William Friedkin (//; born August 29, 1935) is an American film and television director, producer and screenwriter closely identified with the "New Hollywood" movement of the 1970s. Beginning his career in documentaries in the early 1960s, he directed the crime thriller film The French Connection (1971), which won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Director, and the supernatural horror film The Exorcist (1973), which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director.
|Born||August 29, 1935|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Education||Senn High School|
His other films include the drama The Boys in the Band (1970), the thriller Sorcerer (1977), the crime thriller Cruising (1980), the neo-noir thriller To Live and Die in L.A. (1985), the psychological horror film Bug (2006), and the black comedy Killer Joe (2011).
Friedkin was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Rachael (née Green) and Louis Friedkin. His father was a semi-professional softball player, merchant seaman, and men's clothing salesman. His mother, whom Friedkin called "a saint", was an operating room registered nurse. His parents were Jewish emigrants from Ukraine. His grandparents, parents, and other relatives fled Ukraine during a particularly violent anti-Jewish pogrom in 1903. Friedkin's father was somewhat uninterested in making money, and the family was generally lower middle class while he was growing up. According to film historian Peter Biskind, "Friedkin viewed his father with a mixture of affection and contempt for not making more of himself." According to his memoir, The Friedkin Connection, Friedkin had the utmost affection for his father.
Friedkin attended public schools in Chicago. He enrolled at Senn High School, where he played basketball well enough to consider turning professional. However he was not a serious student and barely received grades good enough to graduate, which he did at the age of 16. According to Friedkin, this was because of social promotion and not because he was bright.
Friedkin began going to movies as a teenager, and has cited Citizen Kane as one of his key influences. Several sources claim that Friedkin saw this motion picture as a teenager, but Friedkin himself says that he did not see the film until 1960, when he was 25 years old. Only then, Friedkin says, did he become a true cineaste. Among the movies which he saw as a teenager and young adult were Les Diaboliques, The Wages of Fear, and Psycho (which he viewed repeatedly, like Citizen Kane). Televised documentaries such as 1960's Harvest of Shame were also important in his developing sense of cinema.
He began working in the mail room at WGN-TV immediately after high school. Within two years (at the age of 18), he started his directorial career doing live television shows and documentaries. His efforts included The People vs. Paul Crump (1962), which won an award at the San Francisco International Film Festival and contributed to the commutation of Crump's death sentence. Its success helped Friedkin get a job with producer David L. Wolper. He also made the football-themed documentary Mayhem on a Sunday Afternoon.
As mentioned in his voice-over commentary on the DVD re-release of Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo, Friedkin directed one of the last episodes of The Alfred Hitchcock Hour in 1965, called "Off Season". Hitchcock admonished Friedkin for not wearing a tie while directing.
In 1965, Friedkin moved to Hollywood and two years later released his first feature film, Good Times starring Sonny and Cher. He has referred to the film as "unwatchable". Several other "art" films followed: The Birthday Party, based on an unpublished screenplay by Harold Pinter, which he adapted from his own play; the musical comedy The Night They Raided Minsky's; and the adaptation of Mart Crowley's play The Boys in the Band.
His next film, The French Connection, was released to wide critical acclaim in 1971. Shot in a gritty style more suited for documentaries than Hollywood features, the film won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director.
Friedkin's next film was 1973's The Exorcist, based on William Peter Blatty's best-selling novel, which revolutionized the horror genre and is considered by some critics to be one of the greatest horror movies of all time. The Exorcist was nominated for 10 Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. It won for Best Screenplay and Best Sound.
Following these two pictures, Friedkin, along with Francis Ford Coppola and Peter Bogdanovich, was deemed one of the premier directors of New Hollywood. In 1973, the trio announced the formation of an independent production company at Paramount, The Directors Company. Whereas Coppola directed The Conversation and Bogdanovich, the Henry James adaptation, Daisy Miller, Friedkin abruptly left the company, which was soon closed by Paramount. But Friedkin's later movies did not achieve the same success. Sorcerer (1977), a $22 million American remake of the French classic The Wages of Fear, co-produced by both Universal and Paramount, starring Roy Scheider, was overshadowed by the blockbuster box-office success of Star Wars, which had been released exactly one week prior. Friedkin considers it his finest film, and was personally devastated by its financial and critical failure (as mentioned by Friedkin himself in the documentary series The Directors (1999)).
