13th century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan' death
Double silver dirham of Ghazan Khan made after the intervention of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah.[1]
Obv: Legend in Arabic: لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم/ ضرب تبريز/ في سنة سبع ...ر Lā ilāha illa llāha Muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi ṣalla llāhu ʽalayhi wa-sallam / ḍuriba Tabrīz / fī sanati sabʽin ...: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet, Peace be upon him/ Minted in Tabriz in the year ...7"
Rev: Legend in Mongolian script (except for "Ghazan Mahmud" in Arabic): Tengri-yin Küchündür. Ghazan Mahmud. Ghasanu Deledkegülügsen: "By the strength of the Heaven/ Ghazan Mahmud/ Coin struck for Ghazan".
Tabriz mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver.
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.

The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. Conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums, which according to historians caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of Western Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.

EventsEdit

 
A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.

1200sEdit

1210sEdit

1220sEdit

1230sEdit

1240sEdit

1250sEdit

 
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[3]

1260sEdit

 
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.
 
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

1270sEdit

1280sEdit

1290sEdit

Significant peopleEdit

 
Frescoes from the 13th-century Boyana Church
 
Queen Tamar

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ For numismatic information: Coins of Ghazan Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine, Ilkhanid coin reading Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  3. ^ Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  5. ^ page 243
  6. ^ History of Aceh Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.

External linksEdit