The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.
- October 24 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt, is assassinated by Baibars, who seizes power for himself.
- The civil servant and bard longing for lost al-Andalus, Ibn al-Abbar, is burnt at the stake by the Marinid ruler.
- The Toluid Civil War begins between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke, for the title of Great Khan.
- May 5 – Kublai Khan becomes a claimant to the Mongol Empire, after the death of Möngke Khan.
- May 21 – Kublai sends his envoy Hao Jing to negotiate with Song Dynasty Chancellor Jia Sidao, after the small force left by Kublai south of the Yangtze River is destroyed, by a Chinese army of the Southern Song Dynasty. Chancellor Jia Sidao imprisons the entire embassy of Kublai. This slight will not be forgotten by Kublai, but he is unable to assault the Song, due to the civil war with his rival brother Ariq Böke.
- September 3 – Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee: The Mamluks defeat the Mongols, marking their first decisive defeat, and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire. Isa ibn Muhanna is appointed amir al-ʿarab under the Mamluks.
- The Chinese era Jingding begins and ends in the Southern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Japanese Shōgen era ends, and the Bun'ō era begins.
- July 12 – Battle of Kressenbrunn: King Ottokar II of Bohemia captures Styria from King Béla IV of Hungary.
- July 13 – Livonian Crusade: The Baltic Samogitians and Curonians of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania decisively defeat the Livonian Order in the Battle of Durbe. This leads the Estonians of Saaremaa Island to once again rebel against the Livonian Order.
- September 4 – Battle of Montaperti: The Sienese Ghibellines, supported by the forces of King Manfred of Sicily, defeat the Florentine Guelphs.
- September 20 – Second of the two major Prussian uprisings by the Old Prussian tribe of Balts against the Teutonic Order begins.
- The Duchy of Saxony is divided into Saxony-Lauenberg and Saxony-Wittenberg, marking the end of the first Saxon state.
- War breaks out in the Valais (in modern-day Switzerland), as the Bishopry of Sion defends against an invasion by the County of Savoy.
- Croatia is divided into two sub-regions ruled by ban: the Croatian region on the south and Slavonian region on the north, by King Béla IV of Hungary.
Arts and cultureEdit
- October 24 – The Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France (the cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
- Jacobus de Voragine compiles his work, the Golden Legend, a late medieval best-seller.
- The mosaic Christ between the Virgin and St Minias is made on the facade of Florence's Basilica di San Miniato al Monte.
- German musical theorist Franco of Cologne publishes Ars Cantus Mensurabilis, in which he advances a new theory of musical notation, in which the length of a musical note is denoted by the shape of that note, a system still used today.
- Construction begins on the Dunkeld Cathedral in Perthshire, Scotland.
- Construction begins on the cathedrals at Meißen and Schwerin.
- Nicola Pisano sculpts the pulpit of the Pisa Baptistery.
- The newly formed Sukhothai Kingdom of Thailand adopts Theravada Buddhism.
- The advent of the Age of the Holy Spirit predicted by Joachim of Fiore, according to his interpretation of the Book of Revelation, chapter 6.
- March 13 – Treaty of Nymphaeum: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) signs a trade and defense agreement with the Republic of Genoa to counterweight the Venetian presence in the region. Genoa agrees to ally with the Empire of Nicaea by providing a fleet of up to 50 galleys during the projected Nicaean siege of Constantinople, while 16 galleys are to be immediately sent against the Latin Empire.
- July – Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends his general Alexios Strategopoulos with a small advance force of 800 soldiers, most of them Cumans, to keep watch on the Bulgarians and scout the defending positions of the Latin forces in the surroundings of Constantinople. When they reach the village of Selymbria, Strategopoulos is informed by local farmers that the entire Latin garrison and the Venetian fleet, are absent conducting a raid against the Nicaean island of Daphnousia. He decides not to lose such a golden opportunity and makes plans (without the consent of Michael) to retake the capital.
- July 25 – Reconquest of Constantinople: Alexios Strategopoulos and his men hide at a monastery near the city gates, before entering through a secret passage. After a short struggle, the guards who are completely taken by surprise are killed and the Venetian quarter is set ablaze. Panic spreads through the capital and Emperor Baldwin II rushes out to save his life, evacuating along with many other Latins with the help of the Venetian fleet. Baldwin manages to escape to the still Latin-held parts of Greece, but Constantinople is lost for good.
- August 15 – Michael VIII (Palaiologos) enters Constantinople in triumph and is crowned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire at the Hagia Sophia. To solidify his claim, the legitimate ruler, John IV (Laskaris), is blinded on Michael's orders on his 11th birthday. He banishes him to a monastery and marries his two sisters to lesser Latin and Bulgarian nobles in an attempt to wipe out the Laskarid Dynasty.
- Kublai Khan releases 75 Chinese merchants, who are captured along the border of the Mongol Empire. By doing this, Kublai hopes to bolster his popularity and depend on the cooperation of his Chinese subjects to ensure that his army receives more resources.
- June 13 – Al-Mustansir becomes the first Abbasid ruler in Cairo (after his escape during the Siege of Baghdad). He is sent with an army by Sultan Baibars I to recover Baghdad, but is killed in a Mongol ambush near Anbar (modern Iraq), on November 28. The Abbasid caliphs continue as religious figureheads for the Mamluks in Egypt until the 16th century.
- June 12 – King Henry III obtains a papal bull to absolve himself from his oath to maintain the Provisions of Oxford. He hires an army of 300 French knights as a bodyguard and takes up position in the Tower of London. He dismisses the baronial officials (led by Simon de Montfort) who wish the royal power to be modified by the principle of representation. This sets the stage for the Second Barons' War.
- August – Battle of Callann: Norman forces under John FitzThomas are defeated by a Gaelic army led by King Fínghin Mac Carthaigh. John FitzGerald is killed during the fighting.
- February – The Japanese Bun'ō era ends and the Kōchō era begins during the reign of the 11-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1264).
- The earliest extant Chinese illustration of "Pascal's Triangle" is from Yang Hui's (or Qianguang) book Xiangjie Jiuzhang Suanfa, published this year.
- May 25 – Pope Alexander IV dies after a pontificate of 6-years at Viterbo. He is succeeded by Urban IV as the 182nd pope of the Catholic Church.
- August 29 – Urban IV offers the crown of Sicily to Charles of Anjou, youngest son of King Louis VIII (the Saint), hoping to strengthen his position.
- Wurmsbach Abbey (located in Bollingen) is established by Count Rudolf V of Rapperswil in Switzerland.
- Berke–Hulagu War: Mongol forces under Berke Khan, ruler of the Golden Horde, raid territory in the Caucasus belonging to his cousin Hulagu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate. Berke supports the Georgian rebels and allies with the Mamluks. He defeats the Ilkhanate forces on the Terek River, together with the Mamluk army led by Baibars (or Abu al-Futuh), saving Palestine and Arabia from Ilkhanate occupation.
- March 8 – Battle of Hausbergen: The bourgeois of Strasbourg defeat a German army of knights (some 5,000 men) under Bishop Walter of Geroldseck. Strasbourg becomes an imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
- May – King Alfonso X (the Wise) of Castile and León demands at a meeting in Jaén from Muhammad I, ruler of Granada, military support and relenqish the ports of Tarifa and Algeciras to prepare a invasion in North Africa.
- September 14 – Castilian-Leonese forces led by Alfonso X (the Wise) conquer Cádiz, the city is under Moorish rule since 711. The Muslims are ousted, and Alfonso repopulates the region (also called the Repoblación).
- The Icelandic Commonwealth enters into the Old Covenant (also called Gissurarsáttmáli), establishing a union with Norway, and acknowledges King Haakon Iv (the Old) as its ruler.
- King Mindaugas renounces Christianity, returning to his pagan roots, and reverting to Grand Duke of Lithuania.
- Al-Hakim I, a member of the Abbasid Dynasty, travels to Egypt and is proclaimed as caliph of Cairo in succession to his former rival Al-Mustansir II. After his arrival, he is imprisoned at the Citadel of Cairo by orders of Sultan Baibars and released until 1296.
- King Mangrai of the Lan Na Kingdom (modern Northern Thailand) founds the city of Chiang Rai, as the kingdom's capital.
Arts and CultureEdit
- The Venetian Senate starts consolidating all of the city's outstanding debt into a single fund, later known as the Monte Vecchio. The holders of the newly created prestiti are promised a 5% annual coupon. These claims can be sold, and quickly (before 1320) give rise to the first recorded secondary market for financial assets, in Medieval Europe.
- Richard of Chichester is canonized as a saint; he is best known for authoring the prayer later adapted into the song Day by Day, in the musical Godspell.
Science and TechnologyEdit
- Alfonso X (the Wise) commissions Yehuda ben Moshe and Isaac ibn Sid to compile the Alfonsine Tables, describing the movement of the planets.
- Summer – Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 3,500 men) led by his half-brother, Constantine Palaiologos, to the Peloponnese in southern Greece. The army is transported to Monemvasia on Genoese ships, while a small Byzantine fleet is sent to harass the Latin island holdings in Euboea and the Cyclades. After arriving at Monemvasia, Constantine lays siege to Lacedaemon (or Sparta), while the Byzantine fleet seizes the southern coast of Laconia.
