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Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. (July 13, 1905 – March 7, 1981) was an American journalist and author who was film critic for The New York Times for 27 years. His work helped shape the careers of many actors, directors and screenwriters, though his reviews, at times, were perceived as unnecessarily mean. Crowther was an advocate of foreign-language films in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly those of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini.
Francis Bosley Crowther Jr.
July 13, 1905
Lutherville, Maryland, U.S.
|Died||March 7, 1981 (aged 75)|
Mount Kisco, New York, U.S.
|Occupation||Journalist, author, film critic|
Florence Marks (m. 1933)
|Relatives||Welles Crowther (grandson)|
Life and careerEdit
Crowther was born Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. in Lutherville, Maryland, the son of Eliza Hay (née Leisenring, 1877–1960) and Francis Bosley Crowther (1874–1950). As a child, Crowther moved to Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where he published a neighborhood newspaper, The Evening Star. His family moved to Washington, D.C., and Crowther graduated from Western High School in 1922. After two years of prep school in Orange, Virginia at Woodberry Forest School, he entered Princeton University, where he majored in history. For his writing performance, Crowther was offered a job as a cub reporter for The New York Times at a salary of $30 a week. He declined the offer, made to him by the publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger, hoping to find employment on a small Southern newspaper. When the salary offered by those papers wasn't half of the Times offer, he went to New York and took the job. He was the first night cub reporter for the Times, and in 1933 was asked by Brooks Atkinson to join the drama department. He spent five years covering the theater scene in New York, and even dabbled in writing for it.
While at the Times in those early years, Crowther met Florence Marks, a fellow employee; the couple wed on January 20, 1933. They had three sons, Bosley Crowther III, an attorney; John Crowther, a writer and artist; and Jefferson, a banker and the father of Welles Remy Crowther.
Crowther was a prolific writer of film essays as a critic for The New York Times from 1940 to 1967. Perhaps conscious of the power of his reviews, his style was considered by many to be scholarly rather than breezy. Frank Beaver wrote in Bosley Crowther: Social Critic of the Film, 1940–1967 that Crowther opposed displays of patriotism in films and believed that a movie producer "should balance his political attitudes even in the uncertain times of the 1940s and 1950s, during the House Un-American Activities Committee". Crowther's review of the wartime drama Mission to Moscow (1943), made during the period when the Soviet Union was one of the Allied Powers with the United States, chided the film by saying it should show "less ecstasy", and said "It is just as ridiculous to pretend that Russia has been a paradise of purity as it is to say the same thing about ourselves".
In the 1950s, Crowther was an opponent of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, whose anti-Communist crusade targeted the State Department, the administration of Harry S. Truman, the U.S. Army, and various individual government employees. He opposed censorship of movies, and advocated greater social responsibility in the making of movies. Crowther approved of movies with social content, such as Gone With the Wind (1939), The Grapes of Wrath (1940), Citizen Kane (1941), The Lost Weekend (1945), All the King's Men (1949) and High Noon (1952).
Crowther also had a barely concealed disdain for Joan Crawford when reviewing her films, referring to her acting style as "artificiality" and "pretentiousness," and would also chide Crawford for her physical bearing. In his review of the Nicholas Ray film Johnny Guitar (1954), Crowther complained that, "no more femininity comes from (Crawford) than from the rugged Mr. Heflin in Shane (1953). For the lady, as usual, is as sexless as the lions on the public library steps and as sharp and romantically forbidding as a package of unwrapped razor blades".
His preferences in popular movies were not always predictable. He defended epics such as Ben-Hur (1959) and Cleopatra (1963), but gave the World War II film The Great Escape (also 1963) a highly unfavorable review, and panned all of David Lean's later works. He called Lawrence of Arabia (1962) a "thundering camel-opera that tends to run down rather badly as it rolls on into its third hour and gets involved with sullen disillusion and political deceit."
Crowther had a reputation for admiring foreign-language films, including many of the Italian neorealist films such as Rome, Open City (1945), Shoeshine (1946) and The Bicycle Thief (1948). However he was critical of some iconic releases as well. He found Kurosawa's classic Throne of Blood (1957, but not released in the US until 1961), derived from Macbeth, ludicrous, particularly its ending; and called Gojira (Godzilla) (1954) "an incredibly awful film". Crowther dismissed Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) as "a blot on an otherwise honorable career," but later reassessed the film, considering it one of the top ten movies of the year, writing that Psycho was a "bold psychological mystery picture.... [I]t represented expert and sophisticated command of emotional development with cinematic techniques." He commented that while Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali (1955, US: 1958) took on "a slim poetic form" the structure and tempo of it "would barely pass as a 'rough cut' with editors in Hollywood". Writing about L'Avventura (1960), Crowther said that watching the film was "like trying to follow a showing of a picture at which several reels have got lost."
The career of Bosley Crowther is discussed at length in For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism, including his support for foreign-language cinema and his public repudiation of McCarthyism and the Blacklist. In this 2009 documentary film contemporary critics who appreciate his work, such as A. O. Scott, appear, but also those who found his work to be too moralistic, such as Richard Schickel, Molly Haskell and Andrew Sarris.
