Cleveland (// KLEEV-lənd) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 383,793, making it the 52nd-largest city in the United States and the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U.S., with 2,055,612 people in 2016. A Gamma + city, Cleveland anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the nation.
|City of Cleveland|
Clockwise, from top: Downtown Cleveland skyline; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; Fountain of Eternal Life statue; the West Side Market; West Pierhead Lighthouse; FirstEnergy Stadium; the James A. Garfield Memorial; East 4th Street; south entrance to the Cleveland Museum of Art; and one of the eight Guardians of Traffic
Progress & Prosperity
Interactive map outlining Cleveland
|Founded||July 22, 1796|
|Incorporated||December 23, 1814 (village)|
|March 6, 1836 (city)|
|Named for||Moses Cleaveland|
|• Body||Cleveland City Council|
|• Mayor||Frank G. Jackson (D)|
|• City||82.47 sq mi (213.60 km2)|
|• Land||77.70 sq mi (201.24 km2)|
|• Water||4.77 sq mi (12.35 km2)|
|• Urban||772 sq mi (1,999.4 km2)|
|• Metro||3,979 sq mi (10,307 km2)|
|• CSA||11,624.49 sq mi (30,107.4 km2)|
|Elevation||653 ft (199 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||US: 52nd|
|• Density||5,107.0/sq mi (1,971.8/km2)|
|• Urban||1,780,673 (US: 25th)|
|• Metro||2,055,612 (US: 32nd)|
|• CSA||3,501,538 (US: 16th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1066654|
|Primary Airport||Cleveland Hopkins International Airport|
Cleveland is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River by surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company, led by General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city was named. Following the American Civil War, the town grew into a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being a transportation hub on major railroad lines that connected the urban centers of the East Coast to Chicago.
The influx of large numbers of immigrants and migrants greatly expanded the size of the city and, by 1920, it grew into a densely-populated metropolis of 796,841 people, making it the fifth largest city in the nation at the time. Guided by the spirit of the City Beautiful movement, Cleveland boasts stunning architecture from this era, as best exemplified by the Cleveland Mall Plan. By 1930, the year of the dedication of Cleveland's iconic Terminal Tower skyscraper, the city had grown to a population of over 900,000 and, by 1950, that number grew to 914,808. Although hit by the decline of heavy industry in subsequent decades, Cleveland is now experiencing a comeback and its Downtown is growing. Today, its economy relies on diversified sectors including not only manufacturing, but also healthcare, biomedicals, financial services, and higher education. The internationally-renowned Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals are among Cleveland's major healthcare centers, and the nationally-ranked Case Western Reserve University is one of the city's many leading academic institutions.
Ohio's premier cultural center, Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the second largest performing arts district in the U.S. after New York City's Lincoln Center, as well as the Cleveland Orchestra (one of the "Big Five" American orchestras), the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The city boasts a nationally-renowned culinary culture and was named the 7th best food city in the nation by Time magazine in 2015. Known as the "Forest City" (among many other nicknames), Cleveland is richly endowed with an extensive shoreline and numerous parks and nature reserves, many of which are part of the Cleveland Metroparks system. The city has emerged as a national leader in environmental protection. In 2019, the American Rivers conservation association named the Cuyahoga River "River of the Year" in honor of "50 years of environmental resurgence" and clean-up by the city. Cleveland is also home to the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Botanical Garden, and the Greater Cleveland Aquarium.
Cleveland was established on July 22, 1796 by surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company when they laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city. They named the new settlement "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw the New England-style design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first permanent settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814.
In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, the town's waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving it access to Great Lakes trade. It grew rapidly after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected it to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, and later via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. The town's growth continued with added railroad links.
In 1831, the spelling of the town's name was altered by The Cleveland Advertiser. In order to fit the name on the newspaper's masthead, the editors dropped the first "a", reducing the city's name to Cleveland, which eventually became the official spelling. In 1836, Cleveland was officially incorporated as a city. That same year, Cleveland, then only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two communities. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854.
Growth and expansionEdit
Cleveland witnessed rapid growth after the American Civil War. The city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub between the East Coast and the Midwest played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland served as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business.
By the early 20th century, Cleveland had emerged as a major American manufacturing center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker.