- Battle of Prinitza: Constantine Palaiologos marches the Byzantine army up the rivers Eurotas and Alfeios towards the Achaean capital, Andravida. At a narrow pass at Prinitza (near Ancient Olympia) in Elis, the Byzantines are attacked by Achaean forces (some 300 horsemen) under John of Katavas, who inflict a resounding defeat upon them; many Byzantine soldiers are killed. Constantine himself barely escapes with his life, and flees with the remainder of his army to the safety of Mystras.
- Battle of Settepozzi: A Byzantine-Genoese fleet (some 50 galleys) is routed by the Venetians near Spetses in the Argolic Gulf, who capture four ships and inflict considerable casualties. Later, the Genoese that survive the battle managed to capture Chania on Crete. They receive orders to avoid direct confrontations with the Venetian fleet, but instead are engaged in raiding against the Venetian merchant convoys in the Euripus Strait.
- July – Scottish–Norwegian War: King Haakon IV (the Old) assembles a fleet (some 120 warships), and sets sail to defend the Hebrides, in an attempt to reassert Norwegian sovereignty over the Western Isles of Scotland. Haakon stops at the Isle of Arran – where in August negotiations are started with the 21-year-old King Alexander III. The talks are prolonged by the Scots until the autumn storms begin.
- October 2 – Battle of Largs: Scottish forces under Alexander Stewart rout a Viking invasion force led by Haakon IV at Largs in North Ayrshire. The battle is inconclusive, on the morning of October 3, the Norwegians return to collect their dead and burn their beached ships. By the end of October, the Viking fleet reaches Orkney, where Haakon becomes ill and dies at the Bishop's Palace, on December 16.
- December – Magnus VI (the Law-mender) succeeds his father Haakon IV (the Old) as king of Norway. The chieftains of the eastern part of Iceland become the last to pledge fealty to Magnus – bringing a more complete end to the Icelandic Commonwealth and the Age of the Sturlungs.
- Mindaugas (Mendog), the only Christian king of Lithuania, is assassinated by his cousin Treniota. The country reverts to paganism and loses its status as a kingdom. Treniota usurps the throne (until 1264).
- King James I (the Conqueror) captures Crevillent from the Moors and becomes a part of the Kingdom of Valencia during the Reconquista.
- Winter – King Alfonso X (the Wise) conquers Niebla from the Moors – terminating any Muslim presence in the western region of Spain.
- Baronial forces led by Robert de Ferrers and Henry de Montfort lay siege to Worcester. The attackers finally enter the city and are allowed to sack the city, The Jewish community is also targeted by the attackers. Most of them are killed. The Worcester massacre is part of a wider campaign by allies of Simon de Montfort at the start of the Second Barons' War.
- April 4 – Egyptian forces led by Sultan Baibars (or Abu al-Futuh) attack Acre, there is severe fighting outside the walls, in which the seneschal, Geoffrey of Sergines, is badly wounded. Baibars is not yet ready to besiege the city and begins a major campaign to eliminate the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, the county of Tripoli and the principality of Antioch.
Arts and CultureEdit
- Edward (the Lord Edward), son and heir of King Henry III, seizes £10,000, which had been deposited to the trust of the Knights Templar in London, by foreign merchants and English magnates.
- The Bonsignori firm gains the full market of the transfer of fiscal revenue, from the papal estates to Rome.
- July 20–24 – Nahmanides, Spanish chief rabbi, defends the Talmud in a important debate (also called the Disputation of Barcelona) against Pablo Christiani, before James I (the Conqueror).
- The doctrines of Joachim of Fiore, French hermit and theologian, are condemned as heresy by the Catholic Church at a synod in Arles (approximate date).
- Spring – Battle of Makryplagi: Constantine Palaiologos, half-brother of Emperor Michael III (Palaiologos), resumes operations against the Principality of Achaea. He advances up in northern Elis, and sets up his camp at a location called "St. Nicholas of Mesiskli". Prince William II of Villehardouin with his own troops march to meet him and arrays his men ready for battle. The Byzantine vanguard under Michael Kantakouzenos, ride forth from the Byzantine lines, but the force is ambushed and Michael is killed by the Achaeans. Constantine retreats and goes on to lay siege to the fortress of Nikli. There, Turkish mercenaries (some 1,000 horsemen), confront him and demand that he pay them their arrears of 6 months. Constantine refuses, whereupon the Turkish troops desert to William. He decides to raise the siege and departs for Constantinople. He leaves Alexios Philes with a force and marches towards Messenia, where he occupies the passes, situated near Gardiki Castle. William, reinforced by the Turkish contingent, marches to Messenia to attack the Byzantines, despite their holding strong positions on the high ground. The first two attacks are beaten off, but during the third attack, the Byzantines flee in panic. Alexios, along with many Greek nobles, are captured.
- January 23 – King Louis IX (the Saint) issues the Mise of Amiens, a settlement between King Henry III and his rebellious barons under Simon de Montfort, heavily favouring the former – which leads to the Second Barons' War. At Amiens, Henry accuses the barons of destroying his castles and laying waste to royal lands. For this he demands a compensation of some £300,000 and 200,000 marks, which is defended by Louis.
- August – Mudéjar Revolt: Muslim rebel forces, aided by allies from Algeciras and Tarifa, take the town of Jerez de la Frontera after defeating the outnumbered Castilian garrison led by Nuño González de Lara (the Good). The rebels are supported by Muhammad I, ruler of the Emirate of Granada, while King Alfonso X (the Wise) is allied with Aragon. The rebels manage to capture Murcia, as well as several smaller towns.
- August 14 – Battle of Saseno: The Genoese fleet (16 galleys) manages to trick and capture an entire Venetian trade convoy near Saseno Island off the coast of Albania. The captured merchandise and ships are valued at more than 100,000 Genoese pounds, an enormous sum for the period, of which 30,000 goes into the Genoese treasury through the sale of the plunder.
- October 9 – Castilian forces under Alfonso X (the Wise) counter-attack and recapture Jerez de la Frontera, after a siege. The rebel-held towns of Vejer de la Frontera, Rota, and Sanlúcar de Barrameda also fall to Alfonso. Muslims in the retaken towns are expelled and the mosques in Jerez are converted to churches. The region is settled by Christians from elsewhere.
- December 10 – Hungarian Civil War: A dynastic conflict erupts between King Béla IV and his son, Duke Stephen. Hungarian forces under Ladislaus II Kán invades Stephen's realm and push forward unhindered penetrating the valley of the Mureș River in the southern part of Transylvania. Stephen's army halts Ladislaus' advance at the Fortress of Deva (modern Romania).
- Winter – The War of the Thuringian Succession ends after 17 years with the state of Hesse gaining its independence from Thuringia and becoming the Landgraviate of Hesse, a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
- High Duke Bolesław V (the Chaste) promulgates legal protection for Jewish communities in Lesser Poland, including protection from kidnapping and forcible baptism of Jewish children (approximate date).
- April 5 – Battle of Northampton: English forces under Roger Mortimer, advance over the water meadows south of Northampton to attack its main gate with engines. Meanwhile, another party rides clockwise along the built-up area's western perimeter, looking for an easier entrance. While the townsmen entrust to hold up the initial attack, the outflanking detachment founds a breach in the garden wall of St. Andrew's Priory, at the north of the town. Simon de Montfort (the Younger), son of Simon de Montfort, reacts to the break-in – riding upon his horse with his squire, and some followers to contest the breach. But Simon is captured and throws the defenders into disarray. Simon de Montfort mounts a rearguard to relieve his son, but on April 6 the castle falls.
- April 17–19 – English rebels under Simon de Montfort beset Rochester from two directions in a pincer movement from north and south. The garrison sortie to burn the suburbs to deprive the rebels of cover. Initial assaults on the bridge the next morning are repulsed by Roger de Leybourne. In the evening, however, supported by archers shooting across the river, Simon launches an amphibious assault, wind and current carrying his fireship across to set fire to the bridge defenses. The rebels capture the castle's outer bailey and the garrison retires inside the keep on April 19. Meanwhile, rebels under Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) occupy the cathedral. The siege then bogged down, Simon receives reports of a relief force and orders to withdraw on April 26.
- April – Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) leads a massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, during the outbreak of the Second Barons' War. In the meantime, another of de Montfort's followers, John FitzJohn, leads a massacre against the Jews in London. The Jewish communities of Northampton, Winchester, Cambridge, and Lincoln are looted. The archæ (official chest of records) is destroyed or deposited at the headquarters of de Montfort's supporters at Ely.
- May 14 – Battle of Lewes: English rebels led by Simon de Montfort defeat Henry III and Prince Edward (the Lord Edward), at Lewes. Henry leaves the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory, to engage the rebels. Edward routes part of the rebel army (some 5,000 men) with a cavalry charge, but during the battle de Montfort's forces capture both Henry and Edward, making Simon the "uncrowned king of England" for 15 months.
- May – Simon de Montfort marches on London but the drawbridge on London Bridge has been raised by the Lord Mayor. Simon has the support of the Londoners, who manage to lower the bridge allowing him into the city. Henry III is forced to pardon the rebel nobles and reinstates the Provisions of Oxford. With Henry's power diminished, Simon announces that all debts owed to the Jews would be canceled.
- June – Simon de Montfort summons Parliament in London to confirm new constitutional arrangements. Two knights are summoned for each county, and are allowed to comment on general matters of state – the first time this has occurred. In France, Queen Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III, makes plans for an invasion of England with the support of Louis IX (the Saint).
