The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

Events

1260

By placeEdit

AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit
EuropeEdit

By topicEdit

Arts and cultureEdit
ReligionEdit

1261

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • March 13Treaty of Nymphaeum: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) signs a trade and defense agreement with the Republic of Genoa to counterweight the Venetian presence in the region. Genoa agrees to ally with the Empire of Nicaea by providing a fleet of up to 50 galleys during the projected Nicaean siege of Constantinople, while 16 galleys are to be immediately sent against the Latin Empire.[28]
  • July – Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends his general Alexios Strategopoulos with a small advance force of 800 soldiers, most of them Cumans, to keep watch on the Bulgarians and scout the defending positions of the Latin forces in the surroundings of Constantinople. When they reach the village of Selymbria, Strategopoulos is informed by local farmers that the entire Latin garrison and the Venetian fleet, are absent conducting a raid against the Nicaean island of Daphnousia. He decides not to lose such a golden opportunity and makes plans (without the consent of Michael) to retake the capital.[29]
  • July 25Reconquest of Constantinople: Alexios Strategopoulos and his men hide at a monastery near the city gates, before entering through a secret passage. After a short struggle, the guards who are completely taken by surprise are killed and the Venetian quarter is set ablaze. Panic spreads through the capital and Emperor Baldwin II rushes out to save his life, evacuating along with many other Latins with the help of the Venetian fleet. Baldwin manages to escape to the still Latin-held parts of Greece, but Constantinople is lost for good.[30]
  • August 15 – Michael VIII (Palaiologos) enters Constantinople in triumph and is crowned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire at the Hagia Sophia. To solidify his claim, the legitimate ruler, John IV (Laskaris), is blinded on Michael's orders on his 11th birthday. He banishes him to a monastery and marries his two sisters to lesser Latin and Bulgarian nobles in an attempt to wipe out the Laskarid Dynasty.[31]
Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Kublai Khan releases 75 Chinese merchants, who are captured along the border of the Mongol Empire. By doing this, Kublai hopes to bolster his popularity and depend on the cooperation of his Chinese subjects to ensure that his army receives more resources.[32]
LevantEdit
EnglandEdit
AsiaEdit
  • February – The Japanese Bun'ō era ends and the Kōchō era begins during the reign of the 11-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1264).

By topicEdit

LiteratureEdit
  • The earliest extant Chinese illustration of "Pascal's Triangle" is from Yang Hui's (or Qianguang) book Xiangjie Jiuzhang Suanfa, published this year.
ReligionEdit

1262

By placeEdit

Mongol EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Arts and CultureEdit
MarketsEdit
  • The Venetian Senate starts consolidating all of the city's outstanding debt into a single fund, later known as the Monte Vecchio. The holders of the newly created prestiti are promised a 5% annual coupon. These claims can be sold, and quickly (before 1320) give rise to the first recorded secondary market for financial assets, in Medieval Europe.[37]
ReligionEdit
Science and TechnologyEdit

1263

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Summer – Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 3,500 men) led by his half-brother, Constantine Palaiologos, to the Peloponnese in southern Greece. The army is transported to Monemvasia on Genoese ships, while a small Byzantine fleet is sent to harass the Latin island holdings in Euboea and the Cyclades. After arriving at Monemvasia, Constantine lays siege to Lacedaemon (or Sparta), while the Byzantine fleet seizes the southern coast of Laconia.[39]
  • Battle of Prinitza: Constantine Palaiologos marches the Byzantine army up the rivers Eurotas and Alfeios towards the Achaean capital, Andravida. At a narrow pass at Prinitza (near Ancient Olympia) in Elis, the Byzantines are attacked by Achaean forces (some 300 horsemen) under John of Katavas, who inflict a resounding defeat upon them; many Byzantine soldiers are killed. Constantine himself barely escapes with his life, and flees with the remainder of his army to the safety of Mystras.[40][41]
  • Battle of Settepozzi: A Byzantine-Genoese fleet (some 50 galleys) is routed by the Venetians near Spetses in the Argolic Gulf, who capture four ships and inflict considerable casualties. Later, the Genoese that survive the battle managed to capture Chania on Crete. They receive orders to avoid direct confrontations with the Venetian fleet, but instead are engaged in raiding against the Venetian merchant convoys in the Euripus Strait.[42]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
  • April 4 – Egyptian forces led by Sultan Baibars (or Abu al-Futuh) attack Acre, there is severe fighting outside the walls, in which the seneschal, Geoffrey of Sergines, is badly wounded. Baibars is not yet ready to besiege the city and begins a major campaign to eliminate the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, the county of Tripoli and the principality of Antioch.[47][48]

By topicEdit

Arts and CultureEdit
EducationEdit
MarketsEdit
  • Edward (the Lord Edward), son and heir of King Henry III, seizes £10,000, which had been deposited to the trust of the Knights Templar in London, by foreign merchants and English magnates.[49]
  • The Bonsignori firm gains the full market of the transfer of fiscal revenue, from the papal estates to Rome.[50]
ReligionEdit

