The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.
- February 22 – The Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII is celebrated. It is at this celebration that Giovanni Villani decides to write his universal history of Florence, the Cronica.
- June 15 – The city of Bilbao receives a royal foundation charter.
- June 17 – Turku Cathedral is consecrated.
- Money from Florence, Italy becomes the first international currency.
- Philip IV of France begins his attempt to annex Flanders.
- Wenceslas II of Bohemia becomes King of Poland.
- A census in Imperial China finds that it has roughly 60 million inhabitants.
- The Tuareg establish a state centered on Agadez.
- Amsterdam is officially declared a city.
- Jacob ben Machir is appointed dean of the medical school at Montpellier, France.
- Aztec culture starts in Mesoamerica (approximate date).
- The Dulcinian sect begins when Gherardo Segarelli, founder of the Apostolic Brethren, is burned at the stake in Parma, during a brutal repression of the Apostolics.
- January 14 – The death of Andrew III of Hungary ends the Árpád Dynasty in Hungary, resulting in a power struggle between Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Otto III, Duke of Bavaria, and Charles Robert of Naples.
- February 7 – Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales.
- March 3 – Emperor Go-Nijō succeeds Emperor Go-Fushimi on the throne of Japan.
- November 1 – Charles, Count of Valois, enters Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroy much of the city, kill many of their enemies and install a new government under Cante dei Gabrielli da Gubbio as podestà, leading to the permanent exile of Dante Alighieri from the city.
- April 10 – First meeting of the Estates General of the Kingdom of France, convened by Philip IV of France, at the Notre-Dame in Paris.
- May 18 – Bruges Matins: The French garrison in Bruges is massacred at night, by members of the local Flemish militia.
- June 12 – Rakvere, Estonia, receives Lübeck city rights.
- July 11 – Battle of the Golden Spurs (also called the Battle of Courtrai): the County of Flanders gains a major victory over the Kingdom of France.
- July 27 – Battle of Bapheus: The Ottoman Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, heralding the Turkish conquest of Bithynia.
- September 24 – Treaty of Caltabellotta: Charles II of Naples makes peace with Frederick III of Sicily, ending the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
- September 26 – Fall of Ruad: The last Crusader stronghold in the Levant is conquered.
- October 4 – A peace treaty between the Byzantine Empire and the Republic of Venice ends the Byzantine–Venetian War (1296–1302).
- November 18 – Boniface VIII publishes the Papal bull Unam Sanctam.
- Roger de Flor founds the Catalan Company, with soldiers (Almogavars) jobless after the Treaty of Caltabellotta.
- Castile occupies the harbor of Algiers.
- Jičín, Bohemia is chartered as a city.
- Pope Boniface VIII suppresses the Franciscans.
- The Estates General of France meets for the first time.
- Dante Alighieri is exiled from Florence by the Black Guelphs, as is Petrarch's father (see Guelphs and Ghibellines).
- Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, reconciles with Edward I of England.
- Philip IV of France confiscates Jewish property.
- The Confucian Temple is erected in Beijing.
- February 24 – Battle of Roslin: The Scots defeat the English.
- April 4 – Battle of Arques: The Flemings defeat the French.
- April 20 – Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza.
- May 29 – The Treaty of Paris restores Gascony to the English.
- August 8 – 1303 Crete earthquake: An earthquake destroys the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.
- September 7 – Guillaume de Nogaret imprisons Pope Boniface VIII on behalf of Philip IV of France; Gregory Bicskei, archbishop of Esztergom, is killed in the incident.
- September 25 – 1303 Hongdong earthquake.
- October 22 – Pope Benedict XI succeeds Pope Boniface VIII, as the 194th pope.
- Wars of Scottish Independence: Edward I of England resumes his campaign against William Wallace and others in Scotland, holding court in Dunfermline Abbey.
- Battle of Dimbos: The Ottoman Turks under Osman I defeat the Byzantines.
- The Khalji Dynasty under Alauddin Khalji conquers Chittorgarh in northern India, after taking the massive Chittor Fort.
- The Avoirdupois system of weights and measures is introduced to England and Wales.
- Siege of Amsterdam: Kennemers and Waterlanders lay siege against Amsterdam for a year.
- February 9 – Wars of Scottish Independence: John "Red" Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, negotiates a peace with the Kingdom of England.