- June – Edward (the Lord Edward) is held captive at Wallingford Castle, but after an escape attempt he is moved to Kenilworth Castle.
- June 18 – The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitely known meeting of this Irish legislature.
- December 24 – The title Baron de Ros, the oldest held peerage title, is created by writ of summons during the reign of Henry III.
- The Toluid Civil War ends: Kublai Khan defeats his brother and pretender to the title of "Great Khan", Ariq Böke, who surrenders to Kublai on August 24. He is imprisoned and with the Chinese support behind him, Kublai is acknowledged by the rulers of the western khanates and as sole ruler of the Mongol Empire. He moves his capital from Shangdu in Inner Mongolia, to the Chinese city of Dadu (modern-day Beijing).
- February – The Japanese era Kōchō ends and the Bun'ei era begins during the reign of the 14-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1275).
- September 14 – Walter de Merton formally completes the foundation of the House of Scholars of Merton (later Merton College, Oxford), to provide education in Malden and the University of Oxford.
- August 11 – By the papal bull Transiturus, Pope Urban IV declares the Feast of Corpus Christi (festum corporis) to be celebrated by the entire Catholic Church.
- October 2 – Urban IV dies after a pontificate of 3-years and is succeeded by Clement IV. His papal election occurres at Perugia, which will last for four months.
- Thomas Aquinas completes his theological work Summa contra Gentiles (approximate date).
War and politicsEdit
- January 20 – In Westminster, the first elected English parliament (called Montfort's Parliament) conducts its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, later to be known as the Houses of Parliament.
- March – End of the Hungarian Civil War (1264–1265), Younger King Stephen decisively defeats his father's army at the Battle of Isaszeg.
- May 28 – Future King Edward I of England escapes the captivity of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester.
- June 18 – A draft Byzantine–Venetian treaty is concluded between Venetian envoys and Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, but is not ratified by Doge Reniero Zeno
- August 4 – Second Barons' War: The Battle of Evesham is fought in Worcestershire, with the army of Edward defeating the forces of rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, resulting in the death of Montfort and many of his allies. This is sometimes considered the death of chivalry in England.
- The Isle of Man comes under Scottish rule.
- Mongol armies, led by Nogai Khan, raid Thrace.
- In the first major battle in five years (since the Song Dynasty Chinese pushed the forces of Kublai Khan back across the Yangzi River, after Möngke Khan's failed invasion in 1259), Kublai Khan engages the Chinese in Sichuan province. Kublai gains a preliminary victory, and war booty of 146 captured Song Dynasty naval ships.
- The Book of Aneirin, a Welsh manuscript of poetry, is penned.
- The brewing of Budweiser Budvar beer begins in Bohemia; Budweiser Budvar has been produced continuously there to this day.
- Correspondence from Pope Clement IV contains the first known mention of the ring of the Fisherman, an item of papal regalia then used to seal personal correspondence from the pope, and later for papal bulls.
- February 5 – Pope Clement IV succeeds Pope Urban IV, as the 183rd pope.
Africa and AsiaEdit
- The Mamluk Sultanate Bahri dynasty of Egypt captures several cities and towns from Crusader states in the Middle East, including the cities of Haifa, Arsuf, and Caesarea Maritima; these events eventually precipitate the Eighth Crusade in 1267.
- Kublai Khan sends a delegation to Japan, which loots islands along the way.
- Fire destroys parts of Old Cairo.
- India, Delhi: Ghiyas-Ud-Din-Balban comes to the throne and introduces Sijdah.
- January 2 – Siege of Murcia: King James I of Aragon ("the Conqueror") marches with his army from Orihuela and lays siege at Murcia on the Segura River. Skirmishes break out between the defenders and the Aragonese forces. The Muslim garrison, realizing that they are outnumbered and cut off from reinforcements, asks for terms. James offers to ask King Alfonso X of Castile ("the Wise") to restore the Murcians' legal rights (see 1244) from before the rebellion: self-government under Castilian suzerainty, freedom of worship, and preservation of lands and properties. They agree to this offer but request Alfonso's explicit agreement rather than just James' promise to ask him. James refuses to get Alfonso's agreement before the city surrenders. Finally, the Moors yield Murcia to James on January 31. Seeing his standard on the walls, James enters the city on February 3, accepting its surrender.
- February 26 – Battle of Benevento: Guelph forces (some 12,000 men) led by Charles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX of France ("the Saint"), defeat a combined German and Sicilian army under Manfred, King of Sicily, during a long-running power struggle in Italy. Manfred takes up a strong position near Benevento. As the French infantry advances, he unleashes his Saracen archers and light cavalry, which scatters the French. But the Saracens leave themselves exposed to the French heavy cavalry, and are overwhelmed. Manfred orders his heavy cavalry (some 1,200 German mercenary knights) into the attack. But they are defeated by the Ghibelline forces, and take heavy losses. Manfred is killed and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as ruler of Sicily and Naples. Meanwhile, Michael II, despot of Epirus, invades Albania and recovers the lands that Manfred has taken from him.
- June – The Mudéjar Revolt ends. The rebels make their formal submission to Alfonso X of Castile. They recognize the error that the Moors of Murcia have committed against their overlord Alfonso. Representatives of the aljama, or municipal council, renew their allegiance and humbly beg for pardon, mercy and favour. With this the Mudéjar uprising in the Kingdom of Murcia is formally ended.
- June 23 – Battle of Trapani: The Venetian fleet (24 galleys) led by Admiral Jacopo Dondulo moves to Marsala and attacks the larger Genoese fleet anchored at Trapani, capturing all its ships. Some 1,200 Genoese drown and many are killed. Dondulo is acclaimed a hero on his return to Venice in July. He is elected as Captain General of the Sea, Venice's highest naval command position.
- July 2 – Treaty of Perth: King Alexander III of Scotland agrees to a peace settlement with King Magnus VI of Norway ("the Law-mender") in which the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Man are ceded to Scotland in exchange for 4,000 marks. In return, Alexander confirms Norwegian sovereignty over the islands of Shetland and Orkney.
- May 15 – Battle of Chesterfield: English forces led by Henry of Almain, son of Richard of Cornwall, defeat the rebels under Robert de Ferrers at Chesterfield. Robert is taken as a prisoner to London, and at the Parliament of England disinherits. In July, he is forced to surrender land and Liverpool Castle to Edmund, second son of King Henry III.
- October – The Second Barons' War winds down, as supporters of the rebel leader Simon de Montfort make an offer of peace to Henry III, in the Dictum of Kenilworth; after slight modifications to the peace settlement.
- December 13 – Siege of Kenilworth: English forces under Henry III capture Kenilworth Castle after a 6-month siege. During the siege Archbishop William Freney tries to negotiate with the garrison but is refused entry.
- July 23 – Siege of Safed: Mamluk forces capture the castle of Safed, defended by a garrison of 1,700 men (including some 500 Knights Templar), after a 6-week siege. Sultan Baibars promises safe conduct but when the Christians and Templars are on their way towards Acre, they are seized and beheaded.
- August 24 – Battle of Mari: Mamluk forces (some 30,000 men) led by Baibars defeat the Armenian army in Cilicia, in retaliation for the support of the Mongol invasion in Syria. He expands his domain, capturing the city of Byblos (modern Lebanon) and the important castle of Toron from the Crusader States.
- October 28 – A Crusader advance guard is ambushed by the Egyptian garrison of Safed, while local Arabs attack the Crusader camp. The 13-year-old Hugh II, ruler of Cyprus, is advised to retire and withdraw with heavy losses. Meanwhile, Baibars campaigns in Galilee and leads a lightning raid to Tripoli.
- Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, father and uncle of Marco Polo, reach the Mongol capital Khanbaliq (modern-day Beijing], setting the stage for Marco's famous expedition 5 years later. Kublai Khan sends the Polos back with a message, requesting that Clement IV dispatch western scholars to teach in the Mongol Empire; however, this request is largely ignored.
- In the modern-day United States, a period of drought begins in the Four Corners Region (this period is up until the year 1299), putting an end to the ancient Puebloans Civilization.
- In France, the gold écu (or crown) and silver grosh coins are minted for the first time during the reign of Louis IX.
- Ode de Pougy, French Abbess of Notre Dame aux Nonnains, sends a gang to attempt to destroy the nearly-completed Church of St. Urbain de Troyes.
War and politicsEdit
- February 16 – King Afonso III of Portugal and King Alfonso X of Castile sign the Badajoz Convention, determining the border between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of León, and ensuring Portuguese sovereignty over Algarve.
- May 27 – Treaty of Viterbo: Emperor Baldwin II of Constantinople gifts the Principality of Achaea to King Charles I of Sicily, in the hope that Charles can help him restore the Latin Empire.
- The Second Barons' War in England ends, as the rebels and King Henry III of England agree to peace terms, as laid out in the Dictum of Kenilworth.
- Treaty of Montgomery: King Henry III of England acknowledges Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's title of Prince of Wales.
- The city of Ostrava is founded.