Known as the "Sixth City" due to its position as the sixth largest U.S. city at the time, Cleveland counted major Progressive Era politicians among its leaders, most prominently the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson, who was responsible for the development of the Cleveland Mall Plan. The era of the City Beautiful movement in Cleveland architecture, this period also saw wealthy patrons support the establishment of the city's major cultural institutions. The most prominent among them were the Cleveland Museum of Art, which opened in 1916, and the Cleveland Orchestra, established in 1918.
Cleveland's economic growth and industrial jobs attracted large waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Ireland. African American migrants from the rural South also arrived in Cleveland (among other Northeastern and Midwestern cities) as part of the Great Migration for jobs, constitutional rights, and relief from racial discrimination. By 1920, the year in which the Cleveland Indians won their first World Series championship, Cleveland's population reached 796,841 with a foreign-born population of 30%, making it the fifth largest city in the nation. At this time, Cleveland saw the rise of radical labor movements in response to the conditions of the largely immigrant and migrant workers. In 1919, the city attracted national attention during the First Red Scare for the Cleveland May Day Riots, in which socialist demonstrators clashed with anti-socialists.
Despite the immigration restrictions of 1921 and 1924, the city's population continued to grow throughout the 1920s. Prohibition first took effect in Ohio in May 1919 (although it was not well-enforced in Cleveland), became law with the Volstead Act in 1920, and was eventually repealed nationally by Congress in 1933. The ban on alcohol led to the rise of speakeasies throughout the city and organized crime gangs, such as the Mayfield Road Mob, who smuggled bootleg liquor across Lake Erie from Canada into Cleveland. The 1920s also saw the establishment of Cleveland's Playhouse Square and the rise of the scandalous Short Vincent entertainment district. Jazz came to prominence in the city during this period.
In 1929, Cleveland hosted the first of many National Air Races. Construction of the Terminal Tower skyscraper commenced in 1926 and, by the time it was dedicated in 1930, Cleveland had a population of over 900,000. This period also marked the beginning of the golden age in Downtown Cleveland retail, centered on major department stores Higbee's, Halle's, the May Company, and Sterling-Lindner Co., which collectively represented one of the largest shopping districts in the country, often compared to New York's Fifth Avenue.
In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others. During World War II, Cleveland contributed massively the U.S. war effort as a major center for manufacturing.
Late 20th and early 21st centuriesEdit
After the war, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. Businesses proclaimed Cleveland as the "best location in the nation". In 1949, the city was named an All-America City for the first time and in 1950, its population reached 914,808. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was declared the "City of Champions" in sports at this time. The 1950s also witnessed the rising popularity of a new genre of music that local WJW (AM) disc jockey Alan Freed dubbed "rock and roll."
However, by the 1960s, Cleveland's economy began to slow down, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following federally subsidized highways. Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. The burning of the Cuyahoga River in June 1969 brought national attention to the issue of industrial pollution in Cleveland and served as a catalyst for the American environmental movement.
Housing discrimination and redlining against African Americans led to racial unrest in Cleveland and numerous other Northern U.S. cities. In Cleveland, the Hough riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966 and the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect an African American mayor, Carl B. Stokes, who served from 1968 to 1971.
In December 1978, during the turbulent tenure of Dennis Kucinich as mayor, Cleveland became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a financial default on federal loans. By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation, and the Savings and Loans Crisis, contributed to the recession that severely affected cities like Cleveland. While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several steel production centers.
In the late 20th century, the city began a gradual economic recovery under mayors George Voinovich and Michael R. White. The downtown area saw the construction of the Key Tower and 200 Public Square skyscrapers, as well as the development of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex—consisting of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse—and the North Coast Harbor, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center.
By the turn of the 21st century, Cleveland succeeded in developing a more diversified economy and gained a national reputation as a center for healthcare and the arts. Additionally, it has become a national leader in environmental protection, with its successful clean-up of the Cuyahoga River. The city's downtown has experienced dramatic economic and population growth since 2010. In 2018, the population of Cleveland began to flatten after decades of decline. However, challenges still remain for the city, with economic development of neighborhoods and improvement of city schools being top municipal priorities. Despite such challenges, Cleveland has become increasingly recognized by national media as a city on the upswing. This trend has been accompanied by major victories in sports, most prominently the victory of the Cleveland Cavaliers in the 2016 NBA Finals, the first major professional sports championship won by a Cleveland team since 1964.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km2), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km2) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km2) is water. The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek.