1264

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Spring – Battle of Makryplagi: Constantine Palaiologos, half-brother of Emperor Michael III (Palaiologos), resumes operations against the Principality of Achaea. He advances up in northern Elis, and sets up his camp at a location called "St. Nicholas of Mesiskli". Prince William II of Villehardouin with his own troops march to meet him and arrays his men ready for battle. The Byzantine vanguard under Michael Kantakouzenos, ride forth from the Byzantine lines, but the force is ambushed and Michael is killed by the Achaeans. Constantine retreats and goes on to lay siege to the fortress of Nikli. There, Turkish mercenaries (some 1,000 horsemen), confront him and demand that he pay them their arrears of 6 months. Constantine refuses, whereupon the Turkish troops desert to William. He decides to raise the siege and departs for Constantinople. He leaves Alexios Philes with a force and marches towards Messenia, where he occupies the passes, situated near Gardiki Castle. William, reinforced by the Turkish contingent, marches to Messenia to attack the Byzantines, despite their holding strong positions on the high ground. The first two attacks are beaten off, but during the third attack, the Byzantines flee in panic. Alexios, along with many Greek nobles, are captured.[51]
EuropeEdit
British IslesEdit
  • April 5Battle of Northampton: English forces under Roger Mortimer, advance over the water meadows south of Northampton to attack its main gate with engines. Meanwhile, another party rides clockwise along the built-up area's western perimeter, looking for an easier entrance. While the townsmen entrust to hold up the initial attack, the outflanking detachment founds a breach in the garden wall of St. Andrew's Priory, at the north of the town. Simon de Montfort (the Younger), son of Simon de Montfort, reacts to the break-in – riding upon his horse with his squire, and some followers to contest the breach. But Simon is captured and throws the defenders into disarray. Simon de Montfort mounts a rearguard to relieve his son, but on April 6 the castle falls.[61]
  • April 1719 – English rebels under Simon de Montfort beset Rochester from two directions in a pincer movement from north and south. The garrison sortie to burn the suburbs to deprive the rebels of cover. Initial assaults on the bridge the next morning are repulsed by Roger de Leybourne. In the evening, however, supported by archers shooting across the river, Simon launches an amphibious assault, wind and current carrying his fireship across to set fire to the bridge defenses. The rebels capture the castle's outer bailey and the garrison retires inside the keep on April 19. Meanwhile, rebels under Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) occupy the cathedral. The siege then bogged down, Simon receives reports of a relief force and orders to withdraw on April 26.[62]
  • April – Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) leads a massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, during the outbreak of the Second Barons' War.[63] In the meantime, another of de Montfort's followers, John FitzJohn, leads a massacre against the Jews in London.[64] The Jewish communities of Northampton, Winchester, Cambridge, and Lincoln are looted. The archæ (official chest of records) is destroyed or deposited at the headquarters of de Montfort's supporters at Ely.[65]
  • May 14Battle of Lewes: English rebels led by Simon de Montfort defeat Henry III and Prince Edward (the Lord Edward), at Lewes. Henry leaves the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory, to engage the rebels. Edward routes part of the rebel army (some 5,000 men) with a cavalry charge, but during the battle de Montfort's forces capture both Henry and Edward, making Simon the "uncrowned king of England" for 15 months.[66]
  • May – Simon de Montfort marches on London but the drawbridge on London Bridge has been raised by the Lord Mayor. Simon has the support of the Londoners, who manage to lower the bridge allowing him into the city. Henry III is forced to pardon the rebel nobles and reinstates the Provisions of Oxford. With Henry's power diminished, Simon announces that all debts owed to the Jews would be canceled.[67]
  • June – Simon de Montfort summons Parliament in London to confirm new constitutional arrangements. Two knights are summoned for each county, and are allowed to comment on general matters of state – the first time this has occurred. In France, Queen Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III, makes plans for an invasion of England with the support of Louis IX (the Saint).[68]
  • June – Edward (the Lord Edward) is held captive at Wallingford Castle, but after an escape attempt he is moved to Kenilworth Castle.
  • June 18 – The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitely known meeting of this Irish legislature.
  • December 24 – The title Baron de Ros, the oldest held peerage title, is created by writ of summons during the reign of Henry III.
Mongol EmpireEdit
AsiaEdit
  • February – The Japanese era Kōchō ends and the Bun'ei era begins during the reign of the 14-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1275).