- Roger Bacon completes his work Opus Majus and sends it to Pope Clement IV, who had requested it be written; the work contains wide-ranging discussion of mathematics, optics, alchemy, astronomy, astrology, and other topics, and includes what some believe to be the first description of a magnifying glass. Bacon also completes Opus Minus, a summary of Opus Majus, later in the same year. The only source for his date of birth is his statement in the Opus Tertium, written in 1267, that "forty years have passed since I first learned the alphabet". The 1214 birth date assumes he was not being literal, and meant 40 years had passed since he matriculated at Oxford at the age of 13. If he had been literal, his birth date was more likely to have been around 1220.
- The leadership of Vienna forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped head dress, in addition to the yellow badges Jews are already forced to wear.
- In England, the Statute of Marlborough is passed, the oldest English law still (partially) in force.
Asia and AfricaEdit
- The "Grand Capital" is constructed in Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) by Kublai Khan, having moved the capital of the Mongol Empire there three years prior.
- Malik ul Salih establishes Samudra Pasai, the first Muslim state in Indonesia.
- Spain attempts an invasion of Morocco, but the Marinids successfully defend against the invasion, and drive out Spanish forces.
War and politicsEdit
- February 18 – Battle of Rakvere: The Livonian Order is defeated by Dovmont of Pskov.
- April 4 – A five-year Byzantine–Venetian peace treaty is concluded between Venetian envoys and Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. It is ratified by the Doge of Venice Reniero Zeno on 30 June.
- August 23 – Battle of Tagliacozzo: The army of Charles of Anjou defeats the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, marking the fall of the Hohenstaufen Family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, and leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy.
- October 29 – Conradin, the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors, is executed, along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden, by Charles I of Sicily, a political rival and ally to the hostile Roman Catholic Church.
- King Stephen V of Hungary launches a war against Bulgaria.
- The County of Wernigerode becomes a vassal state of the Margrave of Brandenburg.
- New election procedures for the election of the doge are established in Venice, in order to reduce the influence of powerful individual families and possibly to prevent the popular Lorenzo Tiepolo from becoming elected.
- Pope Clement IV dies; the following papal election fails to choose a new pope for almost three years, precipitating the later creation of stringent rules governing the electoral procedures.
- Nicola Pisano completes the famous octagonal Gothic-style pulpit, at the Duomo di Siena.
- The carnival in Venice is first recorded.
- In France, the use of hops as the exclusive flavoring agent used in the manufacture of beer is made compulsory.
- The town of Guta is founded (currently Kolárovo, Slovakia).[better source needed]
- May 18 – Battle of Antioch: The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, falls to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars; his destruction of the city of Antioch is so great, as to permanently negate the city's importance.
- The Battle of Xiangyang, a 6-year battle between the Chinese Song dynasty and the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan, begins in what is today Hubei.
- Kublai Khan sends an emissary to the Kamakura shogunate of Japan, demanding an acknowledgment of suzerainty and payment of tribute; the Japanese refuse, starting a diplomatic back-and-forth, lasting until the Mongols attempt to invade in 1274.
- An earthquake in Cilicia kills an estimated 60,000 people.
- The Tibetan monk Drogön Chögyal Phagpa of the Sakya School completes the 'Phags-pa script, which was sponsored by Kublai Khan as a new writing system in his empire.
- June 16 – Battle of Colle Val d'Elsa: Guelph forces (2,200 men) led by King Charles I defeat the Ghibellines at Tuscany. After the battle, the Guelphs drive out their adversaries at Colle di Val d'Elsa, destroying their houses, and confiscating their possessions.
- June 19 – King Louis IX (the Saint) orders all Jews found in public, without an identifying yellow badge, to be fined ten livres of silver. He also confiscates goods from the Jewish population to fund the Eighth Crusade.
- September – A Aragonese contingent under King James I (the Conqueror) sails from Barcelona to the Holy Land but is caught in a storm and badly damaged. One squadron reaches Acre, but later returns to Aragon.
- King Ottokar II inherits Carinthia and part of Carniola, making him the most powerful German prince within the Holy Roman Empire; the empire lacking an emperor during the ongoing “Great Interregnum”.
- Prince Edward (the Lord Edward) obtains the right to levy a twentieth of the value of the Church's wealth to finance the Ninth Crusade. That sum turns out to be insufficient, and Edward has to borrow to reach his target.
- John Comyn begins the construction of Blair Castle, in Scotland.
- September 8 – Berber forces of the Marinid Sultanate under Abu Yusuf Yaqub complete the conquest of Morocco and capture Marrakesh after a long siege, effectively ending the Almohad Caliphate. The last Almohad ruler, Idris al-Wathiq (or Abu Dabbus), is assassinated by a slave. The Marinids become the new masters of the Western Maghreb, Abu Yusuf Yaqub takes up the title of "Prince of the Muslims".
- March – Ode de Pougy, French Abbess of Notre Dame aux Nonnains, and several associates who assist her are excommunicated.
- Opizzo Fieschi, Latin patriarch of Antioch, is exiled. Being displaced because of the East–West Schism of 1054 (approximate date).
- May 15 or July 25 – John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos (d. 1319)
- August 2 – Kyawswa of Pagan, last ruler of the Pagan Kingdom (d. 1299)
- approximate date
- Enguerrand de Marigny, minister to King Philip IV of France
- Fatima bint al-Ahmar, Nasrid princess in the Emirate of Granada (d. 1349)
- Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham (d. 1339)
- Matthew III Csák, Hungarian oligarch
- Meister Eckhart, German theologian, philosopher and mystic (d. 1328)
- Guillaume de Nogaret, keeper of the seal to King Philip IV of France (d. 1313)
- Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian (approximate date; d. 1330)
- Khutulun, Mongol princess and warrior (d. 1306)
- February 1 – Walter de Stapledon, bishop of Exeter (d. 1326)
- February 11 – Otto III, king of Hungary and Croatia (d. 1312)
- February 28 – Margaret of Scotland, queen of Norway (d. 1283)
- March 1 – Hugh le Despenser, English chief adviser (d. 1326)
- July 25 – Arthur II, Breton nobleman (House of Dreux) (d. 1312)
- October 9 – Denis I (the Poet King), king of Portugal (d. 1325)
- Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim, Andalusian vizier and poet (d. 1309)
- 'Ala' al-Dawla Simnani, Persian Sufi mystic and writer (d. 1336)
- Albertino Mussato, Italian statesman and chronicler (d. 1329)
- Constantine Palaiologos, Byzantine prince and general (d. 1306)
- Daniel of Moscow (Aleksandrovich), Russian prince (d. 1303)
- Danyi Chenpo Zangpo Pal, Tibetan religious leader (d. 1323)
- Elizabeth of Sicily, queen of Hungary (House of Anjou) (d. 1303)
- Konoe Iemoto, Japanese nobleman (kugyō) and regent (d. 1296)
- Pier Saccone Tarlati, Italian nobleman and condottiero (d. 1356)
- Władysław I Łokietek (Elbow-High), king of Poland (d. 1333)
- May 6 – John Hastings, English nobleman and knight (d. 1313)
- August 5 – Ladisslaus IV (the Cuman), king of Hungary (d. 1290)
- October 18 – Ranulph Neville (or Ralph), English nobleman (d. 1331)
- Bérenger de Landore, French preacher and archbishop (d. 1330)
- Elisabeth of Carinthia (or Tyrol), queen of Germany (d. 1312)
- Guan Daogao, Chinese calligrapher, poet and painter (d. 1319)
- Guan Daosheng, Chinese painter, poet and writer (d. 1319)
- John II (Megas Komnenos), emperor of Trebizond (d. 1297)
- John of Castile, Spanish prince (infante) and regent (d. 1319)
- Takatsukasa Kanetada, Japanese nobleman (kugyō) ((d. 1301)
- U Tak (or Woo Tak), Korean scholar and philosopher (d. 1342)
- William de Cantilupe, Norman nobleman and knight (d. 1308)
- January 22 – Ibn Taymiyyah, Syrian philosopher (d. 1328)
- February 8 – Afonso of Portugal, Portuguese prince (d. 1312)
- March 20 – Yolande of Dreux, queen of Scotland (d. 1330)
- Henry III, German nobleman (House of Gorizia) (d. 1323)
- Ingeborg of Sweden, countess of Holstein-Plön (d. 1292)
- Juliana FitzGerald, Norman-Irish noblewoman (d. 1300)
- Napoleone Orsini, Italian cardinal and diplomat (d. 1342)
- Philip of Flanders, Flemish nobleman and knight (d. 1308)
- Roseline de Villeneuve, French nun and saint (d. 1329)
- Theobald II (or Thiebaut), German nobleman (d. 1312)
- Tolberto III, Italian nobleman and condottiero (d. 1317)
- Zhongfeng Mingben, Chinese Buddhist master (d. 1323)
- January 21 – Alexander, Scottish heir apparent (d. 1284)
- February 2 – Sancha of Portugal, Portuguese princess (d. 1279)
- May 26 – Koreyasu, Japanese prince and shogun (d. 1326)
- November 21 – Maria of Portugal, Portuguese nun (d. 1304)
- Ahmed al-Ghubrini, Hafsid scholar and chronicler (d. 1314)
- Darmabala (Protector of the Law), Mongol prince (d. 1292)
- Louis of France, French prince and heir apparent (d. 1276)
- Nichiin, Japanese Buddhist monk and disciple (d. 1329)
- Wang Qinghui, Chinese concubine and poet (d. 1288)
