Fear of flying

Fear of flying is a fear of being on an airplane, or other flying vehicle, such as a helicopter, while in flight. It is also referred to as flying anxiety, flying phobia, flight phobia, aviophobia, aerophobia, or pteromerhanophobia (although the penultimate also means a fear of drafts or of fresh air).[1]

A Boeing 747 airplane
A Boeing 777 airplane

Acute anxiety caused by flying can be treated with anti-anxiety medication. The condition can be treated with exposure therapy, which works better when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy.[2][3]

Signs and symptomsEdit

Video explaining what fear of flying means and what sufferers can do to control the physical symptoms.

People with fear of flying experience intense, persistent fear or anxiety when they consider flying, as well as during flying. They will avoid flying if they can, and the fear, anxiety, and avoidance cause significant distress and impair their ability to function.[4] Take-off, bad weather, and turbulence appear to be the most anxiety provoking aspects of flying.[4]

The most extreme manifestations can include panic attacks or vomiting at the mere sight or mention of an aircraft or air travel.[2]

Around 60% of people with fear of flying report having some other anxiety disorder.[4]

CauseEdit

The causes of flight phobia and the mechanisms by which it is maintained were not well understood as of 2016.[4][5] It is not clear if it is really one condition; it appears to be heterogenous. It appears that some people get aerophobia from being or having claustrophobia to the small spaces inside the fuselage of the plane or helicopter.[6]

DiagnosisEdit

The diagnosis is clinical. It is often difficult to determine if the specific phobia of fear of flight should be the primary diagnosis, or if fear of flying is a symptom of a generalized anxiety disorder or another anxiety disorder such as agoraphobia or claustrophobia.[6]

ClassificationEdit

Fear of flying is a specific phobia classified as such in the DSM-5.[4]

ManagementEdit

Acute anxiety caused by flying can be treated with anti-anxiety medication. The condition can be treated with exposure therapy, including use of virtual reality equipment, which works better when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy. Relaxation techniques and education about aviation safety can also be helpful in combination with other approaches.[2][3]

A new and advanced treatment for aviophobia is virtual reality exposure therapy. This type of treatment uses computer technology where the patient enters a virtual reality of flying.[7]

Virtual reality exposure therapyEdit

Effective treatment for phobias such as fear of flying would be one that activates and modifies the fear structure.[8] Activation of the fear structure can be achieved by exposing the patient to the feared stimuli, flying in this case, to elicit the fearful response.[8] Modification of the fear structure can be achieved by the processes of habituation and extinction after eliciting the fearful response several times.[8] A new and advanced treatment for aviophobia is virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). This type of treatment uses computer technology where the patient virtually experiences flying.[9] This experience includes visual, auditory, and motion stimuli to imitate flying in a plane as close as possible.[9] Thus, VRET is considered an effective treatment for aviophobia. While it can be argued that vivo exposure treatment, patients being exposed to an aircraft, is the most effective way of treatment, but VRET is more cost-effective, accessible,[9] less time-consuming, and requires less organization.[10] Another advantage of VRET over vivo exposure treatment is that it focuses on the main reason that elicits fear of flying easily. For example, if the patient's most anxiety-inducing-component is takeoff, in VRET the patient would be exposed to a plane takeoff repeatedly while in vivo exposure the patient would have to wait for the plane to land and then take off again.[11]

OutcomesEdit

Studies of interventions like CBT have reported rates of reduction in anxiety of around 80%; however, there is little evidence that any treatment can eliminate fear of flying.[3]

EpidemiologyEdit

Estimates for prevalence have ranged between 2.5% and 40%; estimates on the lower end are probably generated through studies where the condition is diagnosed by a professional, and the higher end probably includes people who have diagnosed themselves.[4]

HistoryEdit

Fear of flying was first discussed in the biomedical literature by a doctor in the UK at the end of World War I, who called it "aero-neurosis" and was describing pilots and crew who were or became anxious about flying. It was not much discussed until the 1950s and rise of commercial air travel and the vogue in psychoanalysis. Starting in the 1970s fear of flying was addressed through behavioral and cognitive approaches.[6]

