Bonnie and Clyde (film)

Bonnie and Clyde is a 1967 American biographical crime film directed by Arthur Penn and starring Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway as the title characters Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker. The film also features Michael J. Pollard, Gene Hackman, and Estelle Parsons. The screenplay is by David Newman and Robert Benton. Robert Towne and Beatty provided uncredited contributions to the script; Beatty produced the film. The music is by Charles Strouse.

Bonnie and Clyde
Poster with a photo of five sharply dressed people holding various guns in front of an old-fashioned car
Theatrical premiere teaser poster
Directed byArthur Penn
Written by
Produced byWarren Beatty
Starring
CinematographyBurnett Guffey
Edited byDede Allen
Music byCharles Strouse
Production
company
Distributed byWarner Bros.-Seven Arts
Release date
  • August 4, 1967 (1967-08-04) (Montreal)
  • August 13, 1967 (1967-08-13) (United States)
Running time
111 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$2.5 million[1][2]
Box office$70 million[2]

Bonnie and Clyde is considered one of the first films of the New Hollywood era and a landmark picture. It broke many cinematic taboos and for some members of the counterculture, the film was considered a "rallying cry."[3] Its success prompted other filmmakers to be more open in presenting sex and violence in their films. The film's ending became iconic as "one of the bloodiest death scenes in cinematic history."[4]

The film received Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actress (Estelle Parsons) and Best Cinematography (Burnett Guffey).[5] In 1992, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[6][7]

PlotEdit

During the Great Depression, Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker of Texas meet when Clyde tries to steal Bonnie's mother's car. Bonnie, who is bored by her job as a waitress, is intrigued by Clyde and decides to take up with him and become his partner in crime. They pull off some holdups, but their amateur efforts, while exciting, are not very lucrative.

The duo's crime spree shifts into high gear once they hook up with a dim-witted gas station attendant, C.W. Moss. Clyde's older brother Buck and his wife, Blanche, a preacher's daughter, also join them. The two women dislike each other at first sight, and their antipathy escalates. Blanche has nothing but disdain for Bonnie, Clyde, and C.W., while Bonnie sees Blanche's flightiness as a constant danger to the gang's survival.

Bonnie and Clyde turn from small-time heists to bank robbing. Their exploits also become more violent. After C.W. botches parking during a bank robbery and delays their escape, Clyde shoots the bank manager in the face when he jumps onto the slow-moving car's running board. The gang is pursued by law enforcement, including Texas Ranger Frank Hamer, whom they capture and humiliate before setting him free. A raid later catches the outlaws off guard, mortally wounding Buck with a shot to his head and injuring Blanche. Bonnie, Clyde, and C.W. barely escape alive. With Blanche sightless and in police custody, Hamer tricks her into revealing C.W.'s name (until then he was only an "unidentified suspect").

Hamer finds Bonnie, Clyde, and C.W. hiding at the house of C.W.'s father Ivan, who thinks the couple have corrupted his son (as evidenced by an ornate tattoo Bonnie convinced C.W. to get). The elder Moss strikes a bargain with Hamer: in exchange for leniency for C.W., he sets a trap for the outlaws. When Bonnie and Clyde stop on the side of the road to help Mr. Moss fix a flat tire, the police in the bushes open fire and riddle them with bullets. Hamer and his posse come out of hiding and look pensively at the couple's bodies as a nearby flock of swallows flies away.

CastEdit

Cast notesEdit

Actor Gene Wilder in his film debut portrayed Eugene Grizzard, one of Bonnie and Clyde's hostages. His girlfriend Velma Davis was played by Evans Evans.

The family gathering scene was filmed in Red Oak, Texas. Several local residents gathered to watch. When the filmmakers noticed Mabel Cavitt, a local schoolteacher, among the people gathered, she was cast as Bonnie Parker's mother.[8][9]