- May 10 – Emperor Fushimi of Japan (d. 1317)
- December 17 – Emperor Go-Uda of Japan (d. 1324)
- King Alfonso III of Aragon
- approximate date – Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (d. 1321)
- approximate date – Maria de Molina, regent of Castile (d. 1321)
- approximate date – Beatrice Portinari, Dante Alighieri's beloved and guide through Heaven in The Divine Comedy (d. 1290)
- Duns Scotus, Scottish priest and philosopher (d. 1308)
- Gi Ja-oh (or Ki Ja-oh), Korean nobleman (d. 1328)
- Gilbert Segrave, English nobleman and bishop (d. 1316)
- Herman VII ("the Clock"), German nobleman (d. 1291)
- Hethum II (or Het'um), king of Cilician Armenia (d. 1307)
- Jadwiga of Kalisz, queen consort of Poland (d. 1339)
- John of Brittany, English nobleman and knight (d. 1334)
- Margaret of Villehardouin, princess of Achaea (d. 1315)
- Ravivarman Kulaśēkhara, Indian ruler of Venad (d. 1317)
- Rigdzin Kumaradza, Tibetan Dzogchen master (d. 1343)
- February 3 (or February 3, 1266) – Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (d. 1302)
- August 10 – King James II of Aragon (d. 1327)
- Giotto di Bondone, Italian artist who marked the shift from medieval art to Proto-Renaissance art. (d. 1337)
- Roger de Flor, Sicilian military adventurer, leader of the mercenary group Catalan Company
- April/June – Philip IV of France (d. 1314)
- Saint Clare of Montefalco (d. 1308)
- Emperor Duanzong of China (d. 1278)
- Mahaut, Countess of Artois (d. 1327)
- Vedanta Desika, Indian Hindu poet and philosopher
- June 18 – Eleanor of England, English princess (d. 1298)
- July 10 – Duan Zong (or Zhao Shi), Chinese emperor (d. 1278)
- Alexander of San Elpidio, Italian friar and bishop (d. 1326)
- Frederick Tuta, German nobleman and regent (d. 1291)
- Huang Gongwang (or Lu Jian), Chinese painter (d. 1354)
- Louis III, German nobleman, knight and regent (d. 1296)
- Nichizō, Japanese Buddhist monk and disciple (d. 1342)
- Philip of Artois, French nobleman and knight (d. 1298)
- April 28 – Luchesius Modestini, founding member of the Third Order of St. Francis
- May – Marie of Brabant, Holy Roman Empress, wife of Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor (alternative date is June)
- August 9 – Walter of Kirkham, Bishop of Durham
- October 24 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt
- December 4 – Aymer de Valence, Bishop of Winchester (b. 1222)
- date unknown
- probable – Franciscus Accursius, Italian jurist
- February 28 – Henry III (the Good), duke of Brabant (b. 1230)
- April 1 – Ahi Evren, Bektashi Sufi preacher and poet (b. 1169)
- May 25 – Alexander IV, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1199)
- July 8 – Adolf IV, German nobleman (House of Schaumburg)
- July 25 – Nicephorus II of Constantinople, Byzantine patriarch
- August 24 – Ela of Salisbury, English noblewoman (b. 1187)
- September 18 – Konrad von Hochstaden, German archbishop
- October 27 – Sancho of Castile, Spanish archbishop (b. 1233)
- November 9 – Sanchia of Provence, German queen (b. 1225)
- November 26 – Hōjō Shigetoki, Japanese samurai (b. 1198)
- November 27 – Athanasius III of Alexandria, Egyptian pope
- November 28 – Al-Mustansir, Abbasid ruler (caliph) of Cairo
- Abu Bakr ibn Sayyid al-Nās, Andalusian theologian (b. 1200)
- An-Nasir Dawud, Ayyubid ruler (emir) of Damascus (b. 1206)
- Benedict II, Hungarian chancellor, governor and archbishop
- Bettisia Gozzadini, Italian noblewoman and jurist (b. 1209)
- Conrad I (the Pious), German nobleman and knight (b. 1186)
- John FitzThomas, Norman nobleman (House of Desmond)
- Plaisance of Antioch, queen consort of Cyprus (b. 1235)
- Qin Jiushao, Chinese mathematician and writer (b. 1202)
- Sayf al-Din al-Bakharzi, Persian poet and sheikh (b. 1190)
- Stephen of Bourbon, French Dominican preacher (b. 1180)
- April 23 – Giles of Assisi, companion of Francis of Assisi (b. 1190)
- May 18 – John Climping, English cleric, chancellor and bishop
- June 23 – Siemowit I, Polish nobleman and knight (House of Piast)
- July 13 – Henry Wingham, English Lord Chancellor and bishop
- July 14 – Richard de Clare, English nobleman and knight (b. 1222)
- August 24 – Robert de Mariscis, English priest and archdeacon
- September 1 – Giuliana of Collalto, Italian Benedictine abbess
- September 12 – Baldwin de Redvers, English nobleman (b. 1236)
- October 5 – Teruko, Japanese princess and empress (b. 1224)
- December 13 – Giles of Bridport, English archdeacon and bishop
- December 21 – Bahauddin Zakariya, Ghurid scholar and poet
- Ibn al-Adim, Syrian diplomat, biographer and historian (b. 1192)
- Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Syrian jurist and theologian (b. 1181)
- Matilda II (or Maud), French noblewoman and regent (b. 1235)
- Mem Soares de Melo, Portuguese nobleman and knight (b. 1200)
- Peter de Rivaux, English High Sheriff and Lord High Treasurer
- January 7 – Agnes of Merania, duchess of Carinthia (b. 1215)
- January 16 – Shinran Shonin, founder of Shin Buddhism (b. 1173)
- March 19 – Hugh of Saint-Cher, French friar and bishop (b. 1200)
- April 20 – John I, German nobleman (House of Schauenburg)
- November 14 – Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Novgorod
- December 16 – Haakon IV (the Old), king of Norway (b. 1204)
- December 24 – Hōjō Tokiyori, Japanese nobleman (b. 1227)
- Al-Ashraf Musa, Ayyubid prince (emir) and ruler (b. 1229)
- Boniface, Savoyan nobleman (House of Savoy) (b. 1245)
- Caesarius of Alagno, Italian priest, bishop and counsellor
- Gilbert I de la Hay, Scottish nobleman, knight and regent
- Guy I de la Roche, duke of Athens and Thebes (b. 1205)
- John XIII Aaron bar Ma'dani, Syrian patriarch of Antioch
- Manuel I (Megas Komnenos), emperor of Trebizond
- Martino della Torre, Italian nobleman and condottiero
- Mindaugas (or Mendog), king of Lithuania (b. 1203)
- Senana ferch Caradog, Welsh noblewoman (b. 1198)
- February 16 – Azzo VII d'Este, marquis of Ferrara (b. 1205)
- April 25 – Roger de Quincy, Scotto-Norman nobleman (b. 1195)
- May 17 – Wartislaw III, Polish nobleman and knight (b. 1210)
- July 10 – Isabella de Clare, English noblewoman (b. 1226)
- August 1 – John I (the Theologian), German nobleman
- September 12 – Hōjō Nagatoki, Japanese regent (b. 1227)
- October 2 – Urban IV, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1195)
- November 11 – Farinata degli Uberti, Italian nobleman (b. 1212)
- November 16 – Li Zong (or Zhao Yun), Chinese emperor (b. 1205)
- Andrey II Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir (b. 1222)
- Danylo Romanovych, ruler of Galicia–Volhynia (b. 1201)
- Dharmasvamin, Tibetan monk and explorer (b. 1197)
- Domentijan, Serbian monk and philosopher (b. 1210)
- Fujiwara no Ieyoshi, Japanese waka poet (b. 1192)
- Hugh l'Aleman, Outremer knight and heir apparent
- Isabella of Cyprus, Cypriotic princess and regent
- John II of Beirut, Outremer nobleman and knight
- Nicholas I de Soules, Scottish nobleman and knight
- Perceval Doria, Genoese military leader and poet
- Robert de Vieuxpont, English nobleman and knight
- Vincent of Beauvais, French friar and encyclopedist
- January 20 – John Maunsell, Lord Chancellor of England
- February 8 – Hulagu Khan of the Mongol Empire (b. 1217)
- May 16 – Simon Stock, English prior, canonized (b. c. 1165)
- June 26 – Anne of Bohemia, Duchess of Silesia (b. 1203 or 1204)
- August 4 (Killed in the Battle Of Evesham)
- November 24 – Magnús Óláfsson, King of Mann and the Isles
- December 3 – Odofredus, Italian jurist
- Al-Abharī, Persian philosopher and mathematician (b. 1200)
- January 2 – Simon de Walton, English bishop
- January 11 – Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania ("the Great"), Polish nobleman
- February 12 – Walter de Cantilupe, English bishop (b. 1195)
- February 26
- April 14 – Roger of Torre Maggiore, Italian archbishop
- May 7 – Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Ghurid preacher (b. 1179)
- May 27 – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg, German-born queen consort and Countess of Holland and Zeeland (b. 1230)
- June 12 – Henry II, German nobleman and prince (b. 1215)
- July 24 – Albrecht II of Meissen, German canon and bishop
- August 4 – Odo, Count of Nevers (or Eudes), Burgundian nobleman and Crusader
- August 8 – Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Abbasid theologian (b. 1193)
- September 20 – Jan Prandota, bishop of Kraków (b. 1200)
- October 21 – Birger Jarl, Swedish nobleman and knight (b. 1210)
- October 28 – Arsenije Sremac, Serbian disciple and archbishop
- October 29 – Margaret of Austria, queen of Germany (b. 1204)
- November 19 – Nasir al-Din Mahmud, Mamluk ruler of Delhi
- December 3 – Henry III the White, duke of Silesia-Wrocław
- Aldonza Alfonso de León, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso IX
- Andronikos II (Megas Komnenos), emperor of Trebizond
- Ariq Böke (or Bukha), Mongol ruler (khagan) and regent
- Berke Khan, Mongol ruler of the Golden Horde (b. 1208)
- Chen Rong, Chinese painter, poet and politician (b. 1200)
- Hugh Bigod, English nobleman and chief justiciar (b. 1211)
- Hugh III of Chalon, French nobleman and knight (b. 1220)
- John of Ibelin, Outremer nobleman and knight (b. 1215)
- Luca Savelli, Italian senator and politician (b. 1190)
- Máel Coluim II, Earl of Fife (Malcolm), Scottish nobleman
- Margaret de Quincy, English noblewoman and heiress
- Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Urdi, Syrian scholar and astronomer
- Philippe Chinard, French nobleman and admiral (b. 1205)
- Richer of Senones, French monk and chronicler (b. 1190)
- February 21 – Baldwin of Ibelin, Seneschal of Cyprus
- March 3 or 4 – Lars, Archbishop of Uppsala
- March 17 – Peter of Montereau, French architect (b. c. 1200)
