Cat Ballou is a 1965 American western musical comedy film starring Jane Fonda and Lee Marvin, who won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his dual role. The story involves a woman who hires a notorious gunman to protect her father's ranch, and later to avenge his murder, but finds that the gunman is not what she expected. The supporting cast features Tom Nardini, Michael Callan, Dwayne Hickman, and singers Nat King Cole and Stubby Kaye, who together perform the film’s theme song, onscreen, throughout the film.
theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Elliot Silverstein|
|Produced by||Harold Hecht|
|Written by||Walter Newman|
|Based on||The Ballad of Cat Ballou (novel)|
by Roy Chanslor
Nat King Cole
|Music by||Frank De Vol (score)|
Mack David (songs)
Jerry Livingston (songs)
|Cinematography||Jack A. Marta|
|Edited by||Charles Nelson|
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
|Box office||$20.7 million|
The film was directed by Elliot Silverstein from a screenplay by Walter Newman and Frank Pierson adapted from the 1956 novel The Ballad of Cat Ballou by Roy Chanslor, who also wrote the novel filmed as Johnny Guitar. Chanslor's novel was a serious Western, and though it was turned into a comedy for the film, the filmmakers retained some darker elements. The film references many classic Western films, notably Shane. The film was selected by the American Film Institute as the 10th greatest Western of all time in its AFI's 10 Top 10 list in 2008.
Catherine "Cat" Ballou, who wants to be a schoolteacher, is returning home from boarding school by train to (fictional) Wolf City, Wyoming, to the ranch of her father, Frankie Ballou. On the way, she unwittingly helps accused cattle rustler Clay Boone elude his captor, Sheriff Maledon, when Boone's Uncle Jed, a drunkard disguised as a preacher, distracts the lawman.
Arriving home, Cat learns that the Wolf City Development Corporation is scheming to take the ranch from her father, whose sole defender is his ranch hand, educated Native American Jackson Two-Bears. Clay and Jed appear and reluctantly offer to help Catherine, and she hires legendary gunfighter Kid Shelleen to help protect her father from gunslinger Tim Strawn, the hired killer who is threatening him.
Shelleen arrives, and proves to be a drunken bum whose pants fall down when he draws his gun, and who is unable to hit a barn when he shoots unless sufficiently inebriated in which state he reveals himself as still being a crack shot. Strawn kills Frankie, and when the townspeople refuse to bring Strawn to justice, Catherine becomes a revenge-seeking outlaw known as Cat Ballou. She and her gang rob a train carrying the Wolf City payroll, then take refuge in "Hole-in-the-Wall", where desperados go to hide from the law, but are thrown out when it is learned what they have done, since Hole-in-the-Wall can only continue to exist on the sufferance of Wolf City. Shelleen, inspired by his caring affection for Cat, works himself into shape, dresses up in his finest gunfighting outfit, and goes into town to kill Strawn, casually revealing later that Strawn is his brother.
Cat poses as a prostitute and confronts Sir Harry Percival, the head of the Wolf City Development Corporation. A struggle ensues, Sir Harry is killed, and Cat is sentenced to be hanged. With Sir Harry dead, there is no hope for Wolf City's future, and the townspeople have no mercy for Cat. As the noose is placed around her neck, Uncle Jed appears, again dressed as a preacher, and cuts the rope just as the trapdoor is opened. Cat falls through and onto a wagon and her gang spirits her away in a daring rescue.
- Jane Fonda as "Catherine" Cat Ballou – Daughter
- Lee Marvin as Kid Shelleen (and) Tim Strawn
- Michael Callan as Clay Boone – Nephew
- Dwayne Hickman as Jed – Uncle
- Nat King Cole as Shouter – Sunrise Kid
- Stubby Kaye as Shouter – Sam the Shade
- Tom Nardini as Jackson Two-Bears – Indian
- John Marley as Frankie Ballou – Father
- Reginald Denny as Sir Harry Percival – Bathe
- Jay C. Flippen as Sheriff Cardigan – Wolf City
- Arthur Hunnicutt as Butch Cassidy
- Bruce Cabot as Sheriff Maledon – Train
- Burt Mustin as Accuser
- Paul Gilbert as Train Messenger
- Frank DeVol as Undertaker
Cole and Kaye, billed simply as "Shouters", act as a Greek chorus, intermittently appearing onscreen to narrate the story through ongoing verses of "The Ballad of Cat Ballou", one of the songs written by Mack David and Jerry Livingston for the film.
- The film was director Elliot Silverstein's second feature film, and his relationship with producer Harold Hecht while filming was not smooth.
- Ann-Margret was the first choice for the title role but her manager turned it down without letting the actress know. Ann-Margret wrote in her autobiography that she would have wanted the part.
- Among others, Kirk Douglas allegedly turned down the role of Shelleen. Years later he played a similar double role in The Man from Snowy River.
- Nat King Cole was ill with lung cancer during the filming of Cat Ballou. A chain smoker, Cole died four months before the film was released.
- The film was shot in 28 days.
- Noted make-up artist John Chambers created the prosthetic nose worn by Lee Marvin as Strawn in the film.
- A former Great Western Railway of Colorado 2-8-0 Consolidation steam locomotive, number 51, owned by Boulder Scientific Company of Boulder, Colorado, was used in the film, with scenes shot at Canon City, Colorado, in September 1964.
The film was well received by critics and was popular with moviegoers and earned over $20.6 million in ticket sales in 1965, making it one of the top ten moneymaking films that year at the US box office.
Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called it "a breezy little film" which "does have flashes of good satiric wit. But, under Elliott Silverstein's direction, it is mostly just juvenile lampoon." Variety wrote that the film "emerges middlingly successful, sparked by an amusing way-out approach and some sparkling performances." Richard L. Coe of The Washington Post praised the film as a "springy satire," adding, "What makes this fun is the style. Forming a mighty cool duo, Nat King Cole and Stubby Kaye sing their way in and out of the plot with folk songs which Cole 'Don't Fence Me In' Porter would have relished. The format is novel and stylishly delivered." Pauline Kael in Film Quarterly called it "lumpen, coy, and obvious, a self-consciously cute movie," adding that "mainly it is full of sort-of-funny and trying-to-be-funny ideas; and a movie is not just ideas." Philip K. Scheuer of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "I'm in the minority, apparently. 'Cat Ballou,' which is being hailed as a cowboy 'Tom Jones' or something of the sort, seems to me about as funny as a soundtrack burp." The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote, "The jokes in Cat Ballou are uneven, but the mood behind the film is happily consistent."
Two separate television pilots were filmed. A 1970 pilot written and produced by Aaron Ruben featured Lesley Ann Warren as Cat, Jack Elam as Kid Shelleen and Tom Nardini repeating his role as whilst a 1971 pilot starred Jo Ann Harris as Cat, Forrest Tucker as Kid Shelleen and Lee J. Casey as Jackson Two Bears.
Awards and honorsEdit
Lee Marvin awards wonEdit
- 1965 Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
- 1965 British Academy Award Winner for Best Actor
- 1965 Golden Globe Award Winner for Best Actor
- 1965 Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 15th Berlin International Film Festival
In his Oscar acceptance speech, Lee Marvin concluded by saying, "I think, though, that half of this belongs to a horse somewhere out in San Fernando Valley," a reference to the horse Kid Shelleen rode, which appeared to be as drunk as Shelleen was.
Academy Award nominationsEdit
At the 38th Academy Awards, the film also generated nominations for:
- Best Film Editing – Charles Nelson
- Best Music, Scoring of Music, Adaptation or Treatment – Frank De Vol
- Best Music, Song – Jerry Livingston and Mack David for "The Ballad of Cat Ballou"
- Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium – Walter Newman and Frank Pierson
Golden Globe Award nominationsEdit
At the 23rd Golden Globe Awards, the film also generated nominations for:
- Best Film – Musical or Comedy – Harold Hecht, producer
- Best Actress – Musical or Comedy – Jane Fonda
- Most Promising Newcomer – Male – Tom Nardini
- Best Original Song – Jerry Livingston and Mack David for "The Ballad of Cat Ballou"
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
- 1998: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – Nominated
- 2000: AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs – #50
- 2003: AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains:
- Tim Strawn – Nominated Villain
- 2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:
- "The Ballad of Cat Ballou" – Nominated
- 2007: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – Nominated
- 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10:
- #10 Western Film
In popular cultureEdit
- Cat Ballou is the favorite film of comedy directors Bobby and Peter Farrelly, as stated in The AFI 100 Years, 100 Laughs television special. The Balladeers from their film, There's Something About Mary, are inspired by similar characters in Cat Ballou.
- Imagery from the hanging scene of Jane Fonda was spoofed advocating her execution for treason following her 1972 visit to Hanoi. A brief shot from that scene was used as part of Alex DeLarge's sadistic reverie in the movie A Clockwork Orange.
- "Cat Ballou" is a card in the spaghetti western board game Bang!.
- In a 2014 interview on NPR, actor Bryan Cranston called Cat Ballou the "movie that had the most impact" on him when he was growing up.
- The opening animation to Cat Ballou was incorporated into the opening logo to Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse.
- "Cat Ballou - Details". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- "Cat Ballou, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Cole, Georgelle. "Cat Ballou" on TCM.com
- "Music" on TCM.com
- Passafiume, Andrea (ed.) "Cat Ballou" on TCM.com
- Osborne, Robert. Outro to Turner Classic Movies presentation of Cat Ballou (May 14, 2011)
- Pendreigh, Brian (7 September 2001). "Obituary:John Chambers: Make-up master responsible for Hollywood's finest space-age creatures". The Guardian. Retrieved Feb 27, 2013.
- "Steam! News Photos, Trains, Kalmbach Publishing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 1965, Volume 25, Number 4, page 14.
- Crowther, Bosley (June 25, 1965). "The Screen: 'Cat Ballou'". The New York Times: 36.
- "Cat Ballou". Variety: 6. May 12, 1965.
- Coe, Richard L. (June 24, 1965). "'Cat Ballou' Is Zingy Spoof". The Washington Post: D20.
- Kael, Pauline (Fall 1965). "Cat Ballou". Film Quarterly. 19 (1): 54. doi:10.2307/1210823. JSTOR 1210823.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (June 19, 1965). "Why the Hullabaloo About 'Cat Ballou?'" Los Angeles Times. p. 19.
- "Cat Ballou". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 32 (380): 131. September 1965.
- "Cat Ballou". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
- Goldberg, Lee Unsold Television Pilots: 1955-1989 Adventures in Television, 5 Jul 2015
- "Berlinale 1965: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees (10th Anniversary Edition)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10: Top 10 Western". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- Gross, Terry. "Fresh Air: From Walter White To LBJ, Bryan Cranston Is A Master Of Transformation" NPR (March 27, 2014)