to draw the challenging Giant Warrior's attack sequence, which according to Toshio Suzuki is a "high point in the film".[13]

The film was made on a production schedule of only nine months and with a budget equivalent to US$1 million.[12]



Miyazaki's work on Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind was inspired by a range of works including Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea, Brian Aldiss's Hothouse, Isaac Asimov's Nightfall, and J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings.[12] Miyazaki also says he took possible inspiration from The Lady who Loved Insects folktale.[14] Nausicaä, the character, was inspired in name and personality by Homer's Phaeacian princess in the Odyssey.[15]: 84  According to a number of reviewers, Frank Herbert's science fiction novel Dune was one of the inspirations for the film's post-apocalyptic world.[d] Some online commentators have dubbed it "anime's answer to Dune".[19] Miyazaki's imagination was sparked by the mercury poisoning of Minamata Bay and how nature responded and thrived in a poisoned environment, using it to create the polluted world depicted in the film.[10]: 77–78  Kyle Anderson of Nerdist describes the film's setting as a steampunk post-apocalypse,[20] while Philip Boyes of Eurogamer describes the technology in Nausicaä and Castle in the Sky as dieselpunk.[21]

The most prominent themes are the anti-war and environmental focus of the film. Nausicaä, the heroine, believes in the value of life regardless of its form and through her actions stops a war. Loy and Goodhew state there is no evil portrayed in the film, but the Buddhist roots of evil: greed, ill will and delusion. Fear is what drives the conflicts, the fear of the poisoned forest results in greed and resentment. Nausicaä, in addition to being a transformative force, leads people to understand and respect nature, which is portrayed as welcoming, spiritual, and restorative for those who enter it peacefully.[22] Ian DeWeese-Boyd agrees, "Her commitment to love and understanding—even to the point of death—transforms the very nature of the conflict around her and begins to dispel the distorting visions that have brought it about."[23]

In her 25 March 2013 presentation at Colorado College, on "Tapestries of Apocalypse: From Angers to 'Nausicaa' and Beyond", Dr. Susan J. Napier places the film, and in particular the tapestry depicted underneath the opening credits, within the tradition of artistic representation of apocalypses and apocalyptic visions. She explores the role such expressions play in understanding apocalyptic events and post-event recovery.[24]



The film was released by Toei Company on 11 March 1984[13][25] on a double bill with a compilation film of the Italian-Japanese anime television series Sherlock Hound episodes "The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle" and "Treasure Under the Sea".[26] Upon the film's 1984 release, it received a recommendation from the World Wide Fund for Nature.[27]

On home video, the film was released on VHS on 21 March 1984 and on Laserdisc on 25 April 1984[28] by Tokuma Shoten's "Animage Video" imprint.

On 30 July 1995, a subtitled version of the film was screened at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London, as part of the "Building Bridges" film festival, marking the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[12]

Nausicaä was also included on the Ghibli ga Ippai: Studio Ghibli Complete LD Collection boxset, released by Tokuma Shoten in August 1996. The VHS was reissued as the third volume of Buena Vista Home Entertainment Japan's "Ghibli ga Ippai" imprint, on 19 September 1997.[29]

Buena Vista released the film on three DVD sets, with a regular DVD and figure set released on 19 November 2003 and a collectors set following on 7 December 2003.[29] By 2003, Nausicaä had sold 1.77 million VHS and DVD units in Japan.[30] Walt Disney Studios Japan released the film on Blu-ray on 14 July 2010.