Society and cultureEdit

Immediately after the September 11 attacks, Americans chose to travel more by car instead of flying; because of the extra traffic, around 350 more people died in traffic accidents than would have normally occurred.[12]

A number of famous celebrities have suffered from a fear of flying, including former Arsenal FC and Netherlands footballer Dennis Bergkamp, famously dubbed the "non-flying Dutchman".[citations needed]

Research directionsEdit

As of 2016, the causes of fear of flying as well as the psychological mechanisms through which it were persists had not been well researched. A few studies had looked at whether mechanisms like illusory correlation and expectancy bias were present in all or most people with fear of flying as well as other specific phobias; these studies have not led to clear outcomes.[4][5]

Research into the most effective ways to treat or manage fear of flying is difficult (as it is with other counselling or behavioral interventions) due to the inability to include a placebo or other control arm in such studies.[3]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "aerophobia". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Mulcahy, RA; Blue, RS; Vardiman, JL; Castleberry, TL; Vanderploeg, JM (2016). "Screening and Mitigation of Layperson Anxiety in Aerospace Environments". Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 87 (10): 882–889. doi:10.3357/AMHP.4536.2016. PMID 27662351.
  3. ^ a b c d Oakes, M; Bor, R (November 2010). "The psychology of fear of flying (part II): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on approaches to treatment". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 8 (6): 339–63. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2010.10.002. PMID 21071281.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Clark, GI; Rock, AJ (2016). "Processes Contributing to the Maintenance of Flying Phobia: A Narrative Review". Frontiers in Psychology. 7: 754. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00754. PMC 4887486. PMID 27313550.
  5. ^ a b Wiemer, J; Pauli, P (August 2016). "Fear-relevant illusory correlations in different fears and anxiety disorders: A review of the literature". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 42: 113–28. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.07.003. PMID 27454587.
  6. ^ a b c Oakes, M; Bor, R (November 2010). "The psychology of fear of flying (part I): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 8 (6): 327–38. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2010.10.001. PMID 21050826.
  7. ^ Czerniak, Efrat; Caspi, Asaf; Litvin, Michal; Amiaz, Revital; Bahat, Yotam; Baransi, Hani; Sharon, Hanania; Noy, Shlomo; Plotnik, Meir (April 1, 2016). "A Novel Treatment of Fear of Flying Using a Large Virtual Reality System". Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 87 (4): 411–416. doi:10.3357/AMHP.4485.2016. PMID 27026126.
  8. ^ a b c Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Hodges, Larry; Smith, Samantha; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Price, Larry (2000). "A controlled study of virtual reality exposure therapy for the fear of flying". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68 (6): 1020–1026. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.1020. ISSN 1939-2117. PMID 11142535.
  9. ^ a b c Czerniak, Efrat; Caspi, Asaf; Litvin, Michal; Amiaz, Revital; Bahat, Yotam; Baransi, Hani; Sharon, Hanania; Noy, Shlomo; Plotnik, Meir (April 1, 2016). "A Novel Treatment of Fear of Flying Using a Large Virtual Reality System". Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 87 (4): 411–416. doi:10.3357/AMHP.4485.2016. ISSN 2375-6314. PMID 27026126.
  10. ^ Wechsler, Theresa F.; Kümpers, Franziska; Mühlberger, Andreas (September 10, 2019). "Inferiority or Even Superiority of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in Phobias?—A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis on Randomized Controlled Trials Specifically Comparing the Efficacy of Virtual Reality Exposure to Gold Standard in vivo Exposure in Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, and Social Phobia". Frontiers in Psychology. 10: 1758. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01758. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 6746888. PMID 31551840.
  11. ^ Maltby, Nicholas; Kirsch, Irving; Mayers, Michael; Allen, George J. (2002). "Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of fear of flying: A controlled investigation". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 70 (5): 1112–1118. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.5.1112. ISSN 1939-2117. PMID 12362961.
  12. ^ "Afraid to Fly After 9/11, Some Took a Bigger Risk - In Cars". Wall Street Journal. March 23, 2004. Retrieved October 11, 2013.