- September 23 – Beatrice of Provence, countess regnant of Provence (b. 1234)
- November 26 – Sylvester Gozzolini, Italian founder of the Sylvestrines (b. 1177)
- November/December – Hugh II of Cyprus, king of Cyprus and regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. (b. 1253)
- date unknown – John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel, Breton-English nobleman and Marcher Lord (b. 1223)
- May 15 – Peter II, Count of Savoy (b. 1203)
- July 7 – Reniero Zeno, Doge of Venice
- August 11 – Agnes of Faucigny, Dame ruler of Faucigny, countess consort of Savoy
- October 29
- November 29 – Pope Clement IV
- December 9 – Vaišvilkas, Prince of Black Ruthenia
- date unknown
- July 7 – Saionji Saneuji, Japanese poet and writer (b. 1194)
- October 1 – Giordano Pironti, Italian aristocrat and cardinal
- October 27 – Ulrich III, German nobleman and knight (b. 1220)
- Abu al-Hasan al-Shushtari, Moorish poet and writer (b. 1212)
- Albin of Brechin (or Albinus), Scottish prelate and bishop
- Baba Hyder Vali of Mulbagal, Persian disciple and mystic
- Constance of Aaragon, Spanish princess (infanta) (b. 1239)
- Ebulo de Montibus, Savoyan nobleman and knight (b. 1230)
- Geoffrey of Sergines, French nobleman and knight (b. 1205)
- Gregorio di Montelongo, Italian bishop of Tripoli (b. 1200)
- Guigues VII, French ruler (dauphin) of Viennois (b. 1225)
- Idris al-Wathiq (or Abu Dabbus), Almohad ruler (caliph)
- John Lestrange, English landowner and knight (b. 1194)
- Liu Kezhuang, Chinese poet and literary critic (b. 1187)
- Oberto Pallavicino, Italian nobleman (signore) (b. 1197)
- Vasilko Romanovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (b. 1203)
- William III de Beauchamp, English nobleman (b. 1215)
- Cobb, Paul M. (2014). The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780190614461.
- Lower, Michael (2018). The Tunis Crusade of 1270: A Mediterranean History. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780198744320.
- Meisami, Julie Scott; Starkey, Paul (1998). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 301. ISBN 9780415185714.
- Allsen, Thomas T. (2004) . Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780521602709.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 283. ISBN 9781851096725.
- Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (2004) . Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–30. ISBN 9780521522908.
- Zhu, Ruixi; Zhang, Bangwei; Liu, Fusheng; Cai, Chongbang; Wang, Zengyu (2016). A Social History of Medieval China. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 757. ISBN 9781107167865.
- Mass, Jeffrey P. (1989). Lordship and Inheritance in Early Medieval Japan: A Study of the Kamakura Soryo System. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 9780804715409.
- Conlan, Thomas (2011). From Sovereign to Symbol: An Age of Ritual Determinism in Fourteenth Century Japan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780199778102.
- Grant, R. G. (2011). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. New York: Book Sales. p. 175. ISBN 9780785835530.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Vol. I: A-E. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 320. ISBN 9780313335372.
- Trollope, Thomas Adolphus (1865). A History of the Commonwealth of Florence: From the Earliest Independence of the Commune to the Fall of the Republic in 1531. Vol. I. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 154–160.
- Lincoln, Bruce (2014). Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 21–24. ISBN 9780199372386.
- Gyllenbok, Jan (2018). Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Science Networks Historical Studies 57. Vol. 2. Cham, Switzerland: Birkhäuser. p. 1266. ISBN 9783319666914.
- Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (2008). Künker Auktion 137 - The De Wit Collection of Medieval Coins, 1000 Years of European Coinage, Part III: England, Ireland, Scotland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Balkan, the Middle East, Crusader States, Jetons und Weights. Osnabrück, Germany: Numismatischer Verlag Künker. p. 261.
- Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780472082605.
- Morganstern, Anne McGee (2011). "Chapter Five: The North Transept Porch of Chartres Cathedral". High Gothic Sculpture at Chartres Cathedral, the Tomb of the Count of Joigny, and the Master of the Warrior Saints. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780271048659.
- Ryan, William Granger (1995) . Vorágine, Jacobo de (ed.). The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. xiii. ISBN 9780691001531.
- Delaure, Dominic E. (2018). "Chapter 4: Concepts of Solitude in Jacobus de Voragine's Legenda aurea". In Enenkel, Karl A. E.; Göttler, Christine (eds.). Solitudo: Spaces and Places of Solitude in Late Medieval and Early Modern Cultures. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 121. ISBN 9789004367432.
- Buckley, Jonathan; Jepson, Tim (2009). The Rough Guide to Florence & the best of Tuscany. New York, London, Delhi: Rough Guides UK. p. 160. ISBN 9781848361973.
- Lord, Suzanne (2008). Music in the Middle Ages: A Reference Guide: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780313083686.
- Peraino, Judith A. (2011). Giving Voice to Love: Song and Self-Expression from the Troubadours to Guillaume de Machaut. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780199757244.
- Munro, David M.; Gittings, Bruce (2006). Scotland: An Encyclopedia of Places & Landscapes. London and New York: Harper Collins. p. 175. ISBN 9780004724669.
- Swenson, Astrid (2013). The Rise of Heritage: Preserving the Past in France, Germany and England, 1789–1914. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN 9781107469112.
- Magill, Frank Northen; Aves, Alison (1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Vol. II: The Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge. p. 747. ISBN 9781579580414.
- Keown, Damien (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780191579172.
- Andrews, Frances (2017). "The Influence of Joachim in the 13th Century". In Riedl, Matthias (ed.). A Companion to Joachim of Fiore. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. pp. 241–244. ISBN 9789004339668.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 240. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, pp. 40–41. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
- Nicol, Donald M. (1993). The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, p. 35 (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6.
- Hackel, Sergei (2001). The Byzantine Saint, p. 71 (2001 ed.). St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 0-88141-202-3.
- Rossabi, Morris (1988). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times, p. 51. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06740-0.
- Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 9781135131371.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 144–146. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- BBC History, July 2011, p. 12.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 32. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4302-4.
- Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 145. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 49. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
- Bartusis, Mark C. (1977). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 50. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
- Longnon, Jean (1969). The Frankish States in Greece, 1204–1311, pp. 253–254. In Wolff, Robert Lee; Hazard, Harry W. (eds.). A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311, pp. 234–275. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-06670-3.
- Lane, Frederic Chapin (1973). Venice, A Maritime Republic, p. 77. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-1445-6.
- Helle, Knut (1995). Under kirke og kongemakt: 1130-1350, p. 196. Aschehougs Norgeshistorie. Vol. 3. Aschehoug. ISBN 8203220312.
- McDonald, Russell Andrew (1997). The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard, c. 100–c. 1336, p. 115. Scottish Historical Monographs, Tuckwell Press. ISBN 1-898410-85-2.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- Willis-Bund, J W; Page, William, eds. (1924). "The city of Worcester: Introduction and borough". A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 4. London: British History Online, pp. 376–390. Retrieved: 20 May 2018.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 265. ISBN 978-0241-29877-0.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 145. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1). doi:10.2307/1832571. JSTOR 1832571.
- Catoni, Giuliano. "BONSIGNORI". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 50. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 161. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Treharne, R. F.; Sanders, I. J. (1973). Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion, 1258–1267, pp. 253–57. ISBN 0-19-822222-X.
- Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 110. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 36. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4302-4.
- Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 164. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
- Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 121. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
- Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 54. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
- Szũcs, Jenõ (2002). Az utolsó Árpádok, p. 172. [The Last Árpáds] (in Hungarian). Osiris Kiadó. ISBN 963-389-271-6.