Warriors of the Wind


In advance of the film's Japanese release, Tokuma Shoten sold the film's foreign sales rights to World Film Corporation,[31] who pre-sold the global distribution rights in turn to Manson International.[32] Manson commissioned ADR producer Riley Jackson's Showmen, Inc. to produce an English-dubbed adaptation overseen by screenwriter David Schmoeller,[33][34] titled Warriors of the Wind, which was released theatrically in the United States by New World Pictures beginning on 14 June 1985 in Florida. It was followed by a VHS release in November 1985.[35][36] In 1986, Vestron Video would release the film in the UK and First Independent Video would re-release it again in 1993.[37][38] The voice actors and actresses were not credited, and the film was heavily cut by approximately 22 minutes compared to the 117-minute Japanese version to give it a faster pace.[39][40] The film received a PG rating as did Disney's later English dub.[6] Consequently, part of the film's narrative depth was lost: some of the environmentalist themes were simplified as was the main subplot of the Ohmu, omitting Nausicaä's childhood connection to them. Most of the characters' names were changed, including the titular character who became Princess Zandra.[6] The United States poster and VHS cover featured unusual depictions of the film's characters, as well as some who are not in the film, riding the resurrected Giant Warrior—including a still-living Warrior shown briefly in a flashback.[41][42]

Dissatisfied with Warriors of the Wind, Miyazaki eventually adopted a strict "no-edits" clause for further foreign releases of the company's films.[6] On hearing that Miramax co-chairman Harvey Weinstein would attempt to edit Princess Mononoke to make it more marketable, Toshio Suzuki presented a prop katana to Weinstein with a simple verbal message: "Mononoke Hime, no cut!".[43][44] Warriors of the Wind also prompted Miyazaki to allow translator Toren Smith of Studio Proteus to create an official, faithful translation of the Nausicaä manga for Viz Media.[45]

English re-releases


On 18 October 2003, Cindy and Donald Hewitt, the scriptwriters of Walt Disney Pictures' English dubs of Spirited Away and Porco Rosso, announced that a more faithful English version of Nausicaä was in pre-production at Disney, and that Patrick Stewart and Uma Thurman had been cast. Natalie Portman was originally intended to voice Nausicaä, but Alison Lohman was eventually cast in the role.[46][47] The dub was directed by Disney executive Rick Dempsey.

Nausicaä was released on DVD by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on 22 February 2005, for Region 1. This DVD includes both Disney's English dub and the Japanese audio track with English subtitles.[47] Optimum Home Entertainment released the film in Region 2 and the Region 4 DVD is distributed by Madman Entertainment. A remastered Blu-ray sourced from a 6K filmscan was released on 14 July 2010 in Japan. It includes an uncompressed Japanese LPCM stereo track, the Disney-produced English dub and English subtitles. On 18 October 2010, a Blu-ray version was released in Region B by Optimum Home Entertainment.[48] The film was released on Blu-ray in the United States and Canada on 8 March 2011, by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.[49][50] The Blu-ray earned $334,473 in retail sales during its first week of release in the United States.[51] GKIDS and Shout! Factory re-issued the film on Blu-ray and DVD on 31 October 2017, along with Castle in the Sky.[52] A Limited Edition steelbook release of the film's DVD and Blu-ray was released in the United States on 25 August 2020.[53]

Other language releases


In Spain, the edited 95-minute long Manson International version, called Guerreros del Viento ('Warriors of the Wind'), was released on home video twice, with the first release in 1988 and the second in 1991, followed by the original uncut film under the title Nausicaä del Valle del Viento in 2010.[29] France has had both versions of the movie appear, with two releases of the Manson version titled La Princesse des Étoiles ('The Princess of the Stars') and Le vaisseau fantôme ('The Ghost Ship'), while the uncut film had a regular and collector's DVD set release on 18 April 2007.[29] In Germany UFA released the Manson version on VHS as Sternenkrieger ('Star Warriors') in 1986 and Universum Anime released the uncut DVD release on 5 September 2005.[29][39] The 2007 Hungarian DVD release, titled Nauszika – A szél harcosai ('Nausicaä – The Warriors of the Wind') is uncut despite the title's reference.[29] The Korean DVD release of the uncut film was on 3 March 2004. China has had three releases of Nausicaä: the first on Video CD and two DVD releases.[29] In Italy the film, titled Nausica nella Valle del vento ('Nausicaä in the Valley of the Wind'), was first aired uncut on Rai 1 on 6 January 1987 with a first dub, but this version was re-aired only a few times and then never officially published;[54] a planned DVD release around 2003 by Buena Vista Italia was eventually cancelled. Nausicaä had a theatrical distribution and a DVD release with a new dub by Lucky Red in 2015.