By topicEdit

EducationEdit
ReligionEdit

1265

By topicEdit

War and politicsEdit
CultureEdit

By placeEdit

Africa and AsiaEdit

1266

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • January 2Siege of Murcia: King James I of Aragon ("the Conqueror") marches with his army from Orihuela and lays siege at Murcia on the Segura River. Skirmishes break out between the defenders and the Aragonese forces. The Muslim garrison, realizing that they are outnumbered and cut off from reinforcements, asks for terms. James offers to ask King Alfonso X of Castile ("the Wise") to restore the Murcians' legal rights (see 1244) from before the rebellion: self-government under Castilian suzerainty, freedom of worship, and preservation of lands and properties. They agree to this offer but request Alfonso's explicit agreement rather than just James' promise to ask him. James refuses to get Alfonso's agreement before the city surrenders. Finally, the Moors yield Murcia to James on January 31. Seeing his standard on the walls, James enters the city on February 3, accepting its surrender.[88]
  • February 26Battle of Benevento: Guelph forces (some 12,000 men) led by Charles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX of France ("the Saint"), defeat a combined German and Sicilian army under Manfred, King of Sicily, during a long-running power struggle in Italy. Manfred takes up a strong position near Benevento. As the French infantry advances, he unleashes his Saracen archers and light cavalry, which scatters the French. But the Saracens leave themselves exposed to the French heavy cavalry, and are overwhelmed. Manfred orders his heavy cavalry (some 1,200 German mercenary knights) into the attack. But they are defeated by the Ghibelline forces, and take heavy losses. Manfred is killed and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as ruler of Sicily and Naples. Meanwhile, Michael II, despot of Epirus, invades Albania and recovers the lands that Manfred has taken from him.[89]
  • June – The Mudéjar Revolt ends. The rebels make their formal submission to Alfonso X of Castile. They recognize the error that the Moors of Murcia have committed against their overlord Alfonso. Representatives of the aljama, or municipal council, renew their allegiance and humbly beg for pardon, mercy and favour. With this the Mudéjar uprising in the Kingdom of Murcia is formally ended.[90]
  • June 23Battle of Trapani: The Venetian fleet (24 galleys) led by Admiral Jacopo Dondulo moves to Marsala and attacks the larger Genoese fleet anchored at Trapani, capturing all its ships. Some 1,200 Genoese drown and many are killed. Dondulo is acclaimed a hero on his return to Venice in July. He is elected as Captain General of the Sea, Venice's highest naval command position.[91]
  • July 2Treaty of Perth: King Alexander III of Scotland agrees to a peace settlement with King Magnus VI of Norway ("the Law-mender") in which the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Man are ceded to Scotland in exchange for 4,000 marks. In return, Alexander confirms Norwegian sovereignty over the islands of Shetland and Orkney.[92]
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit
AmericaEdit

By topicEdit

EconomicsEdit
ReligionEdit

1267

By topicEdit

War and politicsEdit
CultureEdit
  • Roger Bacon completes his work Opus Majus and sends it to Pope Clement IV, who had requested it be written; the work contains wide-ranging discussion of mathematics, optics, alchemy, astronomy, astrology, and other topics, and includes what some believe to be the first description of a magnifying glass. Bacon also completes Opus Minus, a summary of Opus Majus, later in the same year. The only source for his date of birth is his statement in the Opus Tertium, written in 1267, that "forty years have passed since I first learned the alphabet". The 1214 birth date assumes he was not being literal, and meant 40 years had passed since he matriculated at Oxford at the age of 13. If he had been literal, his birth date was more likely to have been around 1220.[100][101]
  • The leadership of Vienna forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped head dress, in addition to the yellow badges Jews are already forced to wear.[102]
  • In England, the Statute of Marlborough is passed, the oldest English law still (partially) in force.[103][104]

By placeEdit

Asia and AfricaEdit

1268

By topicEdit

War and politicsEdit
CultureEdit

By placeEdit

AsiaEdit

1269

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • Prince Edward (the Lord Edward) obtains the right to levy a twentieth of the value of the Church's wealth to finance the Ninth Crusade. That sum turns out to be insufficient, and Edward has to borrow to reach his target.[126]
  • John Comyn begins the construction of Blair Castle, in Scotland.
AfricaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
ScienceEdit
  • Pierre de Maricourt, French mathematician and writer, performs a series of experiments with magnetic poles and proposes that a machine can be run forever in perpetual motion using the properties of magnets.