Sorcerer was shortly followed by the crime-comedy The Brink's Job (1978), based on the real-life Great Brink's Robbery in Boston, Massachusetts, which was also unsuccessful at the box-office. In 1980, he directed an adaptation of the Gerald Walker crime thriller Cruising, starring Al Pacino, which was protested against even during its making and remains the subject of heated debate. The film was critically assailed, and was a financial disappointment.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Friedkin's films received mostly lackluster reviews and moderate ticket sales. Deal of the Century (1983), starring Chevy Chase, Gregory Hines and Sigourney Weaver, was sometimes regarded as a latter-day Dr. Strangelove, though it was generally savaged by critics. However, his action/crime movie To Live and Die in L.A. (1985), starring William Petersen and Willem Dafoe, was a critical favorite and drew comparisons to Friedkin's own The French Connection (particularly for its car-chase sequence), while his courtroom-drama/thriller Rampage (1987) received a fairly positive review from Roger Ebert despite major distribution problems. He next directed the horror film The Guardian (1990) and then the thriller Jade (1995), starring Linda Fiorentino. Though the latter film received an unfavorable response from critics and audiences, Friedkin said that Jade was the favorite of all the films he had made, as is Sorcerer.
In 2000, The Exorcist was re-released in theaters with extra footage and grossed $40 million in the U.S. alone. Friedkin directed the 2007 film Bug due to a positive experience watching the stage version in 2004. He was surprised to find that he was, metaphorically, on the same page as the playwright and felt that he could relate well to the story. The film won the FIPRESCI prize at the Cannes Film Festival.
Later, Friedkin directed an episode of the TV series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation titled "Cockroaches", which re-teamed him with To Live and Die in L.A. star William Petersen. He directed again for CSI's 200th episode, "Mascara".
In 2011, Friedkin directed Killer Joe, a black comedy written by Tracy Letts based on Letts' play, and starring Matthew McConaughey, Emile Hirsch, Juno Temple, Gina Gershon, and Thomas Haden Church. Killer Joe premiered at the 68th Venice International Film Festival, prior to its North American debut at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival. It opened in U.S. theaters in July 2012, to some favorable reviews from critics but did poorly at the box office, possibly because of its restrictive NC-17 rating.
Friedkin has had an array of unrealized projects, including The Ripper Diaries, about the manhunt of Jack the Ripper; a film about the account of the Florence Maybrick murder trial, titled Battle Grease; and an adaptation of the Frank De Felitta suspense novel Sea Trial. A film titled The Man Who Killed Versace about the murder of Gianni Versace and the killing spree of his murderer, Andrew Cunanan, written by Frederic Raphael and due to be produced by Cruising producer Jerry Weintraub, was to have Sergio Castellitto as Versace and Freddie Prinze, Jr. in the lead role as Cunanan. A horror thriller A Safe Darkness, the cop thriller Bump City, and the UFO thriller The Devil's Triangle have also been in development. It was also reported that Friedkin was to direct an HBO movie about the life of the provocative entertainer Mae West starring Bette Midler, titled Queen of the World as West based on her memoirs written by Harvey Fierstein. Friedkin was once in discussions with executive producer David Kirschner to direct the 1988 horror film Child’s Play, which initiated the Chucky franchise, and also intended to direct The Exorcist III before leaving from creative conflicts with William Peter Blatty. Friedkin was in talks to direct Don Winslow's crime novel The Winter of Frankie Machine. In 2014, he was asked to direct the entire second season of True Detective but he rejected the offer after reading the first scripts of the season. He was slated to direct a film adaptation of Robin Cook's novel Brain. On September 2021, Friedkin referenced that he was working on a film adaptation of The Caine Mutiny. The project is currently in its development stage.