Box office


In Japan, the film grossed about ¥1.48 billion ($6.23 million) at the box office, earning ¥742 million in distributor rental income.[31] Its 2020 re-release in Japan would increase its gross by $6,393,174.[55] Overseas, the film grossed $1,720,214 from theatrical releases in seven countries between 2006 and 2017, including $1,521,343 in France alone.[56]

In terms of box office admissions, the film sold 914,767 tickets in Japan up until 2006[31] and 342,235 tickets in Europe.[57]

Critical response


Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind received critical acclaim. The film is frequently ranked among the best animated films ever made,[2][58] and is seen by critics as a seminal influence on the development of anime, as the film's success led to the foundation of Miyazaki's Studio Ghibli and several other anime studios. In a contemporary review of the initial American release, Terry Lawson of Dayton Daily News applauded the film for its character designs and allegorical themes, as well as Hayao Miyazaki's direction and Joe Hisaishi's score.[59] Theron Martin of Anime News Network praised the film for largely the same reasons. He also said that the film "deserves a place on any short list of all-time classic anime movies."[60] Common Sense Media, which serves to inform parents about media for children, rated the film positively and cited its good role models and positive messages, but also cautioned parents about its dramatic setting and violent scenes.[61] On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, 90% of 21 critics' reviews are positive, with an average rating of 8.2/10.[62] At Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 86 out of 100 based on 7 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[63] Helen McCarthy in 500 Essential Anime Movies praised the animation techniques of Miyazaki, stating that "the real strength of this film is the script, packed with incident, excitement and passion, and the soundtrack" by Joe Hisaishi.[64]

Final Fantasy creator Hironobu Sakaguchi has cited the manga and film as an influence on his video game series; the horseclaws in the film were used as an inspiration for the Chocobos in the games.[65] Sega's Yukio Futatsugi has cited the film an inspiration for his 1995 rail shooter Panzer Dragoon, as he was an avid fan of Miyazaki's work. Numerous games have used Ohmu-like creatures assumed to be references to the film, including Metal Slug 3, Cyber Core, and Viewpoint.[66] The game Crystalis, known in Japan as God Slayer: Haruka Tenkū no Sonata (ゴッド・スレイヤー はるか天空のソナタ), shares common elements with the film, including an insect that resembles an Ohmu.[67] The film Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) also shares common elements with the film, including similarities between the protagonists Nausicaä and Rey (such as their personalities and headwear), and a number of strikingly similar scenes.[68]

Manga author Katsura Hoshino regarded it as her favorite anime film to the point of having watched it multiple times when she was young.[69] In 2001, the Japanese magazine Animage elected Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind the 43rd best anime production of all time.[70] It was the highest-ranking film in a 2006 poll of the greatest animations conducted at the Japan Media Arts Festival, voted by 80,000 attendees.[71] The film was named 2nd Greatest Japanese Animated Film of All Time by Japanese film magazine Kinema Junpo in 2009.[72]


A functional M-02J jet-powered Möwe Glider replica which has actually flown a few hundred meters