- July 20 – Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
- August 17 – The Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle is fought to a draw, between the French army and the Flemish militias.
- October 24 – Sasa Bey of the Beylik of Menteşe conquers Ephesus from the Eastern Roman Empire, massacring and deporting its native population.
- James II of Aragon reconquers Villena, Spain.
- Holland and Zeeland are occupied by John II, Duke of Brabant and Guy of Dampierre. John II, Count of Hainaut recovers the counties.
- Ala-ud-din Khalji, Sultan of Delhi, conquers Gujarat.
- A peace treaty, signed between the khanates of the Mongol Empire, ends the Mongol civil war.
- The Genoese Benedetto I Zaccaria takes control of Chios Island from the Byzantine Empire, establishing an autonomous lordship there.
- The construction of Ypres Cloth Hall is completed.
- June 5 – Pope Clement V, formerly the Archbishop of Bordeaux Bertrand de Got, succeeds Pope Benedict XI as the 195th pope, and is crowned at Lyon.
- July – Battle of Apros: The Catalan Company defeats the Byzantine Empire.
- August 5 – English troops capture William Wallace.
- February 10 – Scottish Wars of Independence: Before the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, his leading political rival, sparking revolution.
- March 25 – Robert the Bruce becomes King of the Scots.
- May – Hugh the younger Despenser, favourite of Edward, Prince of Wales, marries heiress Eleanor de Clare.
- May 15 – One of the first exchange contracts (cambium) to mention the city of Bruges involves two parties: Giovanni Villani, representing the Peruzzi Company, granting a loan to Tommaso Fini, representing the Gallerani Company of Siena.
- June 19 – Battle of Methven: The forces of the Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruce's Scottish rebels.
- June – The Knights Hospitaller conquer the islands of Kos (briefly) and Kastellorizo, and begin their conquest of Rhodes.
- August - September – The English army sacks Kildrummy Castle, captures and executes Nigel Bruce (brother of Robert I), and captures Queen Elizabeth de Burgh, Christina Bruce and Mary Bruce (sisters of Robert I), and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert I.
- September 29 – The Hatuna Games are played in Sweden.
- December 6 – The monetary policy of Philippe le Bel triggers a revolt in Paris. The provost's house is burned, and the king has to flee to the fortress of the Temple .
- Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France, and confiscates their property.
- In London, a city ordinance decrees that heating with coal is forbidden, when Parliament is in session (the ordinance is not particularly effective).
- The Mongols raid India.
- January 18 – King Albert I of Germany raises his son Rudolf to the throne, of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
- July 7 – Edward II becomes King of England.
- September 5 – Pope Clement V confirms the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle has fallen to their attacks.
- October 13 (Friday the 13th, at dawn) – All Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip IV, to be later tortured into "confessing" heresy.
- November 18 (according to legend) – William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head in Altdorf, Switzerland.
- The Mongol raids on India end.
- Januli I da Corogna seizes control of Sifnos and becomes its lord.
- The village of Heerle is proclaimed an independent parish.
- January 25 – King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France. They are both crowned a month later (on February 25).
- March 8 – Póvoa de Varzim (then Varazim), Portugal gains a foral from Denis of Portugal.
- April 15 – Abu Hammu I ascends to the throne of the Kingdom of Tlemcen after the death of his brother Abu-I Zayyan.
- November 27 – Henry VII, King of Germany, is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
- December 28 – Emperor Hanazono ascends to the throne of Japan.
- The Capet-Anjou family begins to rule Hungary.
- The Sultanate of Rûm ends.
- King Philip IV of France purchases the Hôtel de Nesle, and builds one of the earliest indoor tennis courts there.
- approx. date – Dante Alighieri begins to write the Divine Comedy.
- March 9 – Pope Clement V settles the papal seat in Avignon, following a visit.
- March 14 – An angry mob overruns the palaces in the Muslim Emirate of Granada; Sultan Muhammad III is spared but his vizier, Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim, is killed .
- August 11 – Reconquista: Aragonese forces led by King James II land on the coast of Almería, beginning the Siege of Almería.
- August 15 – The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights establish their headquarters on the island and rename themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.
- September 12 – Ferdinand IV of Castile captures the town of Gibraltar, in his campaign against the Emirate of Granada.