In June 2010, author William Peter Blatty, promoting his latest novel, revealed that Friedkin had committed to direct the feature film adaptation of his thriller, Dimiter. This would mark almost forty years since their previous collaboration, The Exorcist, not counting the failed collaboration between the two on The Exorcist III. The idea for the book itself actually came to Blatty while sitting in Friedkin's office in 1972 during the first film's production, as he read an article concerning the then atheist-run state of Albania executing a priest for baptizing a newborn infant. He had worked on it on and off ever since 1974, and, upon its completion, sat down with Friedkin for a one-on-one interview in The Huffington Post a few days after Blatty named Friedkin as attached to direct. According to the author, his friend and director had been eager to adapt the story.
The moving image collection of William Friedkin is held at the Academy Film Archive. The material at the Academy Film Archive is complemented by material in the William Friedkin papers at the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library.
William Friedkin has been married four times:
- Jeanne Moreau, married February 8, 1977 and divorced in 1979.
- Lesley-Anne Down, married in 1982 and divorced in 1985.
- Kelly Lange, married on June 7, 1987 and divorced in 1990.
- Sherry Lansing, married on July 6, 1991.
While he was filming The Boys in the Band in 1970, Friedkin began a relationship with Kitty Hawks, daughter of director Howard Hawks. It lasted two years, during which the couple announced their engagement, but the relationship ended about 1972. Friedkin began a four-year relationship with Australian dancer and choreographer Jennifer Nairn-Smith in 1972. Although they announced an engagement twice, they never married. They did, however, have a son, Cedric, born on November 27, 1976. Friedkin and his second wife, Lesley-Anne Down, also had a son, Jack, born in 1983. Friedkin was raised Jewish, but called himself an agnostic later in life. However, during an appearance and Q&A at a 40th anniversary screening of The Exorcist at the 2013 Dallas International Film Festival, Friedkin said he "believes strongly in God" and "the teachings of Jesus" and other religious figures, and that mankind is "in God's hands."
|1965||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Episode "Off Season"|
|1985||The Twilight Zone||Episode: "Nightcrawlers"|
|1986||C.A.T. Squad||Television film; also executive producer|
|1988||C.A.T. Squad: Python Wolf|
|1992||Tales from the Crypt||Episode: "On a Deadman's Chest"|
|1997||12 Angry Men|
|2007–2009||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation||Episodes: "Cockroaches" and "Mascara"|
|1972||Academy Award||Best Director||The French Connection||Won|
|Directors Guild of America||Outstanding Directorial Achievement||Won|
|Golden Globes||Best Director||Won|
|1973||BAFTA Award||Best Director||Nominated|
|1974||Academy Award||Best Director||The Exorcist||Nominated|
|Directors Guild of America||Outstanding Directorial Achievement||Nominated|
|Golden Globes||Best Director||Won|
|1981||Razzie Awards||Worst Director||Cruising||Nominated|
|1986||Cognac Festival du Film Policier||Audience Award||To Live and Die in L.A.||Won|
|1988||Deauville Film Festival||Critics Award||Rampage||Nominated|
|1991||Saturn Award||George Pal Memorial Award||Won|
|1998||Directors Guild of America||Outstanding Directorial Achievement||12 Angry Men||Nominated|
|Primetime Emmy Awards||Best Director||Nominated|
|1999||Saturn Award||President's Award||Won|
|Empire Awards||Movie Masterpiece Award||The Exorcist||Won|
|2000||Palm Beach International Film Festival||Lifetime Achievement Award||Won|
|2006||Cannes Film Festival||FIPRESCI||Bug||Won|
|2007||Munich Film Festival||CineMerit Award||Won|
|Sitges - Catalan International Film Festival||Time-Machine Honorary Award||Won|
|2009||Locarno International Film Festival||Leopard of Honor||Won|
|2011||Venice Film Festival||Golden Lion||Killer Joe||Nominated|
|2013||Belgian Film Critics Association||Grand Prix||Nominated|
|Saturn Award||Best Director||Nominated|
|Lifetime Achievement Award||Won|
|Venice Film Festival||Special Lion||Won|
- Friedkin, William. The Friedkin Connection: A Memoir. New York: HarperCollins, 2013. ISBN 978-0-06-177512-3
- Friedkin, William. Conversations at the American Film Institute With the Great Moviemakers: The Next Generation. George Stevens, Jr., ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012. ISBN 978-0-307-27347-5
- Biskind, p. 200.