Various gliders are seen in the film and the protagonist, Nausicaä, uses a jet-assisted one-person glider-shaped machine with folding wings. According to the accompanying film book released in Japan, the glider is called Möwe (メーヴェ, Mēve, or "mehve" in the English manga), the German word meaning gull.[73] An official scale model lists it as having an approximate wingspan of 5.8 meters (1/20 model measured to be 29 cm), while the design notes indicate it has a mass of only 12 kg.[73][74] In 2004, the Japanese-led OpenSky Aircraft Project began attempts to build a real-life, working personal jet glider based on the glider from the film. Two full-size gliders with no power source carrying the code name M01 and M02, with a half-sized jet-powered remote-controlled mock-up called moewe 1/2, were built.[75][76] The designer and tester of the project refused the official endorsement of the project by Studio Ghibli and Hayao Miyazaki, noting that he did not want to cause trouble for them if an accident occurred.[77] A jet-powered version (registration number JX0122) was finally able to take off under its own power for the first time on 3 September 2013.[78]


Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind
Soundtrack album by
Length39 minutes
ProducerMasaru Arakawa
Joe Hisaishi
Joe Hisaishi chronology
Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind
W's Tragedy

The film's score was composed by Joe Hisaishi, while the titular theme song "Kaze no Tani no Naushika" was written by Takashi Matsumoto, composed by Haruomi Hosono and sung by Narumi Yasuda.[79] The song "Nausicaä's Requiem" was performed by then-four-year-old Mai Fujisawa, Hisaishi's daughter.[80] Numerous soundtracks and albums relating to the film have been released.[81]

List of soundtrack releases
Release date English title Japanese title
25 November 1983 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Image Album – Bird Person 風の谷のナウシカ イメージアルバム 鳥の人
25 February 1984 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Symphony – The Legend of Wind 風の谷のナウシカ シンフォニー 風の伝説
25 March 1984 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Soundtrack – Towards the Faraway Land 風の谷のナウシカ サウンドトラック はるかな地へ
25 April 1984 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Drama Version – God of Wind 風の谷のナウシカ・ドラマ編
25 November 1986 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Best Collection 風の谷のナウシカ BEST
25 October 1989 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Hi-tech Series 風の谷のナウシカ・ハイテックシリーズ
15 March 1992 Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind: Piano Solo Album <For the Easy Use with Beyer>

Other media




Miyazaki's manga version of Nausicaä was written over a period of 12 years, with breaks taken to work on Studio Ghibli films. Serialized in Tokuma Shoten's Animage magazine, the first chapter was published in February 1982 and the last chapter in March 1994. Miyazaki adapted and altered the work for the film because only sixteen chapters of the manga were written at the time of the film's production.[82] The manga would continue to be produced until the seventh and final book was released on 15 January 1995.[83][84] The English localization was initially done by Toren Smith and Dana Lewis of Studio Proteus.[85] After Miyazaki resumed production of the manga, Viz Media chose a new team and continued to release the rest of manga.[85]

Video games


Three video games were released based on the manga and the film, all of which were developed and published by Technopolis Soft and released in 1984 on popular Japanese computer systems.[66][86] The first game, Nausicaä's Close Call, also known as Nausicaä in the Nick of Time, (ナウシカ危機一髪, Naushika Kiki Ippatsu) is a Japanese shoot 'em up video game developed and published by Technopolis Soft for the NEC PC-6001.[66][86][87] The second game, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and known by its title screen as Nausicaä Adventure Game (風の谷のナウシカ, Kaze no Tani no Naushika), is an adventure game developed by Technopolis Soft for the NEC PC-8801.[66][88] The third game, Never Forget to Nausicaä Game Forever (忘れじのナウシカ・ゲーム, Wasure ji no Naushika Gemu) for the MSX is the most well-known of the releases and has been frequently and erroneously referred to as a game where the player kills the Ohmu.[66] These games signaled the end of video game adaptations for Hayao Miyazaki's films. The only other games based on Miyazaki films were the LaserDisc arcade game Cliff Hanger and the MSX2 platform-adventure game Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro, both of which were based on The Castle of Cagliostro.[89] Luke Plunkett describes these "two awful adaptations" as the reason Miyazaki does not allow further video game adaptations of his films.[89]



An art book for the film, The Art of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind: Watercolor Impressions (ジアート風の谷のナウシカ宮崎駿水彩画集, Jiato Kaze no Tani no Naushika Miyazaki Shun Suisai Gashū), was released in 1996. Written and illustrated by Hayao Miyazaki, it contains the original watercolor illustrations that were concept sketches used by the manga and the film.[90] Tokuma Shoten first released the artbook on 31 July 1996.[91] The artbook was licensed for a North American release by Viz Media, which released the book on 6 November 2007.[92] It was also licensed in Australasia by Madman Entertainment and in France by Glénat.[93][94] In 2001, the Nausicaä storyboards were re-released, bundled into a single, larger, volume as part 1 of the Studio Ghibli Story boards collection.[95] A selection of layout designs for the film was also incorporated in the Studio Ghibli Layout Designs exhibition tour, which started in the Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo (28 July 2008 to 28 September 2008) and subsequently travelled to different museums around Japan and Asia, concluding in the Fukuoka Asian Art Museum (12 October 2013 to 26 January 2014). The exhibition catalogues contain annotated reproductions of the displayed artwork.[96][97] Tokuma Shoten released a film comic, in four volumes, one each week from 20 November 1990 to 20 December 1990.[98][99] A two-volume children's version was released on 31 March 1998.[100][101] A kabuki play adaptation, covering the events of the movie, was performed in December 2019.[102][103]


  1. ^ Toxic Jungle in both of the film's English-dubbed versions, Sea of Decay in the film's English-subtitled version
  2. ^ Pronunciation: /m/. The Japanese name, Ō mu(shi) (王蟲), consists of the kanji for king and insect or bug. Transliterated as Ohmu in manga translations and as Ohm in the film's subtitles.
  3. ^ Several characters were renamed in the Manson International release (titled Warriors of the Wind), as indicated in parentheses.[6]
  4. ^ Attributed to multiple sources:[16][17][18][12]


