Rouen (French pronunciation: [ʁwɑ̃]; Frankish: Rodomo; Latin: Rotomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
|Prefecture and commune|
|Intercommunality||Métropole Rouen Normandie|
|• Mayor (2014-2020)||Yvon Robert (PS)|
|Area1||21.38 km2 (8.25 sq mi)|
|• Urban||448 km2 (173 sq mi)|
|• Metro (2010)||1,800 km2 (700 sq mi)|
|• Rank||36th in France|
|• Density||5,200/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban (2010)||494,382|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|• Metro (2011)||655,013|
|• Metro density||360/km2 (940/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC +1) (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|INSEE/Postal code||76540 /|
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
The population of the metropolitan area (in French: agglomération) at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais.
Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, and Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000.
Rouen has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Koeppen climate classification).
|Climate data for Rouen (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.7
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||1.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||76.3
|Average precipitation days||13.0||10.3||11.9||10.7||11.8||9.5||9.4||9.0||9.7||12.4||13.0||13.0||133.6|
|Average snowy days||4.7||4.2||3.3||1.8||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.7||3.4||19.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||86||83||78||79||80||79||80||84||89||90||91||84.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.6||74.5||117.4||158.0||182.8||202.2||199.2||191.8||156.1||107.8||60.0||49.2||1,557.5|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)|
Rouen is known for its Notre Dame cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre (butter tower) financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent. The cathedral's gothic façade (completed in the 16th century) was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture (contrary to popular belief, she was not imprisoned there but in the since destroyed tour de lady Pucelle); the Church of Saint Ouen (12th–15th century); the Palais de Justice, which was once the seat of the Parlement (French court of law) of Normandy; the Gothic Church of St Maclou (15th century); and the Museum of Fine Arts and Ceramics which contains a splendid collection of faïence and porcelain for which Rouen was renowned during the 16th to 18th centuries. Rouen is also noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings.
There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault; the Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire, a museum on the history of the port of Rouen and navigation; Musée des antiquités, an art and history museum with local works from the Bronze Age through the Renaissance, the Musée de la céramique and the Musée Le Secq des Tournelles.
The Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a notable botanical garden once owned by Scottish banker John Law dated from 1840 in its present form. It was the site of Élisa Garnerin's parachute jump from a balloon in 1817.
In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan of Arc's pyre) is the modern church of St Joan of Arc. This is a large, modern structure which dominates the square. The form of the building represents an upturned viking boat and a fish shape.
Rouen was also home to the French Grand Prix, hosting the race at the nearby Rouen-Les-Essarts track sporadically between 1952 and 1968. In 1999 Rouen authorities demolished the grandstands and other remnants of Rouen's racing past. Today, little remains beyond the public roads that formed the circuit.
Mainline trains operate from Gare de Rouen-Rive-Droite to Le Havre and Paris, and regional trains to Caen, Dieppe and other local destinations in Normandy. Daily direct trains operate to Amiens and Lille, and direct TGVs (high-speed trains) connect daily with Lyon and Marseille.
City transportation in Rouen consists of a tram and a bus system. The tramway branches into two lines out of a tunnel under the city centre. Rouen is also served by TEOR (Transport Est-Ouest Rouennais) and by buses run in conjunction with the tramway by TCAR (Transports en commun de l'agglomération rouennaise), a subsidiary of Veolia Transport.
Rouen has its own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe.
The Seine is a major axis for maritime cargo links in the Port of Rouen. The Cross-Channel ferry ports of Caen, Le Havre, Dieppe (50 minutes) and Calais, and the Channel Tunnel are within easy driving distance (two and a half hours or less).
The main schools of higher education are the University of Rouen and the École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen (Rouen Business School), ésitpa (agronomy and agriculture), both located at nearby Mont-Saint-Aignan, and the INSA Rouen, ESIGELEC and the CESI, both at nearby Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray.
