Year 1264 (MCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1264 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1264
Ab urbe condita2017
Armenian calendar713
Assyrian calendar6014
Balinese saka calendar1185–1186
Bengali calendar671
Berber calendar2214
English Regnal year48 Hen. 3 – 49 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1808
Burmese calendar626
Byzantine calendar6772–6773
Chinese calendar癸亥年 (Water Pig)
3961 or 3754
    — to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
3962 or 3755
Coptic calendar980–981
Discordian calendar2430
Ethiopian calendar1256–1257
Hebrew calendar5024–5025
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1320–1321
 - Shaka Samvat1185–1186
 - Kali Yuga4364–4365
Holocene calendar11264
Igbo calendar264–265
Iranian calendar642–643
Islamic calendar662–663
Japanese calendarKōchō 4 / Bun'ei 1
Javanese calendar1174–1175
Julian calendar1264
Korean calendar3597
Minguo calendar648 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−204
Thai solar calendar1806–1807
Tibetan calendar阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1390 or 1009 or 237
    — to —
(male Wood-Rat)
1391 or 1010 or 238
Monument of the Battle of Lewes

Events edit

By place edit

Byzantine Empire edit

  • Spring – Battle of Makryplagi: Constantine Palaiologos, half-brother of Emperor Michael III (Palaiologos), resumes operations against the Principality of Achaea. He advances up in northern Elis, and sets up his camp at a location called "St. Nicholas of Mesiskli". Prince William II of Villehardouin with his own troops march to meet him and arrays his men ready for battle. The Byzantine vanguard under Michael Kantakouzenos, ride forth from the Byzantine lines, but the force is ambushed and Michael is killed by the Achaeans. Constantine retreats and goes on to lay siege to the fortress of Nikli. There, Turkish mercenaries (some 1,000 horsemen), confront him and demand that he pay them their arrears of 6 months. Constantine refuses, whereupon the Turkish troops desert to William. He decides to raise the siege and departs for Constantinople. He leaves Alexios Philes with a force and marches towards Messenia, where he occupies the passes, situated near Gardiki Castle. William, reinforced by the Turkish contingent, marches to Messenia to attack the Byzantines, despite their holding strong positions on the high ground. The first two attacks are beaten off, but during the third attack, the Byzantines flee in panic. Alexios, along with many Greek nobles, are captured.[1]

Europe edit

British Isles edit

  • April 5Battle of Northampton: English forces under Roger Mortimer, advance over the water meadows south of Northampton to attack its main gate with engines. Meanwhile, another party rides clockwise along the built-up area's western perimeter, looking for an easier entrance. While the townsmen entrust to hold up the initial attack, the outflanking detachment founds a breach in the garden wall of St. Andrew's Priory, at the north of the town. Simon de Montfort (the Younger), son of Simon de Montfort, reacts to the break-in – riding upon his horse with his squire, and some followers to contest the breach. But Simon is captured and throws the defenders into disarray. Simon de Montfort mounts a rearguard to relieve his son, but on April 6 the castle falls.[11]
  • April 1719 – English rebels under Simon de Montfort beset Rochester from two directions in a pincer movement from north and south. The garrison sortie burns the suburbs to deprive the rebels of cover. Initial assaults on the bridge the next morning are repulsed by Roger de Leybourne. In the evening, however, supported by archers shooting across the river, Simon launches an amphibious assault, wind and current carrying his fireship across to set fire to the bridge defenses. The rebels capture the castle's outer bailey and the garrison retires inside the keep on April 19. Meanwhile, rebels under Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) occupy the cathedral. The siege then boggs down, Simon receives reports of a relief force and orders to withdraw on April 26.[12]
  • April – Gilbert de Clare (the Red Earl) leads a massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, during the outbreak of the Second Barons' War.[13] In the meantime, another of de Montfort's followers, John FitzJohn, leads a massacre against the Jews in London.[14] The Jewish communities of Northampton, Winchester, Cambridge, and Lincoln are looted. The archæ (official chest of records) is destroyed or deposited at the headquarters of de Montfort's supporters at Ely.[15]
  • May 14Battle of Lewes: English rebels led by Simon de Montfort defeat Henry III and Prince Edward (the Lord Edward), at Lewes. Henry leaves the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory, to engage the rebels. Edward routes part of the rebel army (some 5,000 men) with a cavalry charge, but during the battle de Montfort's forces capture both Henry and Edward, making Simon the "uncrowned king of England" for 15 months.[16]
  • May – Simon de Montfort marches on London but the drawbridge on London Bridge has been raised by the Lord Mayor. Simon has the support of the Londoners, who manage to lower the bridge allowing him into the city. Henry III is forced to pardon the rebel nobles and reinstates the Provisions of Oxford. With Henry's power diminished, Simon announces that all debts owed to the Jews would be canceled.[17]
  • June – Simon de Montfort summons Parliament in London to confirm new constitutional arrangements. Two knights are summoned for each county, and are allowed to comment on general matters of state – the first time this has occurred. In France, Queen Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III, makes plans for an invasion of England with the support of Louis IX (the Saint).[18]
  • June – Edward (the Lord Edward) is held captive at Wallingford Castle, but after an escape attempt he is moved to Kenilworth Castle.
  • June 18 – The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitely known meeting of this Irish legislature.
  • December 24 – The title Baron de Ros, the oldest held peerage title, is created by writ of summons during the reign of Henry III.

Mongol Empire edit

Asia edit

  • February – The Japanese era Kōchō ends and the Bun'ei era begins during the reign of the 14-year-old Emperor Kameyama (until 1275).

By topic edit

Education edit

Religion edit

Births edit

Deaths edit

References edit

  1. ^ Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453, p. 50. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
  2. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 161. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  3. ^ Treharne, R. F.; Sanders, I. J. (1973). Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion, 1258–1267, pp. 253–57. ISBN 0-19-822222-X.
  4. ^ Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 110. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
  5. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 36. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4302-4.
  6. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, p. 164. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
  7. ^ Doubleday, Simon R. (2015). The Wise King: A Christian Prince, Muslim Spain, and the Birth of the Renaissance, p. 121. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-07391-7.
  8. ^ Harvey, L. P. (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500, p. 54. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31962-9.
  9. ^ Szũcs, Jenõ (2002). Az utolsó Árpádok, p. 172. [The Last Árpáds] (in Hungarian). Osiris Kiadó. ISBN 963-389-271-6.
  10. ^ Zsoldos, Attila (2007). Családi ügy: IV. Béla és István ifjabb király viszálya az 1260-as években [A family affair: The Conflict between Béla IV and Junior King Stephen in the 1260s] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-963-9627-15-4.
  11. ^ Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
  12. ^ Richard Brooks (2015). Osprey: Lewes and Evesham 1264–65, pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-4728-1150-9.
  13. ^ Huscroft, Richard (2006). Expulsion: England's Jewish Solution. Stroud: Tempus. p. 105. ISBN 9780752437293.
  14. ^ Fogle, Lauren (2019). The King's Converts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 40. ISBN 9781498589215.
  15. ^ Jacobs, Joseph (1903). "England". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 161–174.
  16. ^ Maurice Keen (1999). Medieval Warfare: A History, p. 309. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164738-3.
  17. ^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, p. 132. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
  18. ^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War, pp. 136–137. London, UK: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.