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

1260

1261

1262

1263

1264

1265

1266

1267

1268

1269

DeathsEdit

1260

1261

1262

1263

1264

1265

1266

1267

1268

1269

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Cobb, Paul M. (2014). The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780190614461.
  2. ^ Lower, Michael (2018). The Tunis Crusade of 1270: A Mediterranean History. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780198744320.
  3. ^ a b Meisami, Julie Scott; Starkey, Paul (1998). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 301. ISBN 9780415185714.
  4. ^ a b Allsen, Thomas T. (2004) [2001]. Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780521602709.
  5. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 283. ISBN 9781851096725.
  6. ^ Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (2004) [1995]. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–30. ISBN 9780521522908.
  7. ^ Zhu, Ruixi; Zhang, Bangwei; Liu, Fusheng; Cai, Chongbang; Wang, Zengyu (2016). A Social History of Medieval China. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 757. ISBN 9781107167865.
  8. ^ Mass, Jeffrey P. (1989). Lordship and Inheritance in Early Medieval Japan: A Study of the Kamakura Soryo System. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 9780804715409.
  9. ^ Conlan, Thomas (2011). From Sovereign to Symbol: An Age of Ritual Determinism in Fourteenth Century Japan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780199778102.
  10. ^ Grant, R. G. (2011). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. New York: Book Sales. p. 175. ISBN 9780785835530.
  11. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Vol. I: A-E. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 320. ISBN 9780313335372.
  12. ^ Trollope, Thomas Adolphus (1865). A History of the Commonwealth of Florence: From the Earliest Independence of the Commune to the Fall of the Republic in 1531. Vol. I. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 154–160.
  13. ^ Lincoln, Bruce (2014). Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 21–24. ISBN 9780199372386.
  14. ^ Gyllenbok, Jan (2018). Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Science Networks Historical Studies 57. Vol. 2. Cham, Switzerland: Birkhäuser. p. 1266. ISBN 9783319666914.
  15. ^ Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG (2008). Künker Auktion 137 - The De Wit Collection of Medieval Coins, 1000 Years of European Coinage, Part III: England, Ireland, Scotland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Balkan, the Middle East, Crusader States, Jetons und Weights. Osnabrück, Germany: Numismatischer Verlag Künker. p. 261.
  16. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780472082605.
  17. ^ Morganstern, Anne McGee (2011). "Chapter Five: The North Transept Porch of Chartres Cathedral". High Gothic Sculpture at Chartres Cathedral, the Tomb of the Count of Joigny, and the Master of the Warrior Saints. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780271048659.
  18. ^ Ryan, William Granger (1995) [1993]. Vorágine, Jacobo de (ed.). The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. xiii. ISBN 9780691001531.
  19. ^ Delaure, Dominic E. (2018). "Chapter 4: Concepts of Solitude in Jacobus de Voragine's Legenda aurea". In Enenkel, Karl A. E.; Göttler, Christine (eds.). Solitudo: Spaces and Places of Solitude in Late Medieval and Early Modern Cultures. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 121. ISBN 9789004367432.
  20. ^ Buckley, Jonathan; Jepson, Tim (2009). The Rough Guide to Florence & the best of Tuscany. New York, London, Delhi: Rough Guides UK. p. 160. ISBN 9781848361973.
  21. ^ Lord, Suzanne (2008). Music in the Middle Ages: A Reference Guide: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780313083686.
  22. ^ Peraino, Judith A. (2011). Giving Voice to Love: Song and Self-Expression from the Troubadours to Guillaume de Machaut. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780199757244.
  23. ^ Munro, David M.; Gittings, Bruce (2006). Scotland: An Encyclopedia of Places & Landscapes. London and New York: Harper Collins. p. 175. ISBN 9780004724669.
  24. ^ Swenson, Astrid (2013). The Rise of Heritage: Preserving the Past in France, Germany and England, 1789–1914. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN 9781107469112.
  25. ^ Magill, Frank Northen; Aves, Alison (1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Vol. II: The Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge. p. 747. ISBN 9781579580414.
  26. ^ Keown, Damien (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780191579172.
  27. ^ Andrews, Frances (2017). "The Influence of Joachim in the 13th Century". In Riedl, Matthias (ed.). A Companion to Joachim of Fiore. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. pp. 241–244. ISBN 9789004339668.
  28. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 240. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  29. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, pp. 40–41. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  30. ^ Nicol, Donald M. (1993). The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, p. 35 (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6.
  31. ^ Hackel, Sergei (2001). The Byzantine Saint, p. 71 (2001 ed.). St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 0-88141-202-3.
  32. ^ Rossabi, Morris (1988). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times, p. 51. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06740-0.
  33. ^ Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 9781135131371.
  34. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 144–146. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  35. ^ BBC History, July 2011, p. 12.
  36. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 32. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4302-4.
  37. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
  38. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 145. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  39. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 49. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  40. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1977). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 50. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  41. ^ Longnon, Jean (1969). The Frankish States in Greece, 1204–1311, pp. 253–254. In Wolff, Robert Lee; Hazard, Harry W. (eds.). A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311, pp. 234–275. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-06670-3.