Production and styleEdit

The film was intended as a romantic and comic version of the violent gangster films of the 1930s, updated with modern filmmaking techniques.[10] Arthur Penn portrayed some of the violent scenes with a comic tone, sometimes reminiscent of Keystone Kops-style slapstick films, then shifted disconcertingly into horrific and graphic violence.[11] The film the French New Wave directors' influence, both in its rapid shifts of tone, and in its choppy editing, which is particularly noticeable in its closing sequence.[11][12] The first handling of the script was in the early 1960s. Influenced by the French New Wave writers and not yet completed, Newman and Benton sent Penn an early draft. He already was engaged in production decisions for The Chase (1966) and could not get involved in the script for Bonnie and Clyde. The writers sent their script to François Truffaut, who made contributions but passed on the project, next directing Fahrenheit 451.[13] At Truffaut's suggestion, the writers, much excited (the film's producers were less so), approached filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard. Some sources claim Godard did not trust Hollywood and refused; Benton claimed that Godard wanted to shoot the film in New Jersey in January during the winter. He purportedly took offense when would-be producer Norah Wright objected that his desire was unreasonable, as the story took place in Texas, which has a warm climate year-round.[14] Her partner Elinor Jones[15] claimed the two did not believe Godard was right for the project in the first place. Godard's retort: «Je vous parle de cinéma, vous me parlez de météo. Au revoir.» ("I'm talking cinema and you're talking weather. Goodbye.")[16] After the 1968 Academy Awards, Godard sent Benton and Newman a cable that read, "Now, let's make it all over again!"[17]

Soon after the failed negotiations for production, Beatty was visiting Paris and learned through Truffaut of the project and its path. On returning to Hollywood, Beatty requested to see the script and bought the rights. A meeting with Godard was not productive. Beatty changed his approach and convinced the writers that while the script at first reading was very much of the French New Wave style, an American director was necessary for the subject.[18]

Beatty offered the directing position to George Stevens, William Wyler, Karel Reisz, John Schlesinger, Brian G. Hutton, and Sydney Pollack, all of whom turned it down. Penn turned it down several times before Beatty finally convinced him to direct the film.[19] Beatty was entitled to 40% of the profits of the film and gave Penn 10%.[1]

When Beatty was on board as producer only, his sister and actress Shirley MacLaine was a strong possibility to play Bonnie. When Beatty decided to play Clyde, they needed a different actress. Considered for the role were Jane Fonda, Tuesday Weld, Ann-Margret, Leslie Caron, Carol Lynley and Sue Lyon. Cher auditioned for the part, and Beatty begged Natalie Wood to play the role. Wood declined, to concentrate on her therapy, and acknowledged that working with Beatty before had been "difficult." Faye Dunaway later said that she won the part "by the skin of her teeth!"[citation needed]

The film is forthright in its handling of sexuality, but that theme was toned down from its conception. Originally, Benton and Newman wrote Clyde as bisexual. He and Bonnie were to have a three-way sexual relationship with their male getaway driver. Penn persuaded the writers that since the couple's relationship was underwritten in terms of emotional complexity, it dissipated the passion of the title characters. This would threaten the audience's sympathy for the characters, and might result in their being written off as sexual deviants because they were criminals. Others said that Beatty was unwilling to have his character display that kind of sexuality and that the Production Code would never have allowed such content in the first place.[20] Clyde is portrayed as heterosexual and impotent.

Bonnie and Clyde was one of the first films to feature extensive use of squibs—small explosive charges, often mounted with bags of stage blood, that detonate inside an actor's clothes to simulate bullet hits. Released in an era when film shootings were generally depicted as bloodless and painless, the Bonnie and Clyde death scene was one of the first in mainstream American cinema to be depicted with graphic realism.[21]

Beatty originally wanted the film to be shot in black and white, but Warner Bros. rejected the idea. Much of the studio's senior management was hostile to the film, especially Jack L. Warner, who considered the subject matter an unwanted throwback to Warner Bros.' early period, when gangster films were common product.[22] Moreover, Warner was already annoyed at Beatty for refusing to star in PT 109 and defying Warner's favorite gesture of authority of showing the studio water tower with the WB logo on it. Beatty said, "Well, it's got your name, but it's got my initials."[23] Warner complained about the costs of the film's extensive location shooting in Texas, which exceeded its production schedule and budget, and ordered the crew back to the studio backlot. It already had planned to return for final process shots.[24]

MusicEdit

"Foggy Mountain Breakdown" by Flatt and Scruggs, the instrumental banjo piece, was introduced to a worldwide audience as a result of its frequent use in the movie. Its use is anachronistic because bluegrass dates from the mid-1940s rather than the 1930s. But the functionally similar old-time music genre was long established and widely recorded in the period of the film's events.[25] Long out of print in vinyl and cassette formats, the film soundtrack was released on CD in 2009.[26]