- Zsoldos, Attila (2007). Családi ügy: IV. Béla és István ifjabb király viszálya az 1260-as években [A family affair: The Conflict between Béla IV and Junior King Stephen in the 1260s] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. p. 140–141. ISBN 978-963-9627-15-4.
- Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
- Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
- Huscroft, Richard (2006). Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution. Stroud: Tempus. p. 105. ISBN 9780752437293.
- Fogle, Lauren (2019). The King's Converts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 40. ISBN 9781498589215.
- Jacobs, Joseph (1903). "England". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 161–174.
- Maurice Keen (1999). Medieval Warfare: A History, p. 309. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164738-3.
- Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, p. 132. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
- Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, pp. 136–137. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
- Lehmberg, Stanford (2002). A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From Prehistoric Times to 1688. New York and London: Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 9781134415281.
- Zsoldos, Attila (2007). Családi ügy: IV. Béla és István ifjabb király viszálya az 1260-as években [A family affair: The Conflict between Béla IV and Junior King Stephen in the 1260s] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. p. 141. ISBN 978-963-9627-15-4.
- Grossman, Mark (2007). World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File Library of World History. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9780816074778.
- Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 114. Vol. I: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. p. 100. ISBN 9780871691149.
- Mackintosh, James; Wallace, William (1836). The history of England, by sir J. Mackintosh (continued by W. Wallace, R. Bell). Vol. I: England. London: Longman and John Taylor. pp. 237–238.
- Bullock, H. A. (1816). History of the Isle of Man: With a Comparative View of the Past and Present State of Society and Manners, Containing Also Biographical Anecdotes of Eminent Persons Connected with that Island. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. pp. 23.
1265 isle of man.
- Slatyer, Will (2014). Ebbs and Flows of Medieval Empires, AD 900 – 1400: A Short History of Medieval Religion, War, Prosperity and Debt. Singapore: Partridge India. p. 321. ISBN 9781482896831.
- Howorth, Henry Hoyle (2008). History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century. Vol. Part 2: The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. New York: Cosimo, Inc. p. 123. ISBN 9781605201344.
- Powell, John (2001). Magill's Guide to Military History. Vol. 3: Jap-Pel. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. p. 854. ISBN 9780893560171.
- Strabone, Jeff (2018). Poetry and British Nationalisms in the Bardic Eighteenth Century: Imagined Antiquities. Palgrave Studies in the Enlightenment, Romanticism and Cultures of Print. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9783319952550.
- Corte-Real, Antonio (2005). "The Conflict Between Trade Marks and Geographical Indications - The Case of Budweiser in Portugal". In Heath, Christopher; Sanders, Anselm Kamperman (eds.). New Frontiers of Intellectual Property Law: IP and Cultural Heritage – Geographical Indications – Enforcement – Overprotection. Oxford and Portland, OR: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 9781847312563.
- Aavitsland, Kristin B. (2012). Imagining the Human Condition in Medieval Rome: The Cistercian Fresco Cycle at Abbazia Delle Tre Fontane. Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 9781409438182.
- Kunz, George Frederick (1973) . Rings for the Finger: From the Earliest Known Times to the Present, with Full Descriptions of the Origin, Early Making, Materials, the Archaeology, History, for Affection, for Love, for Engagement, for Wedding, Commemorative, Mourning, etc. New York: Dover Publications. p. 263. ISBN 9780486144245.
- Izbicki, Thomas M. (2016) . "Clement IV". In Kibler, William W.; Zinn, Grover A. (eds.). Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 230. ISBN 9781351665667.
- Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. p. 104. ISBN 9781473856431.
- Slack, Corliss K. (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Crusades. Lanham, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. xxxii. ISBN 9780810878310.
- Okazaki, Hisahiko (1986). A grand strategy for Japanese defense. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. p. 4. ISBN 9780819153258.
- Goitein, S. D. (1999). A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. I: Economic Foundations. Berkeley, CA, Los Angeles, CA and London: University of California Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780520221581.
- Dwivedi, Rakesh (2010). Gs In 60 Days. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 1.49. ISBN 9780070670785.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 46. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
- Esposito, Gabriele (2019). Armies of the Medieval Italian Wars 1125–1325, p. 39. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472833426.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle of the Strait, p. 47. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
- Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 165. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
- "When Hebrideans were offered a new start in Norway". Scotsman. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
- Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 268. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
- Stanislawski, Dan (2015) . The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical-Political Geography. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 213. ISBN 9781477305072.
- Nicol, Donald M. (2010) . The Despotate of Epiros 1267-1479: A Contribution to the History of Greece in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, London and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521261906.
- Sadler, John (2008). The Second Barons' War: Simon de Montfort and the Battles of Lewes and Evesham. Barnsley, UK: Casemate Publishers. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9781844158317.
- Santiuste, David (2015). The Hammer of the Scots: Edward I and the Scottish Wars of Independence. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473857650.
- Nedvěd, Martin; Peřinková, Martina (2017). "The City of Ostrava (Czech Republic): a Sustainability Assessment Based on Vitality". In Brebbia, C. A.; Sendra, J. J. (eds.). The Sustainable City XII. Southampton and Boston: Wessex Institute of Technology Press. p. 15. ISBN 9781784662172.
- Bruin, Tom de (2014). The Great Controversy: The Individual's Struggle Between Good and Evil in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in Their Jewish and Christian Contexts. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 14. ISBN 9783525540350.
- Clegg, Brian (2016). Are Numbers Real?: The Uncanny Relationship of Mathematics and the Physical World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 80. ISBN 9781466892965.
- Newall, Venetia (2013). The Witch Figure: Folklore Essays by a Group of Scholars in England Honouring the 75th Birthday of Katharine M. Briggs. Anthropology and Ethnography. London and New York: Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 9781136551734.
- Brand, Paul (2003). Kings, Barons and Justices: The Making and Enforcement of Legislation in Thirteenth-Century England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781139439077.
- Streitz, N.; Rizk, A.; Andre, J.; André, J. (1990). "Links and Structures in Hypertext Databases for Law". Hypertext: Concepts, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Hypertext, INRIA, France, November 1990. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 9780521405171.
- Symons, Van Jay (2013). Friedman, John Block; Figg, Kristen Mossler (eds.). Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 319–320. ISBN 9781135590949.
- Iqbal, Muzaffar (2007). Science and Islam. Westport, CN and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xxxi. ISBN 9780313335761.
- Melton, J. Gordon (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. Vol. II: 500 - 1399 CE. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 855. ISBN 9781610690263.
- Parppei, Kati M. J. (2017). The Battle of Kulikovo Refought: "The First National Feat". Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 129. ISBN 9789004337947.
- Finlay, George (1854). History of the Byzantine Empire, from DCCXVI to MLVII. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons. p. 441.
- Small, Carola M. (2004). "Battle of Tagliacozzo". In Kleinhenz, Christopher (ed.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 1068. ISBN 9781135948801.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 286. ISBN 9781851096725.
- Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994) . The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. p. 180. ISBN 9780472082605.
- Madgearu, Alexandru (2016). The Asanids: The Political and Military History of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1280). Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 255. ISBN 9789004333192.
- Möller, Arnold Wilhelm (1822). Versuch einer Territorialgeschichte des preußischen Staates, oder kurze Darstellung des Wachsthums der Besitzungen des Hauses Brandenburg seit dem zwölften Jahrhundert. Mit einer illumin. Karte (in German). Hamm und Münster: Schulz u. Wundermann. pp. 13–14.
- Dean, Trevor (2000). The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. p. 219. ISBN 9780719052040.
- Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. I: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. p. 106. ISBN 9780871691149.
- Zirpolo, Lilian H. (2009). The A to Z of Renaissance Art. Lanham, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. 342–343. ISBN 9780810870437.
- McNeill, William H. (2009) . Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780226561547.
- Oliver, Garrett (2012). The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, USA. p. 464. ISBN 9780195367133.
- "Kolárovo city, Slovakia". fotw.info. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- Bradbury, Jim (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. London and New York: Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 9781134598472.
- Curtis Wright, David (2013). "Debates in the Field During Bayan's Campaigns Against Southern Song China, 1274 - 1276". In Lorge, Peter A. (ed.). Debating War in Chinese History. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 141. ISBN 9789004244795.
- Bary, Wm. Theodore de; Gluck, Carol; Tiedemann, Arthur; Varley, Paul (2002). "The Mongol Invasion of Japan". Sources of Japanese Tradition (Second: From Earliest Times to 1600 ed.). New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 280. ISBN 9780231518055.
- Gates, Alexander E.; Ritchie, David (2007) . Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes (Third ed.). New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 292. ISBN 9780816072705.
- Shakabpa, Tsepon Wangchuk Deden (2010). One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 224. ISBN 9789004177321.
- Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).
- Abun-Nasir, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period, pp. 103–118. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521337674.
- Chen, Joseph J. F. (2014). Maitreya Buddha in I-Kuan Tao. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. p. 18. ISBN 9781496946591.
- Mariana, Juan de (2011). A Treatise on the Alteration of Money: Sources in Early Modern Economics, Ethics, and Law. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian's Library Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781880595886.
- Stephen, Sir Leslie (1887). Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder, & Company. p. 155.
- Antonín, Robert (2017). The Ideal Ruler in Medieval Bohemia. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 397. ISBN 9789004341128.
- Eckhart, Meister (1981). Meister Eckhart: The Essential Sermons, Commentaries, Treatises, and Defense. The Classics of Western Spirituality. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780809123704.