The main opera company in Rouen is the Opéra de Rouen - Normandie. The company performs in the Théâtre des Arts, 7 rue du Docteur Rambert. The company presents opera, classical and other types of music, both vocal and instrumental, as well as dance performances. Every five years, the city hosts the large maritime exposition, L'Armada.
Rouen was the birthplace of:
- Edward IV (1442–1483), King of England
- Thomas Aubert (b. 1500s), explorer
- Guillaume Guéroult (1507–1569), poet
- François de Civille (1537–1610), military commander
- Isaac Oliver (1556–1617), French-born English painter
- Guy de la Brosse (1586–1641), botanist and pharmacist
- Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594–1661), poet
- François Raguenet (1660–1722), historian, biographer and musicologist
- Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de La Viéville (1674–1707), musicographer
- Louise Levesque (1703–1745), playwright, poet
- Alphonse Maille (1813–1865) botanist
- Samuel Bochart (1599–1667), Protestant theologian
- Pierre Corneille (1606–1684), tragedian
- Guillaume Couture (1617–1701), lay missionary and diplomat
- Adrien Auzout (1622–1691), astronomer
- Thomas Corneille (1625–1709), dramatist, brother of Pierre Corneille
- Noel Alexandre (1630–1724), theologian and ecclesiastical historian
- Marie Champmeslé (1642–1698), actress
- René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643–1687), explorer
- Gabriel Daniel (1649–1728), Jesuit historian
- Nicolas Lemery (1645–1715), chemist
- Anne Mauduit de Fatouville (17th–1715), playwright
- Jean Jouvenet (1647–1717), painter
- Nicolas Gueudeville (1652–1721), Catholic writer
- Jacques Basnages (1653–1723), Protestant theologian
- Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757), author, nephew of Pierre Corneille
- Pierre Antoine Motteux (1663–1718), French-born English dramatist
- Pierre Dangicourt (1664–1727), mathematician
- François Blouet de Camilly (1664–1723), Catholic Archbishop
- Pierre François le Courayer (1681–1776), theologian
- François d'Agincourt (1684–1758), composer
- Jean II Restout (1692–1768), painter
- Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont (1711–1780), novelist
- Jacques-François Blondel (1705–1774), architect
- Marie-Madeleine Hachard (1708–1760), nun and abbess
- Jacques Duphly (1715–1789), composer
- Pierre-Antoine Guéroult (1749–1816), scholar
- François-Adrien Boïeldieu (1775–1834), composer
- Pierre Louis Dulong (1785–1838), physicist and chemist
- Théodore Géricault (1791–1824), painter
- Armand Carrel (1800–1836), writer
- Pierre Adolphe Chéruel (1809–1891), historian
- Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880), novelist
- Joseph-Henri Altès (1826–1895), flautist and pedagog
- Eugène Ketterer (1831–1870), composer
- Eugène Caron (1834–1903), opera singer
- Maurice Leblanc (1864–1941), novelist
- Charles Nicolle (1866–1936), bacteriologist
- Léon de Saint-Réquier (1872–1964), organist and composer
- Georges Guillain (1876–1961), neurologist
- Robert Antoine Pinchon (1886–1943), painter
- Marcel Dupré (1886–1971), composer
- Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), artist
- Philippe Étancelin (1896–1981), race car driver
- Armand Salacrou (1899–1989), dramatist
- Roger Apéry (1916–1994), mathematician
- Jacques Rivette (1928–2016), film director
- Jean-Yves Lechevallier (b. 1946), sculptor
- Anny Duperey (b. 1947), actress and novelist
- Dominique Lokoli (b. 1952), footballer
- François Hollande (b. 1954), 24th President of the French Republic
- Élise Lucet (b. 1963), journalist
- Stéphan Caron (b. 1966), swimmer
- Karin Viard (b. 1966), actress
- Céline Minard (b.1969), writer
- Christophe Mendy (b. 1971), boxer
- David Trezeguet (b. 1977), footballer
- Nathalie Péchalat (b. 1983), ice dancer
- Ian Mahinmi (b. 1986), basketball player
- Fayçal Fajr (b. 1988), footballer
- Amaury Vassili (b. 1989), singer
- Alexis Gougeard (b. 1993), cyclist
- Pierre Gasly (b. 1996), Formula One driver
Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit
Rouen is twinned with:
In fiction and popular cultureEdit
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Rouen Cathedral is the subject of a series of paintings by the Impressionist painter Claude Monet, who painted the same scene at different times of the day. Two paintings are in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; two are in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow; one is in the National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade. The estimated value of one painting is over $40 million.