The land rises quickly from the lake shores elevation of 569 feet. Public Square, less than one mile (1.6 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).
Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around the open Cleveland Mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan. They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.
The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel.
Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches.
Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay.
Downtown Cleveland is centered on Public Square and includes a wide range of districts. It contains the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the Cleveland Theater District, which is home to Playhouse Square Center. Mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units, in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments, has been on the increase since 2000. Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the Euclid Corridor Project, and the developments along East 4th Street. Cleveland residents geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. The east side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye-Shaker, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Tremont, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.
Several neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s. These neighborhoods are on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy). Much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development. Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.
Cleveland's older, inner-ring suburbs include Bedford, Bedford Heights, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Hudson, Lakewood, Linndale, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Parma Heights, Shaker Heights, Solon, South Euclid, University Heights and Warrensville Heights. Many of the suburbs are members of the Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium.
Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen Dfa) zone. Summers are warm and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snow Belt' begins. Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo.
The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994. On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm). The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually.
|Climate data for Cleveland (Cleveland Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present[note 1]|
|Record high °F (°C)||73
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||56.9
|Average high °F (°C)||34.4
|Average low °F (°C)||21.7
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||0.0
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.72
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||18.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.1||13.9||14.2||14.4||13.2||11.1||10.3||9.8||10.0||11.4||13.5||16.0||154.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||13.5||10.1||7.5||2.3||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||3.3||10.0||46.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73.3||73.0||70.4||66.1||67.3||69.0||69.8||73.1||73.7||70.8||71.9||74.1||71.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||101.0||122.3||167.0||216.0||263.6||294.6||307.2||262.2||219.0||169.5||89.8||67.8||2,280|
|Percent possible sunshine||34||41||45||54||59||65||67||61||59||49||30||24||51|
|Average ultraviolet index||2||2||4||6||7||9||9||8||6||4||2||1||5|
|Source #1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
|Source #2: Weather Atlas  (sunshine data)|
|Climate data for Cleveland|
|Average sea temperature °F (°C)||34.0
|Mean daily daylight hours||10.0||11.0||12.0||13.0||15.0||15.0||15.0||14.0||12.0||11.0||10.0||9.0||12.3|
|Source: Weather Atlas |
|Black or African American||53.3%||46.6%||16.2%||1.6%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.0%||4.6%||n/a||n/a|
As of the census of 2010, there were 396,698 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km2). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.3% African American, 37.3% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 4.4% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.0% of the population.
There were 167,490 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11.
The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 inhabitants per square mile (2,380.9/km2). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 51.0% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 7.3% of the population. Ethnic groups include Germans (15.2%), Irish (10.9%), English (8.7%), Italian (5.6%), Poles (3.2%), and French (3.0%). Out of the total population, 4.5% were foreign born; of which 41.2% were born in Europe, 29.1% Asia, 22.4% Latin American, 5.0% Africa, and 1.9% Northern America.
Out of 190,638 households, 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The age distribution of the population shows 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was US$25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Language and EthnicityEdit
As of 2010[update], 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke Spanish, 0.6% (2,200) Arabic, and 0.5% (1,960) Chinese. In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a Slavic language (1,279 – Polish, 679 Serbo-Croatian, and 485 Russian). In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke a language other than English.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Cleveland saw a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, and Ottoman Empires, most of whom were attracted by manufacturing jobs. As a result, Cleveland and Cuyahoga County today have substantial communities of Irish (especially in West Park), Italians (especially in Little Italy and around Mayfield Road), Germans, and several Central-Eastern European ethnicities, including Czechs, Hungarians, Lithuanians, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Rusyns, Slovaks, Ukrainians, and ex-Yugoslav groups, such as Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. Cleveland also has a long-established Jewish community, historically centered on the East Side neighborhoods of Glenville and Kinsman, but now mostly concentrated in East Side suburbs such as Beachwood, home to the Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1970, the black population of Cleveland, largely concentrated on the city's East Side, increased significantly as a result of the First and Second Great Migrations. Cleveland's Latino community consists primarily of Puerto Ricans, while the city's Asian community, centered on historical Asiatown, consists of Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other groups. Additionally, the city and the county have significant communities of Arabs, Armenians, French, Greeks, Scots, Turks, and West Indians.