- "The American New Wave: A Retrospective | H-Announce | H-Net". networks.h-net.org. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- "June 1977: When New Hollywood Got Weird". The Film Stage. June 21, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- "The Controversy of CRUISING | Cinematheque". cinema.wisc.edu. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Guthmann, Edward (1980). "THE CRUISING CONTROVERSY: William Friedkin vs. the Gay Community". Cinéaste. 10 (3): 2–8. JSTOR 41685938.
- Pfefferman, Naomi. "'Killer Joe's' William Friedkin: 'I Could Have Been a Very Violent Person'." Jewish Journal. August 2, 2012. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- Friedkin, The Friedkin Connection, p. 1.
- Biskind, p. 201.
- Segaloff, p. 25.
- Wakeman, p. 372.
- Friedkin, Conversations at the American Film Institute..., p. 186.
- Emery, p. 237; Claggett, p. 3.
- Friedkin, The Friedkin Connection, p. 9.
- Stevens, p. 184.
- Walker and Johnson, p. 15.
- Derry, p. 361; Edmonds and Mimura, p. 211.
- Hamm, p. 86-87.
- Charles Champlin, "Friedkin Damns the Torpedoes", The Los Angeles Times, March 24, 1967. Retrieved via Newspapers.com.
- "Vertigo: The Legacy Series" Universal, 2008
- The Directors: William Friedkin
- Bart, Peter (May 9, 2011). Infamous Players: A Tale of Movies, the Mob, (and Sex). Weinstein Books.
- Segaloff, Nat (January 1, 1990). Hurricane Billy: The Stormy Life and Films of William Friedkin. New York: William Morrow & Co. ISBN 9780688078522.
- Biskind, p. 413.
- William, Linda Ruth (2005). The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema. Indiana University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-253-21836-5.
- Goldmann, A.J. (July 9, 2016). "'I never thought my films would find a large audience': William Friedkin interviewed". The Spectator. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- "EXCL: Bug Director William Friedkin". May 18, 2007.
- Friedkin, William. The Friedkin Connection: A Memoir. New York: HarperCollins, 2013.
- "William Friedkin to receive Venice honour". BBC News. May 2, 2013.
- "William Friedkin (II)". the Guardian. October 22, 1998. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- Hefner, Hugh M., ed. (January 1, 1981). Playboy Magazine, July 1981. Playboy.
- Clagett, Thomas D. (August 1, 2002). William Friedkin: Films ofand Aberration, Obsession and Reality (2nd Revised ed.). Los Angeles, Calif.: Silman-James Press. ISBN 9781879505612.
- Hiler, James (December 10, 2013). "Bette Midler to Star in 'Mae West' for HBO Films, William Friedkin Directing". IndieWire. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
- Weiner, David (November 5, 2018). "How 'Child's Play' Survived Bad Test Screenings to Become a Horror Classic". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "Your Friend 'Til the End: An Oral History of Child's Play". www.mentalfloss.com. June 19, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- ""It's The Smiles That Keep Us Going" : "The Exorcist III" at 30". The Spool. August 17, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "William Friedkin to Direct Don Winslow Novel 'The Winter of Frankie Machine'". August 6, 2015.