Historical accuracyEdit

 
The real Bonnie and Clyde, March 1933

The film considerably simplifies the lives of Bonnie and Clyde and their gang. They were allied with other gang members, were jailed repeatedly, and committed other murders. In the part of the movie where Bonnie and Clyde escape the ambush that killed Buck Barrow and captured Blanche, Bonnie is shown being wounded by a deputy sheriff who is then killed by Clyde. In fact, although they did escape the ambush, no lawmen were killed, although between June 1933 and April 1934 the Barrow gang did kill three law officers in Texas[27] and Oklahoma.[28] On the run, they suffered a horrific auto accident in which Parker was severely burned and left a near-invalid.[citation needed] In the scene depicting Bonnie and Clyde's death, they are portrayed as having stopped their automobile, with Clyde exiting the car and then looking back at Bonnie as they realize they've been trapped, but reports state that the car was still moving when lawmen opened fire.

The sequence with Wilder and Evans is based on the Barrow gang's kidnappings of undertaker H.D. Darby and his acquaintance Sophia Stone, near Ruston, Louisiana, on April 27, 1933. They also stole Darby's car.[29][page needed]

The film is considered to stray far from fact in its portrayal of Frank Hamer as a vengeful bungler who was captured, humiliated, and released by Bonnie and Clyde. In fact, Hamer was a decorated Texas Ranger when he was coaxed out of semi-retirement to hunt the couple down. He had never met them before he and his posse ambushed and killed them near Gibsland, Louisiana, on May 23, 1934.[30] In 1968, Hamer's widow and son sued the movie producers for defamation of character over his portrayal; they obtained an out-of-court settlement in 1971.[31]

Bonnie and Faye: In 1933 "cigar photo", Bonnie Parker posed as a gun moll; 1966 photo shows publicity reenactment with Faye Dunaway

In 1933, police found undeveloped film in Bonnie and Clyde's hastily abandoned hideout in Joplin, Missouri. When they printed the negatives, one showed Bonnie holding a gun in her hand and a cigar between her teeth. Its publication nationwide typed her as a dramatic gun moll. The film portrays the taking of this playful photo. It implies the gang sent photos—and poetry—to the press, but this is untrue. The police found most of the gang's items in the Joplin cache. Bonnie's final poem, read aloud by her in the movie, was not published until after her death, when her mother released it.[32]

The only two surviving members of the Barrow Gang when the film was released in 1967 were Blanche Barrow and W.D. Jones. While Barrow had approved the depiction of her in the original script, she objected to the later rewrites. At the film's release, she complained about Estelle Parsons's portrayal of her, saying, "That film made me look like a screaming horse's ass!"[33]

ReleaseEdit

The film premiered as the opening film of the Montreal Film Festival on August 4, 1967.[34]

At first, Warner Bros. did not promote Bonnie and Clyde[12] for general release, but mounted only limited regional releases that seemed to confirm its misgivings about the film's lack of commercial appeal. The film quickly did excellent sustained business in select urban theatres.[35] While Jack Warner was selling the studio to Seven Arts Productions, he would have dumped the film but for the fact that Israel, of which Warner was a major supporter, had recently triumphed in the Six-Day War. Warner was feeling too defiant to sell any of his studio's films.[36]

Meanwhile, Beatty complained to Warner Bros. that if the company was willing to go to so much trouble for Reflections in a Golden Eye (it had changed the coloration scheme at considerable expense), their neglect of his film, which was getting excellent press, suggested a conflict of interest; he threatened to sue the company. Warner Bros. gave Beatty's film a general release. Much to the surprise of Warner Bros.' management, the film became a major box-office success.[37]

ReceptionEdit

The film was controversial at the time of release because of its apparent glorification of murderers, and for its level of graphic violence, which was unprecedented at the time. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote, "It is a cheap piece of bald-faced slapstick comedy that treats the hideous depredations of that sleazy, moronic pair as though they were as full of fun and frolic as the jazz-age cutups in Thoroughly Modern Millie."[38][39] He was so appalled that he began to campaign against the increasing brutality of American films.[40] Dave Kaufman of Variety criticized the film for uneven direction and for portraying Bonnie and Clyde as bumbling moronic types.[34] Joe Morgenstern in Newsweek initially panned the film as a "squalid shoot-'em-up for the moron trade." After seeing the film a second time and noting the enthusiastic audience, he wrote a second article saying he had misjudged it and praised the film. Warner Bros. took advantage of this, marketing the film as having made a major critic change his mind about its virtues.[41]

“[A]s a re-creation of reality, Bonnie and Clyde can only be described as dishonest…neither Faye Dunaway nor Warren Beatty acts in a proper Thirties mode, nor do they seem to understand the feelings of the desperate and the underprivileged. The actress’ willowy modern charm is no more appropriate to the lethal, serpentine coldness of the real Bonnie Parker than the actors’ sensitive, matinee idol’s looks have the right style for the shoddy vanity of Clyde Barrow.”—Film historian Charles Higham in The Art of the American Film: 1900-1971. (1973).[42]

Roger Ebert gave Bonnie and Clyde a largely positive review, giving it four stars out of four. He said the film was "a milestone in the history of American movies, a work of truth and brilliance." He continued, "It is also pitilessly cruel, filled with sympathy, nauseating, funny, heartbreaking, and astonishingly beautiful. If it does not seem that those words should be strung together, perhaps that is because movies do not very often reflect the full range of human life."[43][38] More than 30 years later, Ebert added the film to his The Great Movies list. Film critics Dave Kehr and James Berardinelli have praised the film.[citation needed] Stephen Hunter, writing in Commentary in 2009, criticized the film's failure to adhere to the historical truth about Barrow, Parker, and Hamer.[44]

The fierce debate about the film is discussed at length in the documentary For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism (2009). This film chronicles what occurred as a result: The New York Times fired Crowther because his negative review seemed so out of touch with public opinion. Pauline Kael, who wrote a lengthy freelance essay in The New Yorker in praise of the film,[45] was hired as the magazine's new staff critic.[12]

The film was not expected to perform well at the box office but was a sleeper hit and by year's end had earned $2.5 million in theatrical rentals in the U.S. and Canada.[1][46] It continued to perform well in 1968 and by March 1968 had been in the top 12 films at the US box office for 22 weeks.[47] By the end of 1968 it had become the studio's second highest-grossing film of all time, behind My Fair Lady, with rentals of $19 million.[48][49] By July 1968, the film had earned rentals of $10 million outside of the US and Canada.[1] Listal lists it as one of the top five grossing films of 1967, with $50.7 million in U.S. sales, and $70 million worldwide.[50] Beatty's profit participation (which he shared with Penn) earned him over $6 million and Penn over $2 million.[1]

Although many believe the film's groundbreaking portrayal of violence adds to the film's artistic merit, Bonnie and Clyde is still sometimes criticized for opening the floodgates to heightened graphic violence in cinema and TV.[51] It holds an 88% "Certified Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes from 64 reviews, with an average rating of 8.20/10. The site's consensus states: "A paradigm-shifting classic of American cinema, Bonnie and Clyde packs a punch whose power continues to reverberate through thrillers decades later."[52]

