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Sleeper hit is a term used in the entertainment industry for a film that plays successfully for a long period and becomes a big success, despite having relatively little promotion or lacking a successful opening.[1] It is also used in a similar sense for music releases and video games.


In filmEdit

Some sleeper hits in the film industry are strategically marketed for audiences subtly, such as with sneak previews a couple of weeks prior to release, without making them feel obliged to see a heavily promoted film. This alternative form of marketing strategy has been used in sleeper hits such as Sleepless in Seattle (1993), Forrest Gump (1994), My Best Friend's Wedding (1997), There's Something About Mary (1998), and The Sixth Sense (1999).[1]

Screenings for these films are held in an area conducive to the film's demographic. In the case of Sleepless in Seattle, a romantic comedy, screenings were held at suburban shopping malls where romantic couples in their mid 20s to early 30s spent Saturday afternoons before seeing a new film. In theory, a successful screening leads to word-of-mouth marketing, as it compels viewers to discuss an interesting, low-key film with co-workers when they return to work after their weekend.[1]

Easy Rider (1969), which was created on a budget of less than $400,000, became a sleeper hit by earning $50 million and garnering attention from younger audiences with its combination of drugs, violence, motorcycles, counter-culture stance, and rock music.[2]

The Rocky Horror Picture Show was considered a flop for the first 6 months of its release until it found popularity in midnight screenings.

The 1979 Australian film Mad Max, which sprung from the Ozploitation movement and helped to popularise the post-apocalyptic dystopia genre, held the record for the biggest profit-to-cost ratio for several years until it was broken by The Blair Witch Project in 1999.[3]

The independent film Halloween, which played over the course of fall 1978 through fall 1979 and relied almost completely on word-of-mouth as marketing, was also a sleeper hit, having a box-office take of $70 million on a budget of only $325,000. Its success caused other slasher films to try the same approach, although few fared as well since horror films heavily rely on opening weekend box-office and quickly fall from theaters. Other notable examples of horror sleeper-hits to follow in Halloween's wake include A Nightmare on Elm Street in 1984, Scream in 1996, The Blair Witch Project in 1999, Saw in 2004, and Paranormal Activity in 2007.[4]

In musicEdit

Don Howard's 1952 recording of "Oh Happy Day" was one of the earliest sleeper hits. Featuring only Howard's baritone vocals and his acoustic guitar played at an amateur level, it was initially released regionally and was never expected to become a hit. A massive groundswell of support from teenagers in Howard's home base of Cleveland, Ohio led to the song rapidly rising in popularity,[5] despite music industry scorn;[6] cover versions (including one by Larry Hooper and the Lawrence Welk orchestra) were quickly rushed into production, and by 1953, there were no fewer than four hit recordings of the same song circulating, including Howard's original.

The Romantics' 1980 single "What I Like About You" was a sleeper hit. It was a minor hit upon its release and charted at number 49 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, while not charting at all in the United Kingdom. It eventually became one of the most popular songs of the 1980s.[7]

The R&B singer Raphael Saadiq's classic soul-inspired album The Way I See It was a sleeper hit.[8] Overlooked upon its release in 2008,[9] it ended up charting for 41 weeks on the US Billboard 200.[10]

"Just Dance" and "Poker Face" by pop singer Lady Gaga were both released in early 2008 but did not become popular hits until the following year in certain countries, including the US and the UK.[11]

Awolnation's "Sail" was initially released in November 2010, but entered at number 89 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart in September 2011, spending 20 weeks on the chart before dropping out. The single re-entered the Hot 100 a year later, becoming a massive sleeper hit and reaching a new peak of number 17. "Sail" also became the first song to climb to its peak after a year on the Hot 100. It ultimately spent a then-record 79 weeks on the chart.[12]

British pop artist Ellie Goulding's single "Lights" was released in February 2011, first debuting on the Billboard Hot 100 in August of the same year.[13] The track reached its peak position of number 2 after 33 weeks in August 2012, a year and a half after the song's original release date.[14] "Lights" continued its upward momentum from there, taking over two years to reach its peak position in countries like Slovenia, France and Germany.[15][16][17]

The R&B singer Miguel's 2010 debut album All I Want Is You performed poorly at first, debuting at number 109 on the Billboard 200 with sales of 11,000 copies,[18] while underpromoted by his record label.[19] With its singles achieving radio airplay and Miguel touring in the record's promotion,[18] All I Want Is You became a sleeper hit[20] and reached 404,000 copies sold by 2012.[18]

Alessia Cara's 2015 debut single, "Here", became a sleeper hit near the end of the year, ultimately reaching number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and ranking high on several year-end lists of 2015's best songs.[21]

In video gamesEdit

The 2007 video game Portal was a sleeper hit, launching with little fanfare in the game compilation The Orange Box, but becoming a "phenomenon",[22] and prompting the development of a well-regarded sequel, Portal 2.

In 2013, SteamWorld Dig launched on the 3DS from little-known developer Image & Form, but was one of the first Indie games mentioned in a Nintendo Direct, and sold over a million copies on all platforms. If the game had not succeeded, the studio would have been forced to close.[23]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Berra 2008, p. 68.
  2. ^ Ganeri & Bergan 2006, p. 458.
  3. ^ Lanford Beard (22 July 2014). "Summer Sleepers: 14 Unexpected Movie Hits". Entertainment Weekly.
  4. ^ Kerswell, J.A. (2012). The slasher movie book. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1556520107.
  5. ^ "Mystery Hit –". Time. 9 February 1953. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  6. ^ Richard N. Smith (19 February 1953). "No One Likes 'Happy Day' Except Public". Galveston Daily News.
  7. ^ Gimarc 2005, p. 287.
  8. ^ Sless-Kitain, Areif (6 August 2010). "Raphael Saadiq + Balkan Beat Box + Javelin at Lollapalooza 2010: Live review". Time Out. Chicago. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  9. ^ Watson, Margeaux (24 December 2008). "Raphael Saadiq's 'The Way I See It': Most overlooked CD of the year". Entertainment Weekly. New York. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Raphael Saadiq Album & Song Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  11. ^ Lady Gaga Superstar – Page 7
  12. ^ "Ask Billboard: How Does The Hot 100 Work?". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  13. ^ "Top 100 Songs | Billboard Hot 100 Chart". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  14. ^ "Top 100 Songs | Billboard Hot 100 Chart". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  15. ^ SloTop50. "SloTop50 | Tedenska lestvica največkrat zavrtenih skladb". (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  16. ^ Hung, Steffen. " - Ellie Goulding - Lights". Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  17. ^ "Offizielle Deutsche Charts - Offizielle Deutsche Charts". (in German). Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  18. ^ a b c Lipshutz, Jason (21 September 2012). "Miguel's 'Kaleidoscope Dream': Inside The R&B Dynamo's Fresh Start". Billboard. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  19. ^ Rytlewski, Evan (9 October 2012). "Miguel: Kaleidoscope Dream". The A.V. Club. Chicago. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  20. ^ Graham, Nadine (24 March 2011). "Q&A: Miguel". Soul Train. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
  21. ^ Ahmed, Tufayel (10 November 2016). "A COnversation with Alessia Cara on Feminism, Donald Trump and Taylor Swift". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Indies Take the Cake at Game Developers Conference". WIRED. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  23. ^ Jackson, Gita. "The Making of a Switch Sleeper Hit". Kotaku. Retrieved 1 September 2018.


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