- Suplee, Curt (June 7, 1981). "The Passion of the Producer". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
- "Crazy by William Peter Blatty", authorsontourlive.com, June 30, 2010
- Friedkin, William (July 6, 2010). "A Quiet Little Thriller". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "William Friedkin Collection". Academy Film Archive. October 13, 2015.
- Martin, Judith. "Personalities." Washington Post. February 9, 1977, p. B3.
- "Filing for Divorce." Newsweek. June 25, 1979, p. 99.
- Sanders, Richard. "Director Billy Friedkin and Lesley-Anne Down Make a Home Movie-Divorce Hollywood Style." People. September 2, 1985. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- "Names in the News." Associated Press. August 15, 1985.
- "Director William Friedkin Marries News Anchor Kelly Lange." Ocala Star-Banner. July 29, 1987, p. 2A. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- Ryon, Ruth. "Still Anchored in the Hills." Los Angeles Times. May 31, 1992. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- Anderson, Susan Heller. "Chronicle." New York Times. July 11, 1991. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- Teetor, Paul. "'The Exorcist' Director William Friedkin Tells All in His No-Bullshit Memoir." Los Angeles Times. April 11, 2013. Accessed 2013-04-29.
- Segaloff, p. 98.
- "William Friedkin – Biography." Movies.Yahoo.com. 2013, accessed 2013-04-29; "Failing Better Every Time." Sunday Independent. July 1, 2012.
- The Exorcist & The French Connection Dir. William Friedkin on Religion, Crime & Film on YouTube
- Brent Lang (April 12, 2013). "Director William Friedkin on Clashes With Pacino, Hackman and Why an Atheist Couldn't Helm 'Exorcist'". The Wrap. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
My personal beliefs are defined as agnostic. I’m someone who believes that the power of God and the soul are unknowable, but that anybody who says there is no God is not being honest about the mystery of fate. I was raised in the Jewish faith, but I strongly believe in the teachings of Jesus.
- William Friedkin, director of THE EXORCIST at the 2013 Dallas International Film Festival on YouTube
- "Venezia 68: International competition of feature films". Venice. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Biskind, Peter. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex-Drugs-And Rock 'N Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998. ISBN 0-684-80996-6
- Claggett, Thomas D. William Friedkin: Films of Aberration, Obsession, and Reality. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89950-262-8
- Derry, Charles, ed. Dark Dreams 2.0: A Psychological History of the Modern Horror Film From the 1950s to the 21st Century. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2009. ISBN 978-0-7864-3397-1
- Edmonds, I. G. and Mimura, Reiko. The Oscar Directors. San Diego: A.S. Barnes, 1980. ISBN 0-498-02444-X
- Emery, Robert J., ed. The Directors: In Their Own Words. Vol. 2. New York: TV Books, 1999. ISBN 1-57500-129-2
- Hamm, Theodore. Rebel and a Cause: Caryl Chessman and the Politics of the Death Penalty in Postwar California, 1948–1974. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0-520-22427-2
- Segaloff, Nat. Hurricane Billy: The Stormy Life and Films of William Friedkin. New York: Morrow, 1990. ISBN 0-688-07852-4
- Stevens, Jr., George, ed. Conversations at the American Film Institute With the Great Moviemakers: The Next Generation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012. ISBN 978-0-307-27347-5
- Wakeman, John. World Film Directors, 1945–1985. New York: Wilson, 1988. ISBN 0-8242-0757-2
- Walker, Elsie M. and Johnson, David T., eds. Conversations With Directors: An Anthology of Interviews From 'Literature/Film Quarterly'. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8108-6122-0
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Friedkin.|
- William Friedkin at IMDb
- William Friedkin at the TCM Movie Database
- William Friedkin at the Internet Broadway Database
- "From 'Popeye' Doyle to Puccini: William Friedkin" NPR's Robert Siegel interviews Friedkin, September 14, 2006
- EXCL: Bug Director William Friedkin
- The Reeler interview with Friedkin
- William Friedkin papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences