The Golden Lion (Italian: Leone d'Oro) is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival. The prize was introduced in 1949 by the organizing committee and is now regarded as one of the film industry's most prestigious and distinguished prizes. In 1970, a second Golden Lion was introduced; this is an honorary award for people who have made an important contribution to cinema.
|Golden Lion (Leone d'Oro)|
|Presented by||Venice Film Festival|
|Currently held by||Roma (2018)|
The prize was introduced in 1949 as the Golden Lion of Saint Mark (the winged lion which had appeared on the flag of the Republic of Venice). Previously, the equivalent prize was the Gran Premio Internazionale di Venezia (Grand International Prize of Venice), awarded in 1947 and 1948. Before that, from 1934 until 1942, the highest awards were the Coppa Mussolini (Mussolini Cup) for Best Italian Film and Best Foreign Film.
The prize was first awarded in 1949. Previously, the equivalent prize was the Gran Premio Internazionale di Venezia (Grand International Prize of Venice), awarded in 1947 and 1948. No Golden Lions were awarded between 1969 and 1979. According to the Biennale's official website, this hiatus was a result of the 1968 Lion being awarded to the radically experimental Die Artisten in der Zirkuskuppel: Ratlos; the website says that the awards "still had a statute dating back to the fascist era and could not side-step the general political climate. Sixty-eight produced a dramatic fracture with the past". Fourteen French films have been awarded the Golden Lion, more than that of any other nation. However, there is considerable geographical diversity in the winners. Five American filmmakers have won the Golden Lion, with awards for John Cassavetes and Robert Altman (both times the awards were shared with other winners who tied), as well as Ang Lee (Brokeback Mountain was the first winning US film not to tie), Darren Aronofsky and Sofia Coppola.
Although prior to 1980, only three of 21 winners were of non-European origin, since the 1980s, the Golden Lion has been presented to a number of Asian filmmakers, particularly in comparison to the Cannes Film Festival's top prize, the Palme d'Or, which has only been awarded to five Asian filmmakers since 1980. The Golden Lion, by contrast, has been awarded to ten Asians during the same time period, with two of these filmmakers winning it twice. Ang Lee won the Golden Lion twice within three years during the 2000s, once for an American film and once for a Chinese-language film. Zhang Yimou has also won twice. Other Asians to win the Golden Lion since 1980 include Jia Zhangke, Hou Hsiao-hsien, Tsai Ming-liang, Trần Anh Hùng, Takeshi Kitano, Kim Ki-duk, Jafar Panahi, Mira Nair, and Lav Diaz. Russian filmmakers have also won the Golden Lion several times, including since the end of the USSR.
Still, to date 33 of the 54 winners were European men (including Soviet/Russian winners). Since 1949, only four women have ever won the Golden Lion for directing: Mira Nair, Sofia Coppola, German Margarethe von Trotta and Belgium's Agnès Varda.
The following films received the Golden Lions or the major awards of the Venice Film Festival:
|Year||English title||Original title||Director||Country of origin|
|1946-1948 - Awarded as Grand International Prize of Venice|
|1946||The Southerner||Jean Renoir||USA|
|1947||The Strike||Siréna||Karel Steklý||Czechoslovakia|
|1948||Hamlet||Laurence Olivier||United Kingdom|
|1949-present - Awarded as Golden Lion|
|1950||Justice Is Done||Justice est faite||André Cayatte||France|
|1952||Forbidden Games||Jeux interdits||René Clément||France|
|1954||Romeo and Juliet||Renato Castellani||Italy|
|1955||The Word||Ordet||Carl Theodor Dreyer||Denmark|
|1956||No award |
|1957||The Unvanquished||Aparajito||Satyajit Ray||India|
|1958||Rickshaw Man||Muhomatsu no issho||Hiroshi Inagaki||Japan|
|1959||General della Rovere (tie)||Il generale della Rovere||Roberto Rossellini||Italy|
|The Great War (tie)||La grande guerra||Mario Monicelli|
|1960||Tomorrow Is My Turn||Le passage du Rhin||André Cayatte||France|
|1961||Last Year in Marienbad||L'année dernière à Marienbad||Alain Resnais||France|
|1962||Family Diary (tie)||Cronaca familiare||Valerio Zurlini||Italy|
|Ivan's Childhood (tie)||Ivanovo detstvo||Andrei Tarkovsky||Soviet Union|
|1963||Hands Over the City||Le mani sulla città||Francesco Rosi||Italy|
|1964||Red Desert||Il deserto rosso||Michelangelo Antonioni||Italy|
|1965||Sandra of a Thousand Delights||Vaghe stelle dell'Orsa ...||Luchino Visconti||Italy|
|1966||The Battle of Algiers||La battaglia di Algeri||Gillo Pontecorvo||Italy, Algeria|
|1967||Beauty of the Day||Belle de jour||Luis Buñuel||France|
|1968||Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed||Die Artisten in der Zirkuskuppel: Ratlos||Alexander Kluge||West Germany|
|1980||Atlantic City (tie)||Louis Malle||Canada, France|
|Gloria (tie)||John Cassavetes||USA|
|1981||Marianne and Juliane||Die Bleierne Zeit||Margarethe von Trotta||West Germany|
|1982||The State of Things||Der Stand der Dinge||Wim Wenders||West Germany|
|1983||First Name: Carmen||Prénom Carmen||Jean-Luc Godard||France|
|1984||A Year of the Quiet Sun||Rok spokojnego słońca||Krzysztof Zanussi||Poland|
|1985||Vagabond||Sans toit ni loi||Agnès Varda||France|
|1986||The Green Ray||Le rayon vert||Éric Rohmer||France|
|1987||Au revoir les enfants||Louis Malle||France|
|1988||The Legend of the Holy Drinker||La leggenda del santo bevitore||Ermanno Olmi||Italy|
|1989||A City of Sadness||Bei qing cheng shi||Hou Hsiao-hsien||Taiwan|
|1990||Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead||Tom Stoppard||United Kingdom, USA|
|1991||Close to Eden||Urga||Nikita Mikhalkov||Soviet Union|
|1992||The Story of Qiu Ju||Qiu Ju da guan si||Zhang Yimou||China|
|1993||Short Cuts (tie)||Robert Altman||USA|
|Three Colors: Blue (tie)||Trois couleurs: Bleu||Krzysztof Kieślowski||France, Poland|
|1994||Vive L'Amour (tie)||Ai qing wan sui||Tsai Ming-liang||Taiwan|
|Before the Rain (tie)||Пред дождот (Pred doždot)||Milčo Mančevski||Republic of Macedonia|
|1995||Cyclo||Xich lo||Anh Hung Tran||France, Vietnam|
|1996||Michael Collins||Neil Jordan||Ireland|
|1998||The Way We Laughed||Così ridevano||Gianni Amelio||Italy|
|1999||Not One Less||Yi ge dou bu neng shao||Zhang Yimou||China|
|2000||The Circle||Dayereh||Jafar Panahi||Iran|
|2001||Monsoon Wedding||Mira Nair||India, USA|
|2002||The Magdalene Sisters||Peter Mullan||Ireland|
|2003||The Return||Vozvrashcheniye||Andrey Zvyagintsev||Russia|
|2004||Vera Drake||Mike Leigh||United Kingdom|
|2005||Brokeback Mountain||Ang Lee||USA|
|2006||Still Life||Sanxia haoren||Jia Zhangke||China|
|2007||Lust, Caution||Se, jie||Ang Lee||China, Taiwan, USA|
|2008||The Wrestler||Darren Aronofsky||USA|
|2012||Pietà||Kim Ki-duk||South Korea|
|2013||Sacro GRA||Gianfranco Rosi||Italy|
|2014||A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence||En duva satt på en gren och funderade på tillvaron||Roy Andersson||Sweden|
|2015||From Afar||Desde allá||Lorenzo Vigas||Venezuela|
|2016||The Woman Who Left||Ang Babaeng Humayo||Lav Diaz||Philippines|
|2017||The Shape of Water||Guillermo del Toro||USA|
Golden Lion Honorary AwardEdit
- "Biennale Cinema History of the Venice Film Festival: The Forties and Fifties". La Biennale di Venezia. 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
- "Biennale Cinema History of the Venice Film Festival: The Sixties and Seventies". La Biennale di Venezia. 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
- "Golden Lions and major awards of the Venice Film Festival". labiennale.org. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017.
- Due to a tie between Harp of Burma by Kon Ichikawa and Calle Mayor by Juan Antonio Bardem. See Roos, Fred. "Venice Film Festival, 1956" in The Quarterly of Film Radio and Television, Vol. 11, No. 3. (Spring, 1957), p. 249.
- "The awards of the Venice Film Festival". La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
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