  1. ^ "Kaze No Tani No Naushika"., 13 May 2012
  2. ^ a b "Best Anime Ranking". Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  3. ^ "Ghibli 101 FAQ // Studio Ghibli //". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  4. ^ Valls Oyarzun, Eduardo; Gualberto Valverde, Rebeca; Malla García, Noelia; Colom Jiménez, María; Cordero Sánchez, Rebeca, eds. (2020). "Chapter 13: Ecocritical Archaelogies of Global Ecocide in Twenty-First-Centurty Post-Apocalyptic Films". Avenging nature: the role of nature in modern and contemporary art and literature. Ecocritical theory and practice. Lanham Boulder NewYork London: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-7936-2144-3.
  5. ^ a b c d "Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind – Credits". Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d "FAQ". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  7. ^ "日映画コンクール Mainichi Film Awards". Animations CC. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  8. ^ Odell, Colin; Le Blanc, Michelle (2009). Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. Kamera. ISBN 978-1-84243-279-2.
  9. ^ a b Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (The Birth of Studio Ghibli) (DVD). Madman Entertainment. 13 April 2005.
  10. ^ a b Napier, Susan J. (2018). Miyazakiworld: A Life in Art. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22685-0.
  11. ^ "Anime and Academia: Interview with Marc Hairston on pedagogy and Nausicaa". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McCarthy, Helen (1999). Hayao Miyazaki Master of Japanese Animation. Stone Bridge Press. pp. 72–92. ISBN 1880656418.
  13. ^ a b c Studio Ghibli, The Birth of Studio Ghibli video, c. 2003 (included on UK Nausicaä DVD)
  14. ^ Miyazaki, Hayao (1996). Starting Point: 1979-1996. Tokuma Shoten Co., Ltd. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-4215-0594-7.
  15. ^ Greenberg, Raz (2018). Hayao Miyazaki: Exploring the Early Work of Japan's Greatest Animator. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-5013-3594-5.
  16. ^ "Hayao Miyazaki. Exploring the early work of Japan's greatest animator | IIAS". Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  17. ^ "10 Behind-The-Scenes Facts About Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind". ScreenRant. 10 June 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  18. ^ "NAUSICAA & DUNE (JAPANESE ANIMATION NEWS & REVIEW, 7/91)". Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  19. ^ Dazed (17 September 2021). "How Dune inspired Hayao Miyazaki's Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind". Dazed. Archived from the original on 19 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  20. ^ "Miyazaki's NAUSICAÄ is the Best Anime We Never Talk About". Nerdist. Nerdist Industries. 8 March 2019. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  21. ^ Boyes, Philip (8 February 2020). "Hot Air and High Winds: A Love Letter to the Fantasy Airship". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  22. ^ Loy, David & Goodhew, Linda (February 2004). "The Dharma of Miyazaki Hayao: Revenge vs. Compassion in Nausicaa and Mononoke" (PDF). 文教大学国際学部紀要 Bunkyo University Faculty of International. 14 (2): 67–75. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2013.
  23. ^ DeWeese-Boyd, Ian (9 April 2013). "Shojo Savior: Princess Nausicaä, Ecological Pacifism, and The Green Gospel". University of Toronto Press. p. 1. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  24. ^ "The First Mondays Events Series: "Tapestries of Apocalypse: From Angers to 'Nausicaa' and Beyond"" by Dr. Susan J. Napier, 25 March 2013, Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, 14 E. Cache La Poudre St., Colorado Springs, Co.
  25. ^ Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-1-55652-591-9. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  26. ^ Miyazaki, Hayao (2008). Turning Point: 1997-2008. Iwanami Shoten. p. 439. ISBN 978-1974724505.
  27. ^ "ナウシカへの道連載 最終回 宮崎駿" [The Road to Hayao Miyazaki's Nausicaä, final episode]. Animage (70). Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten: 180–181. 10 March 1984.
  28. ^ "Tokuma markets 'Nausicaa'". Screen International. 24 March 1984. p. 21. TOKUMA COMMUNICATIONS is marketing the animated film "Nausicaa" as a video release on March 21 and a laser disc release on April 25.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "Video List: Kaze no Tani no Naushika". Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  30. ^ 検索結, 果 (2006). 宮崎駿全書. フィルムアート社. ISBN 9784845906871.
  31. ^ a b c 叶精二 (Kano Seiji) (2006). 宮崎駿全書 (Miyazaki Hayao complete book). フィルムアート社 (Film Art, Inc.). pp. 65–67. ISBN 4-84590687-2.
  32. ^ "Manson to distrib animated 'Nausicaa'". The Hollywood Reporter. 15 December 1983. p. 4.
  33. ^ Stevens, Tracy (1998). International Motion Picture Almanac 1998 (69th ed.). Quigley Pub. Co. p. 335. ISBN 0900610603.
  34. ^ "US theatrical releases in June". Screen International. 8 June 1985. p. 12. New World: "Warriors Of The Wind" (Opens June 14, Florida only)
  35. ^ "In-Video Feature Chart". Boxoffice. 1 December 1985. p. 13.