  42. ^ Lane, Frederic Chapin (1973). Venice, A Maritime Republic, p. 77. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-1445-6.
  43. ^ Helle, Knut (1995). Under kirke og kongemakt: 1130-1350, p. 196. Aschehougs Norgeshistorie. Vol. 3. Aschehoug. ISBN 8203220312.
  44. ^ McDonald, Russell Andrew (1997). The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard, c. 100–c. 1336, p. 115. Scottish Historical Monographs, Tuckwell Press. ISBN 1-898410-85-2.
  45. ^ Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
  46. ^ Willis-Bund, J W; Page, William, eds. (1924). "The city of Worcester: Introduction and borough". A History of the County of Worcester: Volume 4. London: British History Online, pp. 376–390. Retrieved: 20 May 2018.
  47. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 265. ISBN 978-0241-29877-0.
  48. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 145. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  49. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1). doi:10.2307/1832571. JSTOR 1832571.
  50. ^ Catoni, Giuliano. "BONSIGNORI". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  51. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 50. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  52. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 161. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  53. ^ Treharne, R. F.; Sanders, I. J. (1973). Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion, 1258–1267, pp. 253–57. ISBN 0-19-822222-X.
  54. ^ Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 110. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
  55. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 36. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4302-4.
  56. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 164. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
  57. ^ Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 121. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
  58. ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 54. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
  59. ^ Szũcs, Jenõ (2002). Az utolsó Árpádok, p. 172. [The Last Árpáds] (in Hungarian). Osiris Kiadó. ISBN 963-389-271-6.
  60. ^ Zsoldos, Attila (2007). Családi ügy: IV. Béla és István ifjabb király viszálya az 1260-as években [A family affair: The Conflict between Béla IV and Junior King Stephen in the 1260s] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. p. 140–141. ISBN 978-963-9627-15-4.
  61. ^ Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
  62. ^ Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
  63. ^ Huscroft, Richard (2006). Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution. Stroud: Tempus. p. 105. ISBN 9780752437293.
  64. ^ Fogle, Lauren (2019). The King's Converts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 40. ISBN 9781498589215.
  65. ^ Jacobs, Joseph (1903). "England". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 161–174.
  66. ^ Maurice Keen (1999). Medieval Warfare: A History, p. 309. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164738-3.
  67. ^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, p. 132. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
  68. ^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, pp. 136–137. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
  69. ^ Lehmberg, Stanford (2002). A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From Prehistoric Times to 1688. New York and London: Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 9781134415281.
  70. ^ Zsoldos, Attila (2007). Családi ügy: IV. Béla és István ifjabb király viszálya az 1260-as években [A family affair: The Conflict between Béla IV and Junior King Stephen in the 1260s] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. p. 141. ISBN 978-963-9627-15-4.
  71. ^ Grossman, Mark (2007). World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Facts on File Library of World History. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9780816074778.
  72. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 114. Vol. I: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. p. 100. ISBN 9780871691149.
  73. ^ a b Mackintosh, James; Wallace, William (1836). The history of England, by sir J. Mackintosh (continued by W. Wallace, R. Bell). Vol. I: England. London: Longman and John Taylor. pp. 237–238.
  74. ^ Bullock, H. A. (1816). History of the Isle of Man: With a Comparative View of the Past and Present State of Society and Manners, Containing Also Biographical Anecdotes of Eminent Persons Connected with that Island. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. pp. 23. 1265 isle of man.
  75. ^ Slatyer, Will (2014). Ebbs and Flows of Medieval Empires, AD 900 – 1400: A Short History of Medieval Religion, War, Prosperity and Debt. Singapore: Partridge India. p. 321. ISBN 9781482896831.
  76. ^ Howorth, Henry Hoyle (2008). History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century. Vol. Part 2: The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. New York: Cosimo, Inc. p. 123. ISBN 9781605201344.
  77. ^ Powell, John (2001). Magill's Guide to Military History. Vol. 3: Jap-Pel. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. p. 854. ISBN 9780893560171.
  78. ^ Strabone, Jeff (2018). Poetry and British Nationalisms in the Bardic Eighteenth Century: Imagined Antiquities. Palgrave Studies in the Enlightenment, Romanticism and Cultures of Print. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9783319952550.
  79. ^ Corte-Real, Antonio (2005). "The Conflict Between Trade Marks and Geographical Indications - The Case of Budweiser in Portugal". In Heath, Christopher; Sanders, Anselm Kamperman (eds.). New Frontiers of Intellectual Property Law: IP and Cultural Heritage – Geographical Indications – Enforcement – Overprotection. Oxford and Portland, OR: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 9781847312563.
  80. ^ Aavitsland, Kristin B. (2012). Imagining the Human Condition in Medieval Rome: The Cistercian Fresco Cycle at Abbazia Delle Tre Fontane. Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 9781409438182.
  81. ^ Kunz, George Frederick (1973) [1917]. Rings for the Finger: From the Earliest Known Times to the Present, with Full Descriptions of the Origin, Early Making, Materials, the Archaeology, History, for Affection, for Love, for Engagement, for Wedding, Commemorative, Mourning, etc. New York: Dover Publications. p. 263. ISBN 9780486144245.
  82. ^ Izbicki, Thomas M. (2016) [1995]. "Clement IV". In Kibler, William W.; Zinn, Grover A. (eds.). Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 230. ISBN 9781351665667.