During the second half of the 20th century, several sculptures by Jean-Yves Lechevallier were erected in the city.
- The character Erik, The Opera Ghost of Gaston Leroux's novel The Phantom of the Opera, was supposedly born "in a small town not far from Rouen".
- Rouen plays a major part in the Flaubert novel Madame Bovary.
- Maupassant, a student of Flaubert, wrote a number of short stories based in and around Rouen.
- In book two of The Strongbow Saga, the Vikings invade and conquer Ruda, also known as Rouen, and make it their base in Frankia.
The Rouen area is an integral part of the work of French writer Annie Ernaux.
- May Wedderburn Cannan wrote of Rouen in her 1915 poem on World War I "Rouen".
- Referenced to in Puccini's one-act opera, Il tabarro. In the opera, Luigi asks his boss, the barge owner Michele, to drop him off in Rouen because he is secretly in love with Michele's wife, Giorgetta and cannot stand to share her with him.
- The British rock band Supergrass named their fifth studio album Road to Rouen, punning on an Anglicised pronunciation of the city's name.
- French band Les Dogs formed in Rouen in 1973.
- English rock band Arcane Roots named a song on their EP Left Fire 'Rouen'.
The 2000 film The Taste of Others was filmed and set in Rouen. In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist William Thatcher (played by Heath Ledger) poses as a noble and competes in his first jousting tournament at Rouen. The 1952 film "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" references the memoirs of Harry Street titled "The Road to Rouen" in the scene with Harry and Uncle Bill.
- The game Call of Duty 3 features a map set in Rouen.
- In the Soul Calibur series of fighting games, Raphael, a playable character, is explained as being born in Rouen.
- Rouen appears as an important location to protagonist Alice Elliot in the game Shadow Hearts.
- The Rouen-Les-Essarts Grand Prix circuit is featured in Grand Prix Legends, Project CARS, and RFactor.
- The PC adventure game Touché: The Adventures of the Fifth Musketeer starts in Rouen.
- Evan Bernard, a playable character from Time Crisis 4, is said to come from Rouen.
|The arms of Rouen are blazoned :
Gules, a pascal lamb, haloed and contorny, holding a banner argent charged with a cross Or, and on a chief azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or
This may be rendered, "On a red background a haloed white pascal lamb looking back over its shoulder (contorny) holds a white banner bearing a gold cross; above, a broad blue band across the top bears 3 gold fleurs de lis".
- "Données climatiques de la station de Rouen" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "Climat Haute-Normandie" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "Normes et records 1961-1990: Rouen-Boos (76) - altitude 151m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Miller, Derek (August 5, 2017). "Normandy full of beauty and history". Delaware State News.
- ": : : Musées en Haute-Normandie : : :". Musees-haute-normandie.fr. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Rouen . visite-de-rouen.com . Place du Vieux Marché". Visite-de-rouen.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- fr:Église Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc de Rouen
- Opéra de Rouen - Haute-Normandie official web site.
- Rouen - Armada website.
- "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved 11 July 2009. External link in
- "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Hanover – Twin Towns" (in German). 2007–2009 Hannover.de – Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover in Zusammenarbeit mit hier.de. Retrieved 17 July 2009. External link in
- "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux - Free Ebook". gutenberg.org. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rouen.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rouen.|
- Official website (in French)
- Rouen Tourist Board (in French)
- Objectif Rouen: Pictures and descriptions of the most famous monuments (in French)
- The Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 detailed ecclesiastical history (in English)
- Rouen, Its History and Monuments, by Théodore Licquet, 1840, from Project Gutenberg (in English)