  36. ^ "Video Scene". The Herts and Essex Observer. 17 April 1986. p. 21. Although it has a U certificate Warriors of the Wind (Vestron) has appeal for all ages.
  37. ^ "STOP PRESS!!!". Anime UK. No. 7. April–May 1993. Retrieved 6 October 2023. First Independent (formerly Vestron Video) have just re-released 'WARRIORS OF THE WIND', the American version of Hayao Miazaki's 'Nausicaa, of the Valley of the Wind! at a budget price of £5.99!
  38. ^ a b "Schnittbericht - Warriors Of The Wind". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  39. ^ "Manson International arrives at MIFED in a state of change". Screen International. 27 October 1984. p. 220. It was dubbed in the US and shortened from two hours to one and a half hours to quicken the pacing.
  40. ^ LaPierre, James (6 September 2016). "When Nausicaa Became Warriors of the Winds". Cinematheque. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  41. ^ McIlvaney, Andrew (19 January 2021). "The Disastrous 'Nausicaa' Dub and the Comforts of Anti-Escapism". Film Cred. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  42. ^ Brooks, Xan (14 September 2005). "A god among animators". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2007. There is a rumour that when Harvey Weinstein was charged with handling the US release of Princess Mononoke, Miyazaki sent him a samurai sword in the post. Attached to the blade was a stark message: 'No cuts.' / The director chortles. 'Actually, my producer did that.'
  43. ^ Alpert, Steve (2020). Sharing a House with the Never-Ending Man: 15 Years at Studio Ghibli. Stone Bridge Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1611720570.
  44. ^ Smith, Toren (1 January 1995). "Site COMIC BOX" 英語圏にも広がる新しい宮崎世代 [The New Miyazaki Generation Spreading Even into English Speaking Countries.]. Comic Box (in Japanese) (98). Fusion Products: 44–47. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  45. ^ "English Nausicaä dub in the works". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  46. ^ a b "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (movie)". Crystalacids. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  47. ^ "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Blu-ray)". Optimum Releasing. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  48. ^ "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Two-Disc Blu-ray/DVD Combo): Uma Thurman, Patrick Stewart, Shia LeBeouf, Hayao Miyazaki: Movies & TV". Amazon. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  49. ^ "Nausicaa of the Valley 2-Disc BD Combo Pack BD+DVD Blu-ray: Hayao Miyazaki: DVD". Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  50. ^ "Kaze no Tani no Naushika (1985) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  51. ^ Carolyn Giardina (17 July 2017). "Gkids, Studio Ghibli Ink Home Entertainment Deal". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Blu-ray Release Date August 25, 2020". Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  53. ^ ""Nausica(a) (n)della valle del vento" su Rai 1 martedì 6 gennaio 1987 ore 15,30: prima visione in Italia". Imago Recensio. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  54. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 2020 Re-release". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  55. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 23 December 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  56. ^ "Kaze no tani no Naushika". Lumiere. Archived from the original on 10 April 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  57. ^ Osmond, Andrew (Spring 1998). "Nausicaä & the fantasy of Hayao Miyazaki". SF Journal Foundation (72). Nausicaä.net: 57–81. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  58. ^ Lawson, Terry (13 September 1985). "'Warriors' more than animated wind". Dayton Daily News. p. 28.
  59. ^ Martin, Theron (16 March 2005). "Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind – DVD". Anime News Network (review). Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  60. ^ "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" (movie review). 3 December 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  61. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (Kaze no tani no Naushika) (1985)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  62. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  63. ^ McCarthy, Helen (2009), 500 Essential Anime Movies: The Ultimate Guide, Harper Design, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-06147450-7, 528 pp.
  64. ^ Rogers, Tim (27 March 2006). "In Defense of Final Fantasy XII". Edge. p. 2. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2014. Okay, so the Chocobos – big, yellow riding birds – were actually stolen from Hayao Miyazaki's movie Nausicaa and the Valley of the Wind, and Hironobu Sakaguchi freely admitted that way back when.