Awards and nominationsEdit

Award Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards Best Picture Warren Beatty Nominated
Best Director Arthur Penn Nominated
Best Actor Warren Beatty Nominated
Best Actress Faye Dunaway Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Gene Hackman Nominated
Michael J. Pollard Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Estelle Parsons Won
Best Story and Screenplay – Written Directly for the Screen David Newman and Robert Benton Nominated
Best Cinematography Burnett Guffey Won
Best Costume Design Theadora Van Runkle Nominated
American Cinema Editors Awards Best Edited Feature Film Dede Allen Nominated
Bodil Awards Best Non-European Film Arthur Penn Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Foreign Actor Warren Beatty Nominated
Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles Faye Dunaway (also for Hurry Sundown) Won
Michael J. Pollard Nominated
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Actor Warren Beatty Won[a]
Best Foreign Actress Faye Dunaway Won[b]
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Arthur Penn Nominated
Edgar Allan Poe Awards Best Motion Picture Screenplay David Newman Nominated
Faro Island Film Festival Best Film (Golden Train Award) Arthur Penn Nominated
Best Actor (Audience Award) Warren Beatty Won
Best Actress (Audience Award) Faye Dunaway Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Warren Beatty Nominated
Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama Faye Dunaway Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Michael J. Pollard Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Arthur Penn Nominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture David Newman and Robert Benton Nominated
Most Promising Newcomer – Male Michael J. Pollard Nominated
Golden Reel Awards Best Sound Editing – Feature Film Won
Grammy Awards Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special Charles Strouse Nominated
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Film Arthur Penn Won
Best Foreign Director Won
Laurel Awards Top Action-Drama Won
Top Female Dramatic Performance Faye Dunaway Won
Top Male Supporting Performance Michael J. Pollard Nominated
Top Female Supporting Performance Estelle Parsons Nominated
Mar del Plata International Film Festival Best Film Arthur Penn Won
International Competition Won
Special Mention Faye Dunaway Won
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Inducted
National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Film 2nd Place
Best Supporting Actor Gene Hackman Won
Best Screenplay David Newman and Robert Benton Won
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Director Arthur Penn Nominated
Best Screenplay David Newman and Robert Benton Won
Online Film & Television Association Awards Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Won
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Written American Drama David Newman and Robert Benton Won
Best Written American Original Screenplay Won

Media recognitionEdit

Year Presenter Title Rank Refs
1999 Entertainment Weekly 100 Greatest Movies of All Time 48 [53]
2005 TIME All-TIME 100 Movies N/A [54]
2010 Total Film 100 Greatest Movies of All Time N/A [55]
2010 The Guardian The 25 Best Crime Films of All Time 11 [56]
2013 Entertainment Weekly 100 All-Time Greatest Movies 4 [57]
2014 The Hollywood Reporter Hollywood's 100 Favorite Films 99 [58]
2014 James Berardinelli James Berardinelli's All-Time Top 100 36 [59]
2020 Time Out The 100 Best Movies of All Time 99 [60]

The film repeatedly has been honored by the American Film Institute:

In 1992, Bonnie and Clyde was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[7]

In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild ranked the film the fifth best-edited film of all time, based on a survey of its membership.[62]

InfluenceEdit

 
A replica, made for the film, of the Ford V8 in which Bonnie and Clyde died, is on display at the Alcatraz East museum

Fifty years after its premiere, Bonnie and Clyde has been cited as a major influence for such disparate films as The Wild Bunch, The Godfather, The Departed, Queen & Slim,[63] True Romance, and Natural Born Killers.[64]

In popular cultureEdit

The "Storage Jars" skit of episode 33 of Monty Python's Flying Circus features a brief still shot of Beatty as Clyde firing a Thompson submachine gun as he escapes from the Red Crown Tourist Court.[65]

In "To Say I Love You", the second story arc of Cracker, Robbie Coltrane's character Fitz uses the death scene to first bond with, and then destroy, a murder suspect in custody: "I wept buckets. I thought it was one of the worst moments in the entire history of Hollywood. I wept buckets for all the victims, and all the families of the victims."