  83. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. p. 104. ISBN 9781473856431.
  84. ^ Slack, Corliss K. (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Crusades. Lanham, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. xxxii. ISBN 9780810878310.
  85. ^ Okazaki, Hisahiko (1986). A grand strategy for Japanese defense. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. p. 4. ISBN 9780819153258.
  86. ^ Goitein, S. D. (1999). A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. I: Economic Foundations. Berkeley, CA, Los Angeles, CA and London: University of California Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780520221581.
  87. ^ Dwivedi, Rakesh (2010). Gs In 60 Days. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 1.49. ISBN 9780070670785.
  88. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 46. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
  89. ^ Esposito, Gabriele (2019). Armies of the Medieval Italian Wars 1125–1325, p. 39. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472833426.
  90. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle of the Strait, p. 47. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0463-6.
  91. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 165. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
  92. ^ "When Hebrideans were offered a new start in Norway". Scotsman. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  93. ^ Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
  94. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 268. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  95. ^ Stanislawski, Dan (2015) [1959]. The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical-Political Geography. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 213. ISBN 9781477305072.
  96. ^ Nicol, Donald M. (2010) [1984]. The Despotate of Epiros 1267-1479: A Contribution to the History of Greece in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, London and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521261906.
  97. ^ Sadler, John (2008). The Second Barons' War: Simon de Montfort and the Battles of Lewes and Evesham. Barnsley, UK: Casemate Publishers. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9781844158317.
  98. ^ Santiuste, David (2015). The Hammer of the Scots: Edward I and the Scottish Wars of Independence. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473857650.
  99. ^ Nedvěd, Martin; Peřinková, Martina (2017). "The City of Ostrava (Czech Republic): a Sustainability Assessment Based on Vitality". In Brebbia, C. A.; Sendra, J. J. (eds.). The Sustainable City XII. Southampton and Boston: Wessex Institute of Technology Press. p. 15. ISBN 9781784662172.
  100. ^ Bruin, Tom de (2014). The Great Controversy: The Individual's Struggle Between Good and Evil in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in Their Jewish and Christian Contexts. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 14. ISBN 9783525540350.
  101. ^ Clegg, Brian (2016). Are Numbers Real?: The Uncanny Relationship of Mathematics and the Physical World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 80. ISBN 9781466892965.
  102. ^ Newall, Venetia (2013). The Witch Figure: Folklore Essays by a Group of Scholars in England Honouring the 75th Birthday of Katharine M. Briggs. Anthropology and Ethnography. London and New York: Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 9781136551734.
  103. ^ Brand, Paul (2003). Kings, Barons and Justices: The Making and Enforcement of Legislation in Thirteenth-Century England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781139439077.
  104. ^ Streitz, N.; Rizk, A.; Andre, J.; André, J. (1990). "Links and Structures in Hypertext Databases for Law". Hypertext: Concepts, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Hypertext, INRIA, France, November 1990. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 9780521405171.
  105. ^ Symons, Van Jay (2013). Friedman, John Block; Figg, Kristen Mossler (eds.). Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 319–320. ISBN 9781135590949.
  106. ^ Iqbal, Muzaffar (2007). Science and Islam. Westport, CN and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xxxi. ISBN 9780313335761.
  107. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. Vol. II: 500 - 1399 CE. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 855. ISBN 9781610690263.
  108. ^ Parppei, Kati M. J. (2017). The Battle of Kulikovo Refought: "The First National Feat". Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 129. ISBN 9789004337947.
  109. ^ Finlay, George (1854). History of the Byzantine Empire, from DCCXVI to MLVII. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons. p. 441.
  110. ^ Small, Carola M. (2004). "Battle of Tagliacozzo". In Kleinhenz, Christopher (ed.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 1068. ISBN 9781135948801.
  111. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 286. ISBN 9781851096725.
  112. ^ Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994) [1987]. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. p. 180. ISBN 9780472082605.
  113. ^ Madgearu, Alexandru (2016). The Asanids: The Political and Military History of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1280). Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 255. ISBN 9789004333192.
  114. ^ Möller, Arnold Wilhelm (1822). Versuch einer Territorialgeschichte des preußischen Staates, oder kurze Darstellung des Wachsthums der Besitzungen des Hauses Brandenburg seit dem zwölften Jahrhundert. Mit einer illumin. Karte (in German). Hamm und Münster: Schulz u. Wundermann. pp. 13–14.
  115. ^ Dean, Trevor (2000). The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. p. 219. ISBN 9780719052040.
  116. ^ a b Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. I: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. p. 106. ISBN 9780871691149.
  117. ^ Zirpolo, Lilian H. (2009). The A to Z of Renaissance Art. Lanham, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. 342–343. ISBN 9780810870437.
  118. ^ McNeill, William H. (2009) [1974]. Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780226561547.
  119. ^ Oliver, Garrett (2012). The Oxford Companion to Beer. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, USA. p. 464. ISBN 9780195367133.
  120. ^ "Kolárovo city, Slovakia". fotw.info. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  121. ^ Bradbury, Jim (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. London and New York: Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 9781134598472.
