The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (represented by the Roman numerals MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan whose conquests created the largest contiguous empire in history

The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. The conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums which, according to historians, caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Overall, the conquests had a lasting effect on history. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline through the conquest led by Bakhtiyar Khilji. The earliest Islamic states in Southeast Asia formed during this century, most notably the Samudera Pasai.[1] The Kingdoms of Sukhothai and Hanthawaddy would emerge and go on to dominate their surrounding territories.[2]

Europe entered the apex of the High Middle Ages, characterized by rapid legal, cultural, and religious evolution as well as economic dynamism. Crusades after the fourth, while mostly unsuccessful in rechristianizing the Holy Land, inspired the desire to expel Muslim presence from Europe that drove the Reconquista and solidified a sense of Christendom. To the north, the Teutonic Order christenized and gained dominance of Prussia, Estonia, and Livonia. Inspired by new translations into Latin of classical works preserved in the Islamic World for over a thousand years, Thomas Aquinas developed Scholasticism, which dominated the curricula of the new universities.[3] In England, King John signed the Magna Carta, beginning the tradition of Parliamentary advisement in England. This helps develop the principle of equality under law in European judisprudence.[4]

The Southern Song dynasty began the century as a prosperous kingdom but were later invaded and annexed into the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols. The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan successfully resisted two Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281. The Korean state of Goryeo resisted a Mongol invasion, but eventually sued for peace and became a client state of the Yuan dynasty.[5]

In North America, according to some population estimates, the population of Cahokia grew to be comparable to the population of 13th-century London.[6] In Peru, the Kingdom of Cuzco began as part of the Late Intermediate Period. In Mayan civilization, the 13th century marked the beginning of the Late Postclassic period. The Kanem Empire in what is now Chad reached its apex. The Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia and the Zimbabwe Kingdom were founded.

Events edit

Eastern Hemisphere in 1200 AD

1201–1209 edit

1210s edit

A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.

1220s edit

1230s edit

Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.

1240s edit

1250s edit

1260s edit

1270s edit

The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.

1280s edit

1290–1300 edit

Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions edit

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[14]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Samudra Pasai worthy to be world historical site". Republika Online. 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  2. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  3. ^ "St. Thomas Aquinas". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2023-12-09.
  4. ^ Brooks, Christopher (2020). Western Civilization: A Concise History. NSCC Libraries Pressbooks.
  5. ^ Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275958237.
  6. ^ "Greater London, Inner London Population & Density History". Retrieved 2023-02-10. Quoting from The London Encyclopedia, Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert, ed., Macmillan, 2010, ISBN 1405049251
  7. ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  8. ^ Weinstein, Richard A.; Dumas, Ashley A. (2008). "The spread of shell-tempered ceramics along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico" (PDF). Southeastern Archaeology. 27 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
  9. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  10. ^ Kahler, H. (December 31, 1981). Modern Times. Brill Archive. ISBN 9004061967 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ "History of Aceh". Archived from the original on August 13, 2012.
  12. ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.
  13. ^ "Kenelle kellot soivat? – Kiipeä 360-videon avulla Turun tuomiokirkon torniin". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  14. ^ "Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  15. ^ Berlo and Phillips, 275

External links edit