13th century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
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Double silver dirham of Ghazan Khan made after the intervention of Imam Ibn Taymiyyah.[1]
Obv: Legend in Arabic: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is His Prophet, Peace be upon him / Minted in Tabriz in the year ...7"
Rev: Legend in Mongolian script: "By the strength of the Heaven / Ghazan Mahmud / Coin struck for Ghazan".
Tabriz mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver.

The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. The conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums which, according to historians, caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline through the conquest led by Bakhtiyar Khilji.

The Southern Song dynasty would begin the century as a prosperous kingdom but would eventually be invaded and annexed into the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols. The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan would be invaded by the Mongols. Goryeo resisted an invasion by the Mongols but eventually sued for peace and would eventually be a client state of the Yuan dynasty.[2]

One of the earliest Islamic states in Southeast Asia would form during this century, most notably Samudera Pasai.[3] The Kingdoms of Sukhothai and Hanthawaddy would emerge and go on to dominate their surrounding territories.[4]

In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. In North America, according to some population estimates, the population of Cahokia grew to being equal to or larger than the population of 13th-century London.[5] In Peru, the Kingdom of Cuzco begins. The Kanem Empire in what is now Chad reaches its apex. The Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia and the Zimbabwe Kingdom are founded. In the history of Maya civilizations, the 13th century marks the beginning of the Late Postclassic period. In the periodization of Precolumbian Peru, the 13th century is part of the Late Intermediate Period.

EventsEdit

1201-1209Edit

1210sEdit

 
A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.

1220sEdit

1230sEdit

 
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.

1240sEdit

1250sEdit

1260sEdit

1270sEdit

 
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.

1280sEdit

1290-1300Edit

 
Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

 
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ For numismatic information: Coins of Ghazan Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine, Ilkhanid coin reading Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275958237.
  3. ^ "Samudra Pasai worthy to be world historical site". Republika Online. 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  4. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  5. ^ Greater London, Inner London & Outer London Population & Density History, quoting from The London Encyclopedia, Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert, ed., Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 1405049251
  6. ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  7. ^ Weinstein, Richard A.; Dumas, Ashley A. (2008). "The spread of shell-tempered ceramics along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico" (PDF). Southeastern Archaeology. 27 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
  8. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  9. ^ page 243
  10. ^ History of Aceh Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.
  12. ^ YLE: Kenelle kellot soivat? (in Finnish)
  13. ^ Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  14. ^ Berlo and Phillips, 275

External linksEdit