Bonnie and Clyde criticismEdit
The end of Crowther's career was marked by his disdain for the 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde. He was critical of what he saw as the film's sensationalized violence. His review was negative:
It is a cheap piece of bald-faced slapstick comedy that treats the hideous depredations of that sleazy, moronic pair as though they were as full of fun and frolic as the jazz-age cut-ups in Thoroughly Modern Millie... [S]uch ridiculous, camp-tinctured travesties of the kind of people these desperadoes were and of the way people lived in the dusty Southwest back in those barren years might be passed off as candidly commercial movie comedy, nothing more, if the film weren't reddened with blotches of violence of the most grisly sort... This blending of farce with brutal killings is as pointless as it is lacking in taste, since it makes no valid commentary upon the already travestied truth. And it leaves an astonished critic wondering just what purpose Mr. Penn and Mr. Beatty think they serve with this strangely antique, sentimental claptrap.
Other critics besides Crowther panned the movie; for example, New York magazine's critic, John Simon, while praising its technical execution, declared "Slop is slop, even served with a silver ladle." Its distributor pulled the film from circulation. However, the critical consensus on Bonnie and Clyde reversed, notably with two high-profile reassessments by Time and Newsweek. The latter's Joe Morgenstern wrote two reviews in consecutive issues, the second retracting and apologizing for the first. Time hired Stefan Kanfer as its new film critic in late 1967; his first assignment was an ostentatious rebuttal of his magazine's original negative review. A rave in The New Yorker by Pauline Kael was also influential.
Even in the wake of this critical reversal, however, Bosley Crowther remained one of the film's most dogged critics. He eventually wrote three negative reviews and periodically blasted the movie in reviews of other films and in a letters column response to unhappy Times readers. The New York Times replaced Crowther as its primary film critic in early 1968, and some observers speculated that his persistent attacks on Bonnie and Clyde had shown him to be out of touch with current cinema and weighed heavily in his removal. Crowther worked as an executive consultant at Columbia Pictures after leaving the Times.
Crowther wrote The Lion's Share: The Story of an Entertainment Empire (1957), the first book documenting the history of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and Hollywood Rajah: The Life and Times of Louis B. Mayer (1960), a biography of MGM's studio's head.
Crowther died of heart failure on March 7, 1981 in Mount Kisco, New York. He was survived by his wife Florence, who died in 1984; a sister, Nancy Crowther Kappes; three sons, F. Bosley, John, and Jefferson; and four grandchildren.
- Robert D., McFadden (March 8, 1981). "Bosley Crowther, 27 Years a Critic of Film for Times, is Dead at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Marjorie Dent Candee, "Current Biography Yearbook – 1957", H. W. Wilson Co. (1958), p 121.
- Beaver, Frank (1974). Bosley Crowther: Social Critic of the Film, 1940–1967. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-04870-X.
- Crowther, Bosley, Mission to Moscow, Based on Ex-Ambassador Davies' Book, Stars Walter Huston, Ann Harding at Hollywood, The New York Times, April 30, 1943
- Crowther, Bosley (August 20, 1955). "Screen: Mild Mystery; 'Female on the Beach' Bows at the Palace". The New York Times.
- Crowther, Bosley (May 28, 1954). "The Screen in Review; Johnny Guitar' Opens at the Mayfair". The New York Times.
- Crowther, Bosley (August 8, 1963). "Screen: P.O.W.'s in 'Great Escape':Inmates of Nazi Camp Are Stereotypical Steve McQueen Leads Snarling Tunnelers". The New York Times.
- Crowther, Bosley (December 17, 1962). "Screen: A Desert Warfare Spectacle:'Lawrence of Arabia' Opens in New York". The New York Times.
- Kapsis, Robert E. (1992). "Hitchcock: The Making of a Reputation". University of Chicago Press. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- Crowther, Bosley (September 23, 1958). "Screen: Exotic Import; Pather Panchali' From India Opens Here". The New York Times.
- Crowther, Bosley (April 5, 1961). "Screen: 'L'Avventura':Film by Michelangelo Antonioni Opens". The New York Times.
- Crowther, Bosley (April 14, 1967). "Bonnie and Clyde (1967) BONNIE AND CLYDE". The New York Times.
- Ebert, Roger (December 10, 1967). "Bonnie, Clyde and the critics". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Bradford, Jack (September 23, 1968). "Bosley Crowther Leaving Times". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- (11 August 1984). Florence M. Crowther (obituary), The New York Times
- Bosley Crowther: Social Critic of the Film, 1940–1967 by Frank Eugene Beaver, Ayer Publishing, 1974. ISBN 0-405-04870-X ISBN 978-0405048708
- Kellye, Beverly M., Reelpolitik II: Political Ideologies in '50s and '60s Films, Rowman & Littlefield (2004), ISBN 0-7425-3041-8, ISBN 978-0-7425-3041-6
- The Lion's Share: The Story of an Entertainment Empire. Ams Prs Inc, 1957. ISBN 0-404-20071-0 ISBN 978-0404200718
- The Great Films: Fifty Golden Years of Motion Pictures. New York: Putnam, 1971. ISBN 0-399-10361-9 ISBN 978-0399103612