13th century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 (MCCI) through December 31, 1300 (MCCC) in accordance with the Julian calendar.

Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan whose conquests created the largest contiguous empire in history

The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. The conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad (1258), the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums which, according to historians, caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline through the conquest led by Bakhtiyar Khilji.

The Southern Song dynasty began the century as a prosperous kingdom but were later invaded and annexed into the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols. The Kamakura Shogunate of Japan successfully resisted two Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281. The Korean state of Goryeo resisted a Mongol invasion, but eventually sued for peace and became a client state of the Yuan dynasty.[1]

The earliest Islamic states in Southeast Asia formed during this century, most notably the Samudera Pasai.[2] The Kingdoms of Sukhothai and Hanthawaddy would emerge and go on to dominate their surrounding territories.[3]

In European history, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.

In North America, according to some population estimates, the population of Cahokia grew to be comparable to the population of 13th-century London.[4] In Peru, the Kingdom of Cuzco began as part of the Late Intermediate Period. The Kanem Empire in what is now Chad reached its apex. The Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia and the Zimbabwe Kingdom were founded. In Mayan civilization, the 13th century marked the beginning of the Late Postclassic period.


Eastern Hemisphere in 1200 AD



A page of the Italian Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Arabic-Hindu numerals.



Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.





The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India during the 17th or 18th century.



Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[12]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275958237.
  2. ^ "Samudra Pasai worthy to be world historical site". Republika Online. 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  3. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  4. ^ "Greater London, Inner London Population & Density History". www.demographia.com. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  5. ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  6. ^ Weinstein, Richard A.; Dumas, Ashley A. (2008). "The spread of shell-tempered ceramics along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico" (PDF). Southeastern Archaeology. 27 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  8. ^ Kahler, H. (December 31, 1981). Modern Times. Brill Archive. ISBN 9004061967 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ "History of Aceh". Archived from the original on August 13, 2012.
  10. ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.
  11. ^ "Kenelle kellot soivat? – Kiipeä 360-videon avulla Turun tuomiokirkon torniin". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  12. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  13. ^ Berlo and Phillips, 275

External linksEdit