- Aertsen, Jan A. (1998). Craig, Edward (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 286–288. ISBN 9780415187152.
- Aguilera-Barchet, Bruno (2014). A History of Western Public Law: Between Nation and State. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 217. ISBN 9783319118031.
- Agarwal, Ravi P.; Sen, Syamal K. (2014). Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 124. ISBN 9783319108704.
- Robins, Robert H. (2011) . The Byzantine Grammarians: Their Place in History. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 70. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 201. ISBN 9783110857221.
- Mayor, Adrienne (2014). The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 402. ISBN 9781400865130.
- Mostow, Joshua S. (2014). Courtly Visions: The Ise Stories and the Politics of Cultural Appropriation. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 99. ISBN 9789004249431.
- Tonʼa (2003). Just Living: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Tonna. Translated by Steven D. Carter. New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780231125536.
- Tonʼa (2003). Just Living: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Tonna. New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780231125536.
- Mass, Jeffrey P. (1997). The Origins of Japan's Medieval World: Courtiers, Clerics, Warriors, and Peasants in the Fourteenth Century. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 274. ISBN 9780804743792.
- Thomas, Joseph (2009). The Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. Vol. I: A - CLU. New York: Cosimo, Inc. p. 91. ISBN 9781616400699.
- Toynbee, Paget (2005). "Part II: Dante in Florence". Dante Alighieri: His Life and Works. Mineola, NY: Courier Corporation. p. 36. ISBN 9780486146423.
- Martin, Therese (2012). Reassessing the Roles of Women as 'Makers' of Medieval Art and Architecture. Visualising the Middle Ages. Vol. Two. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 1083. ISBN 9789004185555.
- Roberson, Gloria G. (2003). The World of Toni Morrison: A Guide to Characters and Places in Her Novels. Wesport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 13. ISBN 9780313323805.
1265 Beatrice Portinari.
- Dyer, Ray (2016). Lady Muriel: The Victorian Romance by Lewis Carroll. Kibworth Beauchamp, UK: Troubador Publishing Ltd. pp. l. ISBN 9781785890314.
- Gemmill, Elizabeth (2013). The Nobility and Ecclesiastical Patronage in Thirteenth-Century England. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781843838128.
- Jaspert, Nikolas (2019). Queens, Princesses and Mendicants: Close Relations in a European Perspective. Vita Regularis - Ordnungen und Deutungen religiosen Lebens im Mittelalter. Zürich, Switzerland: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 20. ISBN 9783643910929.
- Thompson, Bard (1996). "10. Painters and Sculptors of the Quattrocento - Giotto and his Times". Humanists and Reformers: A History of the Renaissance and Reformation. Grand Rapids, MI and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 229. ISBN 9780802863485.
- Guise, Richard (2011). Two Wheels Over Catalonia: Cycling the Back Roads of North-Eastern Spain. Chichester, UK: Summersdale Publishers Limited. p. 310. ISBN 9780857652850.
- Marcos Hierro, Ernest (2010). Rogers, Clifford J. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. I: Aachen, Siege of - Dyrrachium, Siege and Battle of (1081). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780195334036.
- Delph, Ronald K. (2007). Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Janice J.; Upshur, Jiu-Hwa Lo; Whitters, Mark F. (eds.). Encyclopedia of World History. Facts on File Library of World History. Infobase Publishing. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
- Renna, Thomas (2006). Schaus, Margaret C. (ed.). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 9781135459604.
- Hu, Wen (2017). Dillon, Michael (ed.). Encyclopedia of Chinese History. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 634–635. ISBN 9781317817161.
- Juhász, Gergely M. (2014). Translating Resurrection: The Debate between William Tyndale and George Joye in Its Historical and Theological Context. Studies in the History of Christian Traditions. Vol. 165. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 155. ISBN 9789004259522.
- Neville, Robert C. (2001). Ultimate Realities: A Volume in the Comparative Religious Ideas Project. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780791447758.
- Ellsberg, Robert (2016). Blessed Among Us: Day by Day with Saintly Witnesses. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. p. 242. ISBN 9780814647455.
- Jackson, Guida M.; Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 267 - 268. ISBN 9781576070918.
1260 Maria of Brabant.
- Moule, Thomas (1830). Great Britain Illustrated: A Series of Original Views. London: C. Tilt. pp. 11.
1260 Walter of Kirkham.
- Aston, Trevor Henry (1984). The History of the University of Oxford. Vol. I: The Early Oxford Schools. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 292. ISBN 9780199510115.
- Jobson, Adrian (2016). Baronial Reform and Revolution in England, 1258-1267. Woodbridge and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN 9781843834670.
- Runciman, Steven (1999) . A History of the Crusades. Vol. III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid: Cambridge University Press Archive. pp. 305–314. ISBN 9780521347723.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9781135948801.
- The Chetham Society (1890). Remains, Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester. Manchester, UK: Chetham Society. pp. 721.
1265 John maunsell.
- Browne, Edward G. (2013) . A History of Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion (AD 1265–1502). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781107682412.
- Guiley, Rosemary (2001). The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 305–306. ISBN 9781438130262.
- Bartlett, Robert (2013). Why Can the Dead Do Such Great Things?: Saints and Worshippers from the Martyrs to the Reformation. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. p. 218. ISBN 9781400848782.
- Crabb, George (1825). Universal Historical Dictionary: Or, Explanation of the Names of Persons and Places in the Departments of Biblical, Political, and Ecclesiastical History, Mythology, Heraldry, Biography, Bibliography, Geography, and Numismatics. Illustrated by Portraits and Medallic Cuts. Vol. II. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.
- Wilkinson, Louise J. (2012). Eleanor de Montfort: A Rebel Countess in Medieval England. London and New York: A&C Black. p. 208. ISBN 9781441182197.
- Imsen, Steinar (2010). The Norwegian Domination and the Norse World, C.1100-c.1400. "Norgesveldet", Occasional Papers No. 1. Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 9788251925631.
- Dongen, Emanuel van (2014). Contributory Negligence: A Historical and Comparative Study. Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 120. ISBN 9789004278721.
- Kadens, Emily (2019). "Convergence and the colonization of customs in pre-modern Europe". In Moréteau, Olivier; Masferrer, Aniceto; Modéer, Kjell A. (eds.). Comparative Legal History. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 178. ISBN 9781781955222.
- Eichner, Heidrun (2011). "Essence and Existence. Thirteenth-Century Perspectives in Arabic-Islamic Philosophy and Theology". In Hasse, Dag Nikolaus; Bertolacci, Amos (eds.). The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 125. ISBN 9783110215762.
- "Manfred - king of Sicily". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- "Malcolm (II), earl of Fife (d.1266)". db.poms.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- Shirley, Janet (2016) . Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: The Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with Part of the Eracles or Acre Text. Oxford and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781351947114.
- Thomson, Williell R. (1975). Friars in the Cathedral: The First Franciscan Bishops 1226-1261. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. p. 67. ISBN 9780888440334.
- Wispelwey, Berend (2011). Biographical Index of the Middle Ages. Munich, Germany: K. G. Saur Verlag. p. 877. ISBN 9783110914160.
- Jackson, Guida M.; Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver CO and Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO. pp. 52. ISBN 9781576070918.
1267 Beatrice of provence.
- Watkins, Basil (2015) . The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780567664150.
- Hone, William (1830). The Every-day Book and Table Book: Or, Everlasting Calendar of Popular Amusements, Sports, Pastimes, Ceremonies, Manners, Customs, and Events, Incident to Each of the Three Hundred and Sixty-five Days, in Past and Present Times; Forming a Complete History of the Year, Months, and Seasons, and a Perpetual Key to the Almanac ... for Daily Use and Diversio. London: J. Haddon. p. 1509.
- Edbury, Peter W. (1994) . The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780521458375.
- Horsfield, Thomas Walker (1835). The History, Antiquities, and Topography of the County of Sussex. Sussex and London: Sussex Press, Baxter. p. 3.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1841). Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London: Charles Knight. pp. 439.
1268 peter savoy.
- Hazlitt, William Carew (1860). History of the Venetian Republic: Her Rise, Her Greatness, and Her Civilization. Vol. II. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 255.
- Cox, Eugene L. (2015) . The Eagles of Savoy: The House of Savoy in Thirteenth-Century Europe. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 374. ISBN 9781400867912.
- Quatriglio, Giuseppe (2005) . A Thousand Years in Sicily: From the Arabs to the Bourbons (Third ed.). Mineola, NY and Ottawa: Legas / Gaetano Cipolla. p. 43. ISBN 9780921252177.
- Bassiouni, M. Cherif; Schabas, William A. (2016). The Legislative History of the International Criminal Court. Vol. I (Second Revised and Expanded ed.). Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 17. ISBN 9789004322097.
- Janonienė, Rūta; Račiūnaitė, Tojana; Iršėnas, Marius; Butrimas, Adomas (2015). The Lithuanian Millennium: History, Art and Culture. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vilnius Academy of Arts Press. p. 58. ISBN 9786094470974.
- Linskill, Richard, ed. (1964). The Poems of the Troubadour, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. p. 85.
- Bracton, Henry de (2010). Maitland, William Frederick (ed.). Bracton's Note Book: A Collection of Cases Decided in the King's Courts During the Reign of Henry the Third. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781108010290.