In 1920, Cleveland proper boasted a foreign-born population of 30% and, in 1870, that percentage was 42%. Although the foreign-born population of Cleveland today is not as big as it once was, the sense of identity remains strong among the city's various ethnic communities, as reflected in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park. There are many ethnic festivals held in Cleveland throughout the year, such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in Little Italy, the Harvest Festival in Slavic Village, and the Cleveland Asian Festival in Asiatown. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown. Recent waves of immigration to Cleveland have brought new groups to the city, including additional numbers of Russians and other nationalities from the former Soviet Union, as well as Albanians, Ethiopians, and South Asians. In the 2010s, the immigrant population of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County began to see significant growth, becoming one of the fastest growing centers for immigration in the Great Lakes region. A 2019 study found Cleveland to be the city with the shortest average processing time in the nation for immigrants to become US citizens.
Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries.
The city diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland is home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Applied Industrial Technologies, Cliffs Natural Resources, Forest City Enterprises, NACCO Industries, Sherwin-Williams Company, and KeyCorp. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland. In 2007, Cleveland's commercial real estate market experienced rebound with a record pace of purchases, with a housing vacancy of 10%.
The Cleveland Clinic is the largest private employer in the city of Cleveland and the state of Ohio, with a workforce of over 50,000 as of 2019[update]. It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. News & World Report. Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a renowned center for cancer treatment, MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mount Sinai Hospital, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.
City leaders have recently promoted the growth of the technology sector. Former mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on Euclid Avenue. Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area.
Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, the Great Lakes Theater Festival, and the Cleveland Ballet. The center hosts Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.
One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was initially used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll". Cleveland gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 70s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. The city hosted the "World Series of Rock" at Cleveland Municipal Stadium, which was notable high-attendance events. Located between Playhouse Square and University Circle is Karamu House, the oldest African-American theater in the United States, founded in the 1920s.
Cleveland is home to The Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the United States. It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Orchestra the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony, and the biennial Cleveland International Piano Competition which has, in the past, often featured The Cleveland Orchestra.
Jazz has a long history in Cleveland. Many major jazz musicians, including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Cab Calloway, and Benny Goodman, performed in the city, and legendary pianist Art Tatum regularly played in Cleveland clubs during the 1930s. Prominent jazz artist Noble Sissle was a graduate of Cleveland Central High School and bandleader Phil Spitalny led his first orchestra in Cleveland. The Tri-C Jazz Fest has been held annually in Cleveland at Playhouse Square since 1979 and the Cleveland Jazz Orchestra was established in 1984. Joe Siebert's documentary film Sax Man on the life of Cleveland street saxophonist Maurice Reedus Jr. was released in 2014.
The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka Hall of Fame. This is due in part to the success of Frankie Yankovic who was a Cleveland native and was considered the America's Polka King and the square at the intersection of Waterloo Rd. and East 152nd St. in Cleveland ( ), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor.
There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.
The Gordon Square Arts District on Detroit Avenue, in the Detroit-Shoreway neighborhood, is the location of the Capitol Theatre and an Off-Off-Broadway Playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre. Each spring, the campus of Cleveland State University hosts the Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival, the largest South Indian classical music festival next to Chennai's December Season.
Film and televisionEdit
Cleveland has served as the setting for several major studio and independent films. Reflecting its position as one of the largest American cities at the time, Cleveland was referenced in numerous classic Hollywood films, such as Howard Hawks' Ceiling Zero (1936) with James Cagney and Pat O'Brien, and Hobart Henley's romantic comedy The Big Pond (1930) with Maurice Chevalier and Claudette Colbert, which introduced the hit song "You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me". The city also served as the setting for Michael Curtiz's 1933 pre-Code classic Goodbye Again with Warren William and Joan Blondell. Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the World Series, appeared in The Kid from Cleveland (1949). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie (1966); written and directed by Billy Wilder, the picture marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns. Director Jules Dassin's first American film in nearly twenty years, Up Tight! (1968) is set in Cleveland immediately following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Set in 1930s Cleveland, Sylvester Stallone leads a local labor union in F.I.S.T. (1978). Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony (1980); He spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the Cleveland Agora. The boxing-match-turned-riot near the start of Raging Bull (1980) takes place at the Cleveland Arena in 1941. Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's critically acclaimed and independently produced Stranger Than Paradise (1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or.