  65. ^ a b c d e Szczepaniak, John (August 2012). "Hardcore Gaming 101 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  66. ^ Greene, Robert. "Crystalis". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  67. ^ Peters, Megan (18 December 2017). "Did You Notice This Hayao Miyazaki 'Star Wars' Connection?". Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  68. ^ "Mangaka Interview 01" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  69. ^ "Animage Top-100 Anime Listing". Anime News Network. 15 January 2001. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  70. ^ 文化庁メディア芸術祭10周年企画アンケート日本のメディア芸術100選 結果発表 (in Japanese). Japan Media Arts Plaza. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  71. ^ "Kinema Junpo Top 10 Animated Films". Nishikata Film Review. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  72. ^ a b Official film book, ロマンアルバム 「風の谷のナウシカ」
  73. ^ "Möwe with Nausicaä 1/20 scale model". Archived from the original on 11 December 2013., Studio Ghibli Plamodel Collection, Bandai, release date June 2004, Modeler: (Two Horsepower (二馬力, nibariki), Copyright:Nibariki [ja] co., Ltd/Studio Ghibli)
  74. ^ "Opensky Project". Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  75. ^ "Jet engine remote controlled moewe 1/2". Archived from the original on 13 August 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  76. ^ 「万一の時にジブリや宮崎駿氏に迷惑をかけたくない」, Opensky Project Archived 13 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ "朝日新聞デジタル:ナウシカの飛行機、飛んだ ネット上で動画人気 - 社会" [Asahi Shimbun Digital : Nausicaä airplane flight video popular on the net - social]. Asahi Shimbun. 3 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  78. ^ "Kaze no Tani no Naushika (Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind): Credits, Figures & Other Information". Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  79. ^ Wilson, Jake (27 December 2019). "Singing the dream worlds of Ghibli". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  80. ^ Nausicaä.net. Kaze no Tani no Naushika Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ Ryan, Scott. "Chapter guide". Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  82. ^ 宮崎, 駿. 風の谷のナウシカ 宮崎駿水彩画集 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  83. ^ Miyazaki, Hayao. The Art of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind: Watercolor Impressions by Hayao Miyazaki. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  84. ^ a b "The New MIYAZAKI Generation". Comix Box. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  85. ^ a b "Multimedia Goods List //". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  86. ^ "Anime Video Games Reviews: Nausicaa Tecnopolis Soft MSX". Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  87. ^ "Multimedia Goods List //". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
  88. ^ a b Plunkett, Luke (25 November 2011). "Ni No Kuni Isn't Miyazaki/Ghibli's First Video Game Appearance". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  89. ^ Douresseaux, Leeroy (7 November 2007). "The Art of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind: Watercolor Impressions". Comic Book Bin. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  90. ^ ジアート 風の谷のナウシカ宮崎駿水彩画集 (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  91. ^ "The Art of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind: Watercolor Impressions". Viz Media. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  92. ^ "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind: Watercolor Impressions". Madman Entertainment. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  93. ^ "Nausicaä - Recueil D'aquarelles" (in French). Glénat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  94. ^ スタジオジブリ絵コンテ全集1 (単行本) (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. June 2001. ISBN 9784198613761. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  95. ^ "スタジオジブリ・レイアウト展 : 高畑・宮崎アニメの秘密がわかる" [Studio Ghibli Layout Designs:Understanding the Secrets of Takahata/Miyazaki Animation]. Nippon Television Corporation. Yomiuri Shimbun publishing. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  96. ^ "スタジオジブリ・レイアウト展 : 高畑・宮崎アニメの秘密がわかる" [Studio Ghibli Layout Designs:Understanding the Secrets of Takahata/Miyazaki Animation]. National Diet Library. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  97. ^ 風の谷のナウシカ1 (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. September 1990. ISBN 4-19-770101-2. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  98. ^ 風の谷のナウシカ4 (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. November 1990. ISBN 4-19-770120-9. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  99. ^ Nausica of the Valley of the Wind Vol. 1 of 2 アニメ絵本 風の谷のナウシカ 上巻 (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. March 1988. ISBN 4-19-703624-8. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  100. ^ Nausica of the Valley of the Wind Vol. 2 of 2 アニメ絵本 風の谷のナウシカ 下巻 (in Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. March 1988. ISBN 4-19-703625-6. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  101. ^ "Hayao Miyazaki's animated movie Nausicaa to get Kabuki remake". Kyodo News. 12 December 2018. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  102. ^ ナウシカ歌舞伎、昼夜通し完全上演...チケット即日完売、来年2月に映画館上演 (in Japanese). The Hochi Shimbun. 6 December 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019.

Further reading