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Warren Beatty 'Bonnie' Share May Hit $6,300,000; He Gave Arthur Penn 10%". Variety. August 8, 1968. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b Dancis, Bruce (April 3, 2008). "Forty years later, 'Bonnie and Clyde' still blows us away". Ventura County Star. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  3. ^ Miller, Frank. "Pop Culture 101: BONNIE AND CLYDE". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  4. ^ Buckmaster, Luke. "How Bonnie and Clyde's final scene changed Hollywood". BBC. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  5. ^ "The 40th Academy Awards (1968) Nominees and Winners". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
  6. ^ "25 American films are added to the National Film Registry". The Courier (Dundee). Associated Press. December 7, 1992. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  7. ^ a b "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  8. ^ SCOTT, BROWN (June 15, 2010). "RED OAK, TX". www.tshaonline.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  9. ^ Ballinger, Frank R. "From Real to Reel, the 1967 movie". Bonnie & Clyde's Hideout. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  10. ^ The Movies by Richard Griffith, Arthur Mayer, and Eileen Bowser. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981 edition.
  11. ^ a b Giannetti, Louis; Eyman, Scott (2001). Flashback: A Brief History of Film (4 ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-13-018662-1.
  12. ^ a b c Jones, Malcolm (October 8, 2017). "'Bonnie and Clyde' Turns 50 and Still Packs a Bloody Punch". Daily Beast. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
  13. ^ Toubiana, Serge; de Baecque, Antoine (1999). Truffaut: A Biography. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40089-3.
  14. ^ Harris, Mark (2008). Pictures at a Revolution: Five Films and the Birth of the New Hollywood. The Penguin Press. pp. 66–67.
  15. ^ Harris 2008, p. 66.
  16. ^ Penn, Arthur (2012). Pictures at a Revolution: Five Films and the Birth of the New Hollywood, Luc Lagier. Magazine Arte.tv. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015.
  17. ^ Harris 2008, p. 416.
  18. ^ "Arthur Penn et la Nouvelle Vague" (in French language), Luc Lagier. 27/November/2012 |publisher= Magazine Arte.tv | "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Arthur Penn: American Director by Nat Segaloff. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2011 edition.
  20. ^ Harris 2008, pp. 205–206.
  21. ^ "The Twisting History of Blood on Film". Topic. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  22. ^ Harris 2008, p. 325.
  23. ^ Harris 2008, p. 192.
  24. ^ Harris 2008, pp. 258–259.
  25. ^ Sullivan, Steve (2004). Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings. Scarecrow Press. pp. cxix–cxx. ISBN 9780810882966.[permanent dead link]
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  27. ^ "Patrolman Edward Bryan Wheeler". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  28. ^ "Constable William Calvin Campbell". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Archived from the original on August 4, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  29. ^ Barrow, Blanche Caldwell, edited by John Neal Phillips (2005). My Life with Bonnie and Clyde. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3625-1.
  30. ^ Guinn, Jeff (2009). Go Down Together: The True, Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-5706-7.
  31. ^ Guinn, Jeff (2009). Go Down Together: The True, Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 364. ISBN 1-4165-5706-7
  32. ^ Roger Maserang (December 31, 2008). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Bonnie and Clyde Garage Apartment" (PDF). National Park Service. pp. 20–21. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  33. ^ Barrow with Phillips, p. 245n40
  34. ^ a b Kaufman, Dave (August 9, 1967). "Film Reviews: Bonnie and Clyde". Variety. p. 6. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  35. ^ Harris 2008, p. 346.
  36. ^ Harris 2008, p. 327.
  37. ^ Harris 2008, pp. 368–369.
  38. ^ a b Desta, Yohana (August 11, 2017). "50 Years Later: How Bonnie and Clyde Violently Divided Film Critics". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on March 20, 2021. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
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  40. ^ Gianetti; Eyman. Flashback, p. 306.
  41. ^ Harris, Mark. Pictures at a Revolution: Five Films and the Birth of a New Hollywood. Penguin Press, 2008, pp. 341-342.
  42. ^ Charles Higham. 1973. The Art of the American Film: 1900-1971. Doubleday & Company, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-385-06935-9 p. 302
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  47. ^ Beaupre, Lee (March 20, 1968). "Persevering of 'Bonnie & Clyde'; 22 Times on Weekly Top Dozen". Variety. p. 5.
  48. ^ "All-Time Boxoffice Champs". Variety. January 8, 1969. p. 14.
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  63. ^ Scott, A. O. (August 12, 2007). "Two Outlaws, Blasting Holes in the Screen". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  64. ^ Lavington, Stephen. Oliver Stone. London: Virgin Books, 2004.
  65. ^ Larsen, Darl (2008). Monty Python's Flying Circus: An Utterly Complete, Thoroughly Unillustrated ... – Darl Larsen – Google Books. ISBN 9780810861312. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2017.

Further readingEdit

  • Friedman, Lester D. (2000). Arthur Penn's Bonnie and Clyde. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59697-1.
  • Desilet, Gregory (2005). "Modern 'Noir' Melodrama: Bonnie and Clyde". Our Faith in Evil: Melodrama and the Effects of Entertainment Violence. McFarland. pp. 288–298. ISBN 078642348X.
  • Leggett, B.J. (2005). "Convergence and Divergence in the Movie Review: Bonnie and Clyde". Film Criticism. 30 (2): 1–23. JSTOR 24777277.

External linksEdit