The cult-classic mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap (1984) includes a memorable scene where the parody band gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland rock concert (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!"). Howard the Duck (1986), George Lucas' heavily criticized adaptation of the Marvel comic of the same name, begins with the title character crashing into Cleveland after drifting in outer space. Michael J. Fox and Joan Jett play the sibling leads of a Cleveland rock group in Light of Day (1987); directed by Paul Schrader, much of the film was shot in the city. Both Major League (1989) and Major League II (1994) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Kevin Bacon stars in Telling Lies in America (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander Joe Eszterhas, a former reporter for The Plain Dealer. Cleveland serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in The Rainmaker (1997); in the film, Key Tower doubles as the firm's main headquarters. A group of Cleveland teenagers try to scam their way into a Kiss concert in Detroit Rock City (1999), and several key scenes from director Cameron Crowe's Almost Famous (2000) are set in Cleveland. Antwone Fisher (2002) recounts the real-life story of the Cleveland native. Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders and Case Western Reserve University alumni—filmed their comedy Welcome to Collinwood (2002) entirely on location in the city. American Splendor (2003)—the biographical film of Harvey Pekar, author of the autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was The Oh in Ohio (2006). Much of The Rocker (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland native Nathaniel Ayers' life story is told in The Soloist (2009). Kill the Irishman (2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime family. More recently, the teenage comedy Fun Size (2012) takes place in and around Cleveland on Halloween night, and the film Draft Day (2014) followed Kevin Costner as general manager for the Cleveland Browns.
Cleveland has often doubled for other locations in the film. The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter (1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, were shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of Tremont; U.S. Steel also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Francis Ford Coppola produced The Escape Artist (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland near City Hall and the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, as well as the Flats. A Christmas Story (1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home—from Cleveland. Much of Double Dragon (1994) and Happy Gilmore (1996) were also shot in Cleveland, and the opening shots of Air Force One (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. A complex chase scene in Spider-Man 3 (2007), though set in New York City, was filmed along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of The Avengers (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's Public Square as a fill-in for Stuttgart, Germany. More recently, Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013), Miss Meadows (2014) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Future productions in the Cleveland area are the responsibility of the Greater Cleveland Film Commission.
In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom The Drew Carey Show, starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. Real-life crime series Cops, Crime 360, and The First 48 regularly film in Cleveland and other U.S. cities. Hot in Cleveland, a comedy airing on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010. Later episodes of the reality show Keeping Up With the Kardashians have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star Khloe Kardashian began a relationship with Cleveland Cavaliers center Tristan Thompson.
The American modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to The Plain Dealer for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Ave intersection. On Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library.
Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s. He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. The African-American avant garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland.
Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". D. A. Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland.
Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House.
The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues.
Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity. Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity. In an early Gay and lesbian studies anthology titled Lavender Culture, a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT subcultures.
Cleveland's melting pot of immigrant groups and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont.
Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies. Cleveland also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. With its blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. Ohio City is home to a growing brewery district, which includes Great Lakes Brewing Company (Ohio's oldest microbrewery); Market Garden Brewery next to the historic West Side Market and Platform Beer Company.
Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an episode of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene.
The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city".
Five miles (8.0 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km2) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Cleveland 17th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Cleveland is home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine. Cleveland has an attraction for visitors and fans of A Christmas Story: A Christmas Story House and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and other materials related to the Jean Shepherd film.
Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States. Cleveland also hosted the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which featured national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall. The annual Ingenuity Fest, Notacon and TEDxCLE conference focus on the combination of art and technology. The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 106,000 people in 2017. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.
Cleveland also has the Jack Cleveland Casino. Phase I opened on May 14, 2012, on Public Square, in the historic former Higbee's Building at Tower City Center. There are currently no plans to expand the casino.
Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena and the Wolstein Center.
The Cleveland Indians won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. They also won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016 seasons. Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008.
