Year 1303 (MCCCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1303 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1303
MCCCIII
Ab urbe condita2056
Armenian calendar752
ԹՎ ՉԾԲ
Assyrian calendar6053
Balinese saka calendar1224–1225
Bengali calendar710
Berber calendar2253
English Regnal year31 Edw. 1 – 32 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1847
Burmese calendar665
Byzantine calendar6811–6812
Chinese calendar壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
3999 or 3939
    — to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4000 or 3940
Coptic calendar1019–1020
Discordian calendar2469
Ethiopian calendar1295–1296
Hebrew calendar5063–5064
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1359–1360
 - Shaka Samvat1224–1225
 - Kali Yuga4403–4404
Holocene calendar11303
Igbo calendar303–304
Iranian calendar681–682
Islamic calendar702–703
Japanese calendarKengen 2 / Kagen 1
(嘉元元年)
Javanese calendar1214–1215
Julian calendar1303
MCCCIII
Korean calendar3636
Minguo calendar609 before ROC
民前609年
Nanakshahi calendar−165
Thai solar calendar1845–1846
Tibetan calendar阳水虎年
(male Water-Tiger)
1429 or 1048 or 276
    — to —
阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1430 or 1049 or 277

EventsEdit

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit

  • September – Emperor Andronikos II (Palaiologos), facing a possible siege of Constantinople by Ottoman-Turkish forces, seeks support from the European kingdoms. He makes Roger de Flor, Italian military adventurer and nobleman, an offer of service. Roger with his fleet and army (some 7,000 men), now known as the Catalan Company, departs from Messina with 36 ships (including 18 galleys), and arrives in Constantinople. He is adopted into the imperial family, Andronikos appoints him as grand duke (megas doux) and commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army and fleet.[1]
  • Autumn – Battle of Dimbos: The Byzantine governors (tekfurs) of Prusa, Adranos, Kestel, and Ulubat begin a military campaign against the Ottoman-Turkish forces of Sultan Osman I (or Othman). They attack the Ottoman capital city of Yenişehir and proceed to relieve Nicaea, which is under an Ottoman blockade. Osman musters a 5,000-strong army and defeats the Byzantine forces at a mountain pass near Yenişehir.[2]

EuropeEdit

EnglandEdit

  • February 24Battle of Roslin: Scottish forces (some 8,000 men) led by John Comyn III (the Red) and Simon Fraser ambush and defeat an English scouting party under John Segrave at Roslin. During the battle, the Scots attack the English camp, capturing Segrave and several other nobles. But a second English brigade manages to rescue Segrave in a pitched battle. Later, the English army is again defeated, according to sources they lose between 28,000 and 30,000 men.[5]
  • May – Edward I (Longshanks) resumes his campaign against the Scots, and sets out from Roxburgh with a cavalry force and about 7,000 men. He orders that three pre-fabricated pontoon bridges be built and transported, in a fleet of 27 ships. Edward invades Scotland and during the advance, he burns hamlets and towns, granges and granaries. Meanwhile, Richard Óg de Burgh (the Red Earl) with forces from Ireland capture the castles of Rothesay and Inverkip.[6]
  • November 9 – Edward I (Longshanks) spends the winter at Dunfermline Abbey where he plans the attack on Stirling Castle. He stations an army in the field and operations continue throughout the winter. An English force (some 1,000 men) raids and plunder into Lennox as far as Drymen. Meanwhile, Lord John Botetourt raids Galloway in strength, with four bannerets (some 3,000 men).[7]

LevantEdit

AsiaEdit

  • August 26Siege of Chittorgarh: Delhi forces led by Sultan Alauddin Khalji capture the massive Chittor Fort in northern India, after an 8-month-long siege. Alauddin orders a general massacre of Chittor's population.[9]
  • Mongol invasion of India: Mongol forces appear outside Delhi and begin the siege of the city. Alauddin Khalji and a Delhi vanguard army return to the capital, while the Delhi garrison resists assaults of the Mongols.[10]
  • Autumn – Mongol forces lift the siege of Delhi after two months, they retreat with great plunder and war booty. Meanwhile, Alauddin Khaliji orders to strengthen border fortresses along the Mongol routes to India.[11]

By topicEdit

EducationEdit

  • April 20 – Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome with the papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies under his control, making it the first pontifical university.

GeologyEdit

ReligionEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Waley, Daniel (1985). Later Medieval Europe, p. 165 (2nd ed.). New York: Longman Inc. ISBN 0-582-49262-9.
  2. ^ Donald Nicol (1997). Theodore Spandounes: On the origin of the Ottoman emperors, p. 10. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Verbruggen, J. F. (1997). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340, p. 197. Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-630-4.
  4. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 120. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  5. ^ Sadler, John (2005). Border Fury: England and Scotland at War, 1296–1568, p. 86. Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-582-77293-9.
  6. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2003). Osprey: Stirling Bridge & Falkirk 1297–1298, pp. 86–87. ISBN 1-84176-510-4.
  7. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2003). Osprey: Stirling Bridge & Falkirk 1297–1298, p. 87. ISBN 1-84176-510-4.
  8. ^ Waterson, James (2007). The Knights of Islam: The Wars of the Mamluks, p. 210. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-734-2.
  9. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khalijis (1290–1320), p. 120. Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335.
  10. ^ Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, pp. 222–224. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  11. ^ René Grousset (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, p. 339. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
  12. ^ Ambraseys, N. N.; Melville, C. P.; Adams, R. D. (2005). The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea: A Historical Review. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780521020251.