  122. ^ Curtis Wright, David (2013). "Debates in the Field During Bayan's Campaigns Against Southern Song China, 1274 - 1276". In Lorge, Peter A. (ed.). Debating War in Chinese History. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 141. ISBN 9789004244795.
  123. ^ Bary, Wm. Theodore de; Gluck, Carol; Tiedemann, Arthur; Varley, Paul (2002). "The Mongol Invasion of Japan". Sources of Japanese Tradition (Second: From Earliest Times to 1600 ed.). New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 280. ISBN 9780231518055.
  124. ^ Gates, Alexander E.; Ritchie, David (2007) [1994]. Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes (Third ed.). New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 292. ISBN 9780816072705.
  125. ^ Shakabpa, Tsepon Wangchuk Deden (2010). One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 224. ISBN 9789004177321.
  126. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).
  127. ^ Abun-Nasir, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period, pp. 103–118. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521337674.
  128. ^ Chen, Joseph J. F. (2014). Maitreya Buddha in I-Kuan Tao. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. p. 18. ISBN 9781496946591.
  129. ^ Mariana, Juan de (2011). A Treatise on the Alteration of Money: Sources in Early Modern Economics, Ethics, and Law. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian's Library Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781880595886.
  130. ^ Stephen, Sir Leslie (1887). Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder, & Company. p. 155.
  131. ^ Antonín, Robert (2017). The Ideal Ruler in Medieval Bohemia. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 397. ISBN 9789004341128.
  132. ^ Eckhart, Meister (1981). Meister Eckhart: The Essential Sermons, Commentaries, Treatises, and Defense. The Classics of Western Spirituality. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780809123704.
  133. ^ Aertsen, Jan A. (1998). Craig, Edward (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 286–288. ISBN 9780415187152.
  134. ^ Aguilera-Barchet, Bruno (2014). A History of Western Public Law: Between Nation and State. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 217. ISBN 9783319118031.
  135. ^ Agarwal, Ravi P.; Sen, Syamal K. (2014). Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 124. ISBN 9783319108704.
  136. ^ Robins, Robert H. (2011) [1993]. The Byzantine Grammarians: Their Place in History. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 70. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 201. ISBN 9783110857221.
  137. ^ Mayor, Adrienne (2014). The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 402. ISBN 9781400865130.
  138. ^ Mostow, Joshua S. (2014). Courtly Visions: The Ise Stories and the Politics of Cultural Appropriation. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 99. ISBN 9789004249431.
  139. ^ Tonʼa (2003). Just Living: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Tonna. Translated by Steven D. Carter. New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780231125536.
  140. ^ Tonʼa (2003). Just Living: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Tonna. New York and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780231125536.
  141. ^ Mass, Jeffrey P. (1997). The Origins of Japan's Medieval World: Courtiers, Clerics, Warriors, and Peasants in the Fourteenth Century. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 274. ISBN 9780804743792.
  142. ^ Thomas, Joseph (2009). The Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. Vol. I: A - CLU. New York: Cosimo, Inc. p. 91. ISBN 9781616400699.
  143. ^ Toynbee, Paget (2005). "Part II: Dante in Florence". Dante Alighieri: His Life and Works. Mineola, NY: Courier Corporation. p. 36. ISBN 9780486146423.
  144. ^ Martin, Therese (2012). Reassessing the Roles of Women as 'Makers' of Medieval Art and Architecture. Visualising the Middle Ages. Vol. Two. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 1083. ISBN 9789004185555.
  145. ^ Roberson, Gloria G. (2003). The World of Toni Morrison: A Guide to Characters and Places in Her Novels. Wesport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 13. ISBN 9780313323805. 1265 Beatrice Portinari.
  146. ^ Dyer, Ray (2016). Lady Muriel: The Victorian Romance by Lewis Carroll. Kibworth Beauchamp, UK: Troubador Publishing Ltd. pp. l. ISBN 9781785890314.
  147. ^ Gemmill, Elizabeth (2013). The Nobility and Ecclesiastical Patronage in Thirteenth-Century England. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781843838128.
  148. ^ Jaspert, Nikolas (2019). Queens, Princesses and Mendicants: Close Relations in a European Perspective. Vita Regularis - Ordnungen und Deutungen religiosen Lebens im Mittelalter. Zürich, Switzerland: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 20. ISBN 9783643910929.
  149. ^ Thompson, Bard (1996). "10. Painters and Sculptors of the Quattrocento - Giotto and his Times". Humanists and Reformers: A History of the Renaissance and Reformation. Grand Rapids, MI and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 229. ISBN 9780802863485. 1267 Giotto.
  150. ^ Guise, Richard (2011). Two Wheels Over Catalonia: Cycling the Back Roads of North-Eastern Spain. Chichester, UK: Summersdale Publishers Limited. p. 310. ISBN 9780857652850.
  151. ^ Marcos Hierro, Ernest (2010). Rogers, Clifford J. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. I: Aachen, Siege of - Dyrrachium, Siege and Battle of (1081). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780195334036.
  152. ^ Delph, Ronald K. (2007). Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Janice J.; Upshur, Jiu-Hwa Lo; Whitters, Mark F. (eds.). Encyclopedia of World History. Facts on File Library of World History. Infobase Publishing. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
  153. ^ Renna, Thomas (2006). Schaus, Margaret C. (ed.). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 9781135459604.
  154. ^ Hu, Wen (2017). Dillon, Michael (ed.). Encyclopedia of Chinese History. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 634–635. ISBN 9781317817161.
  155. ^ Juhász, Gergely M. (2014). Translating Resurrection: The Debate between William Tyndale and George Joye in Its Historical and Theological Context. Studies in the History of Christian Traditions. Vol. 165. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 155. ISBN 9789004259522.
  156. ^ Neville, Robert C. (2001). Ultimate Realities: A Volume in the Comparative Religious Ideas Project. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780791447758.