Historically, the Browns have been among the most successful franchises in American football history, winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the NFL/AFC Championship Game in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, and 1989. Former owner Art Modell's relocation of the Browns after the 1995 season (to Baltimore creating the Ravens), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans. Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in 1999 season, retaining all team history. In earlier NFL history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, and the Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles.
The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs and then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, finally defeating the Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. Basketball, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League championship in 1962.
A notable Cleveland athlete is Jesse Owens, who grew up in the city after moving from Alabama when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in Downtown Cleveland at Fort Washington Park.
Cleveland State University alum and area native, Stipe Miocic, won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220.
Collegiately, NCAA Division I Cleveland State Vikings have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings men's basketball team. NCAA Division III Case Western Reserve Spartans have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena.
Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland Open is currently held annually.
The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978.
Parks and gardensEdit
Cleveland is home to four of the parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, as well as the: Washington Park, Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Olmsted-inspired Metroparks encircle Cuyahoga county. Included in the system is the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of primates in North America. In addition to the Metroparks system, the Cleveland Lakefront State Park district provides public access to Lake Erie. This cooperative between the City of Cleveland and the State of Ohio contains six parks: Edgewater Park, on the city's near west side between the Shoreway and the lake; East 55th Street Marina, Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park. The Cleveland Public Parks District is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park, notable for its late-19th century historical landmark bridges and Cultural Gardens.
Government, law, safetyEdit
Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats.
During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1%, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county. The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%.
The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor–council (strong mayor) form of government. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office has been held by Frank G. Jackson since 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I era War Secretary and founder of BakerHostetler law firm Newton D. Baker, United States Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator, former United States Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio's 10th congressional district, Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major American city. The state of Ohio lost two Congressional seats as a result of the 2010 Census, which affects Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state.
Crime and law enforcementEdit
Between about 1935 to 1938, the Cleveland Torso Murderer killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in the area. No arrest was ever made.
From 2002 to 2013, Ariel Castro held three women as sex slaves in his home in Cleveland. Police became aware of the crime when one of the women escaped. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide.
In September 2009, the local police arrested Anthony Sowell, who was known in press reports as the Cleveland Strangler. He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced to death.
In October 2010, Cleveland had two neighborhoods appear on ABC News's list of 'America's 25 Most Dangerous Neighborhoods': both in sections just blocks apart in the city's Central neighborhood on the East Side. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E. 40th Streets, while an area near E. 55th and Scovill Avenue ranked 2nd in the nation, just behind a section of the Englewood neighborhood in Chicago, which ranked 1st.
In 2014, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) published a report that investigated the use of force by the Cleveland Police Department from 2010 to 2013. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.
On May 26, 2015, the City of Cleveland and the DOJ released a 105-page agreement addressing concerns about Cleveland Division of Police (CDP) use-of-force policies and practices.
Consent decree with Department of JusticeEdit
The agreement follows a two-year Department of Justice investigation, prompted by a request from Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the CDP engaged in a pattern or practice of the use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994), 42 U.S.C § 14141 (Section 14141"). Under Section 14141, the Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law.
U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder and U.S. Attorney Steven Dettelbach announced the findings of the DOJ investigation in Cleveland on December 4, 2014. After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013 and conducting thousands of interviews, the investigators found systemic patterns, insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement.
At the same time as the announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement.
The details of the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on May 26, 2015. The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure the decree's goals are met. The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its officers and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal judge, the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement is binding.
At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland:
- a civilian inspector general who will review the work of the police officers. This position will be appointed by the Mayor but report to the Police Chief. It is intended to provide an additional layer of accountability and scrutiny.
- an equipment inventory that must result in a study by the police that shows what is needed.
On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree. The signing of the agreement starts the clock for numerous deadlines that must be met in an effort to improve the department's handling of use-of-force incidents.
Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire. The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief.
The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Angelo Calvillo.
Emergency Medical ServicesEdit
Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance transport within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing fire response medical care. Although a merger between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandonded.
The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the second largest K–12 district in the state of Ohio. It is the only district in Ohio under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.
Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km2) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
Private and Parochial SchoolsEdit
- Benedictine High School
- Birchwood School
- Cleveland Central Catholic High School
- Eleanor Gerson School
- Montessori High School at University Circle
- St. Ignatius High School
- St. Joseph Academy
- Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School
- Urban Community School
- Saint Martin de Porres
- The Bridge Avenue School
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 42nd in the nation in 2019 by U.S. News & World Report. University Circle also contains Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland.
Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Press, an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the Cleveland News, which ceased publication in 1960. Additional newspaper coverage includes: The Morning Journal, which serves suburbs bordering directly on the western Cleveland border; the News-Herald which serves the smaller suburbs in the east side; the Thursdays-only Sun Post-Herald, which serves a few neighborhoods on the city's west side; and the Call and Post, a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's African-American community. The city is also served by Cleveland Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Business, a weekly business newspaper; Cleveland Jewish News, a weekly Jewish newspaper; and Cleveland Scene, a free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Times, in 2008. In addition, nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city.
Combined with nearby Akron and Canton, Cleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research (as of 2013[update]–14). The market is served by 10 full power stations, including: WEWS-TV (ABC), WJW (Fox), WKYC (NBC), WOIO (CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WUAB (The CW), WVPX-TV (Ion), WQHS-DT (Univision), WDLI-TV (Ion Plus), and the independent WBNX-TV.
The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated daytime talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV served as the model for Good Morning America. Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John.
Cleveland is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (adult contemporary), WENZ (mainstream urban), WHLK (adult hits), WGAR-FM (country), WMJI (classic hits), WMMS (active rock/hot talk), WNCX (classic rock), WQAL (hot adult contemporary), and WZAK (urban adult contemporary). WCPN public radio functions as the local NPR affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. College radio stations include WBWC (Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB (Cleveland State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM (Case Western Reserve University).
News/talk station WTAM serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Indians. WKNR and WWGK cover sports via ESPN Radio, while WKRK-FM covers sports via CBS Sports Radio (WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns). As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. News/talk station WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio; its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country. In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, Playboy named WMMS DJ Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".
Cleveland is home to a number of major hospital systems, several of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world renowned Cleveland Clinic, which is supplemented by University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. On the city's west side is the main campus of the MetroHealth System, which operates a level one trauma center in northeast Ohio, and has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. The Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world. To take advantage of the proximity of universities and other medical centers in Cleveland, the Veterans Administration moved the regions VA hospital from suburban Brecksville to a new facility in University Circle.
In 2011, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. As of 2014[update], Walk Score increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit-Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye-Shaker Square neighborhoods.
Urban transit systemsEdit
Cleveland has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of four light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America. Cleveland is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square).
The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2016, 23.7 percent of Cleveland households lacked a car, while the national average was 8.7 percent. Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the west and east sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the west side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge.
Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.
Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that once served as a main hub for United Airlines and Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals. There have been several proposals for commuter rail in Cleveland, including an ongoing (as of January 2011) study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line.
Inter-city bus linesEdit
National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas.
Energy and environmentEdit
The city's two main electrical utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power. Cleveland's climate action plan, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percent renewable power, along with reduction of greenhouse gases to 80 percent below the 2010 level.
Sister cities and international relationsEdit
As of 2019[update], Cleveland maintains cultural, economic, and educational ties with 23 sister cities around the world. It concluded its first sister city partnership with Lima, Peru in 1964. Additionally, Cleveland is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia, and Greater Cleveland's Jewish community has an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel.
- Alexandria (Egypt) 1977
- Bahir Dar (Ethiopia) 2004
- Bangalore (India) 1975
- Beit She'an (Israel) 2019
- Brașov (Romania) 1973
- Bratislava (Slovakia) 1990
- Cleveland, England (UK) 1977
- Conakry (Guinea) 1991
- Fier (Albania) 2006
- Gdańsk (Poland) 1990
- Heidenheim an der Brenz (Germany) 1977
- Holon (Israel) 1977
- Ibadan (Nigeria) 1974
- Klaipėda (Lithuania) 1992
- Lima (Peru) 1964
- Ljubljana (Slovenia) 1975
- Mayo (Ireland) 2003
- Miskolc (Hungary) 1995
- Rouen (France) 2008
- Segundo Montes (El Salvador) 1991
- Taipei (Taiwan) 1975
- Vicenza (Italy) 2009
- Volgograd (Russia) 1990
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