  157. ^ Ellsberg, Robert (2016). Blessed Among Us: Day by Day with Saintly Witnesses. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. p. 242. ISBN 9780814647455.
  158. ^ Jackson, Guida M.; Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 267 - 268. ISBN 9781576070918. 1260 Maria of Brabant.
  159. ^ Moule, Thomas (1830). Great Britain Illustrated: A Series of Original Views. London: C. Tilt. pp. 11. 1260 Walter of Kirkham.
  160. ^ Aston, Trevor Henry (1984). The History of the University of Oxford. Vol. I: The Early Oxford Schools. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 292. ISBN 9780199510115.
  161. ^ Jobson, Adrian (2016). Baronial Reform and Revolution in England, 1258-1267. Woodbridge and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN 9781843834670.
  162. ^ Runciman, Steven (1999) [1951]. A History of the Crusades. Vol. III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid: Cambridge University Press Archive. pp. 305–314. ISBN 9780521347723.
  163. ^ Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9781135948801.
  164. ^ The Chetham Society (1890). Remains, Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester. Manchester, UK: Chetham Society. pp. 721. 1265 John maunsell.
  165. ^ Browne, Edward G. (2013) [1920]. A History of Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion (AD 1265–1502). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781107682412.
  166. ^ Guiley, Rosemary (2001). The Encyclopedia of Saints. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 305–306. ISBN 9781438130262.
  167. ^ Bartlett, Robert (2013). Why Can the Dead Do Such Great Things?: Saints and Worshippers from the Martyrs to the Reformation. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. p. 218. ISBN 9781400848782.
  168. ^ Crabb, George (1825). Universal Historical Dictionary: Or, Explanation of the Names of Persons and Places in the Departments of Biblical, Political, and Ecclesiastical History, Mythology, Heraldry, Biography, Bibliography, Geography, and Numismatics. Illustrated by Portraits and Medallic Cuts. Vol. II. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.
  169. ^ a b Wilkinson, Louise J. (2012). Eleanor de Montfort: A Rebel Countess in Medieval England. London and New York: A&C Black. p. 208. ISBN 9781441182197.
  170. ^ Imsen, Steinar (2010). The Norwegian Domination and the Norse World, C.1100-c.1400. "Norgesveldet", Occasional Papers No. 1. Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 9788251925631.
  171. ^ Dongen, Emanuel van (2014). Contributory Negligence: A Historical and Comparative Study. Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 120. ISBN 9789004278721.
  172. ^ Kadens, Emily (2019). "Convergence and the colonization of customs in pre-modern Europe". In Moréteau, Olivier; Masferrer, Aniceto; Modéer, Kjell A. (eds.). Comparative Legal History. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 178. ISBN 9781781955222.
  173. ^ Eichner, Heidrun (2011). "Essence and Existence. Thirteenth-Century Perspectives in Arabic-Islamic Philosophy and Theology". In Hasse, Dag Nikolaus; Bertolacci, Amos (eds.). The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna's Metaphysics. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 125. ISBN 9783110215762.
  174. ^ "Manfred - king of Sicily". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  175. ^ "Malcolm (II), earl of Fife (d.1266)". db.poms.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  176. ^ Shirley, Janet (2016) [1999]. Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: The Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with Part of the Eracles or Acre Text. Oxford and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781351947114.
  177. ^ Thomson, Williell R. (1975). Friars in the Cathedral: The First Franciscan Bishops 1226-1261. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. p. 67. ISBN 9780888440334.
  178. ^ Wispelwey, Berend (2011). Biographical Index of the Middle Ages. Munich, Germany: K. G. Saur Verlag. p. 877. ISBN 9783110914160.
  179. ^ Jackson, Guida M.; Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver CO and Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO. pp. 52. ISBN 9781576070918. 1267 Beatrice of provence.
  180. ^ Watkins, Basil (2015) [2002]. The Book of Saints: A Comprehensive Biographical Dictionary. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780567664150.
  181. ^ Hone, William (1830). The Every-day Book and Table Book: Or, Everlasting Calendar of Popular Amusements, Sports, Pastimes, Ceremonies, Manners, Customs, and Events, Incident to Each of the Three Hundred and Sixty-five Days, in Past and Present Times; Forming a Complete History of the Year, Months, and Seasons, and a Perpetual Key to the Almanac ... for Daily Use and Diversio. London: J. Haddon. p. 1509.
  182. ^ Edbury, Peter W. (1994) [1991]. The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780521458375.
  183. ^ Horsfield, Thomas Walker (1835). The History, Antiquities, and Topography of the County of Sussex. Sussex and London: Sussex Press, Baxter. p. 3.
  184. ^ Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1841). Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London: Charles Knight. pp. 439. 1268 peter savoy.
  185. ^ Hazlitt, William Carew (1860). History of the Venetian Republic: Her Rise, Her Greatness, and Her Civilization. Vol. II. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 255.
  186. ^ Cox, Eugene L. (2015) [1974]. The Eagles of Savoy: The House of Savoy in Thirteenth-Century Europe. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 374. ISBN 9781400867912.
  187. ^ Quatriglio, Giuseppe (2005) [1985]. A Thousand Years in Sicily: From the Arabs to the Bourbons (Third ed.). Mineola, NY and Ottawa: Legas / Gaetano Cipolla. p. 43. ISBN 9780921252177.
  188. ^ Bassiouni, M. Cherif; Schabas, William A. (2016). The Legislative History of the International Criminal Court. Vol. I (Second Revised and Expanded ed.). Leiden and Boston: BRILL. p. 17. ISBN 9789004322097.
  189. ^ Janonienė, Rūta; Račiūnaitė, Tojana; Iršėnas, Marius; Butrimas, Adomas (2015). The Lithuanian Millennium: History, Art and Culture. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vilnius Academy of Arts Press. p. 58. ISBN 9786094470974.
  190. ^ Linskill, Richard, ed. (1964). The Poems of the Troubadour, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton. p. 85.
  191. ^ Bracton, Henry de (2010). Maitland, William Frederick (ed.). Bracton's Note Book: A Collection of Cases Decided in the King's Courts During the Reign of Henry the Third. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781108010290.