- December – The Siege of Almería is withdrawn leaving the Emirate of Granada in possession of the city.
- Date unknown
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- June 1 – Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I of England (d. 1338)
- September 27 – Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine (d. 1327)
- date unknown
- John III, Duke of Brabant (d. 1355)
- Khutughtu Khan, Emperor Mingzong of Yuan, emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (d. 1329)
- Jeanne de Clisson, French noblewoman and privateer (d. 1359)
- Chihab Addine Abul-Abbas Ahmad ben Fadhl Al-Umari, Arab historian (d. 1384)
- Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro, Italian Augustinian monk (d. 1342)
- Geoffroi de Charny, French knight and chivalric writer (d. 1356)
- Richard FitzRalph, Archbishop of Armagh (d. 1360)
- Taddeo Gaddi, Italian painter and architect (d. 1366)
- Ibn Kathir, Syrian Islamic scholar (d. 1373)
- Laurence Minot, English poet (d. 1352)
- John of Winterthur, Swiss historian
- July 23 – Otto, Duke of Austria (d. 1339)
- August 5 – Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, English politician (d. 1330)
- September 24 – Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, English soldier (d. 1372)
- October 7 – Grand Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver (d. 1339)
- date unknown
- Prince Morikuni, Japanese shōgun (d. 1333)
- Ingeborg of Norway, princess consort and regent of Sweden (d. 1361)
- William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury, English nobleman (d. 1344)
- Ni Zan, Chinese painter (d. 1374)
- Nitta Yoshisada, Japanese head of the Nitta clan (d. 1338)
- Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord, French cardinal and diplomat of the Hundred Years' War (d. 1364)
- December 7 – Azzone Visconti, Lord of Milan (d. 1339)
- date unknown
- February 25 – Ibn Battuta, Moroccan jurist and explorer
- July 20 – Petrarch, Italian poet (d. 1374)
- William de Clinton, 1st Earl of Huntingdon
- Marie of Luxembourg, Queen of France (d. 1324)
- Louis I of Flanders (d. 1346)
- Jayaatu Khan, emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (d. 1332)
- Günther von Schwarzburg, German king (d. 1349)
- August 18 – Ashikaga Takauji, Japanese Shōgun (d. 1358)
- date unknown
- August 8 – Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1353)
- Isabella, Countess of Brienne, vassal ruler and claimant (d. 1360)
- Ashikaga Tadayoshi, general of the Northern and Southern Courts (d. 1352)
- Sasaki Takauji, Japanese poet, warrior, and bureaucrat (d. 1373)
- July 26 – Stefan Dušan, Emperor of the Serbs (d. 1355)
- date unknown
- February 19 – Munio of Zamora, Spanish General of the Dominican Order
- July 18 – Gerard Segarelli, Italian founder of the Apostolic Brethren (burned at stake)
- September – Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall (approximate date; b. 1249)
- December – Jean de Montfort-Castres, Count of Squillace
- date unknown
- Guido Cavalcanti, Italian poet (b. 1250)
- Tsar Chaka, Mongol ruler of Bulgaria
- Berengaria of Castile, Lady of Guadalajara, Spanish ruler (b. 1253)
- Tran Hung Dao, Vietnamese general
- Jacob van Maerlant, Flemish poet
- Jeanne de Montfort de Chambéon, Swiss ruler (b. 1250)
- William of Nangis, French chronicler
- January 14 – King Andrew III of Hungary (b. c. 1265)
- September 3 – Alberto I della Scala, Lord of Verona
- date unknown
- Asukai Gayū, Japanese poet (b. 1241)
- Dietrich I of Isenberg, count of Limburg
- Gertrud Morneweg, German Hanseatic business person and banker
- False Margaret, Norwegian pretender to the Scottish throne (b. c. 1260)
- Zahed Gilani, Iranian Grandmaster of the Zahediyeh Sufi Order (b. 1216)
- King Leo I of Galicia (b. c. 1228)
- Amaury de Montfort (priest) (b. 1243)
- Violant of Aragon, queen consort of Castile (b. 1236)
- probable – Jean I de Grailly, seneschal of Gascony
- January 19 – Al-Hakim I, Caliph of Cairo
- March 9 or March 9 1301 – Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (b. 1267)
- March 20 – Ralph Walpole, Bishop of Norwich
- May 2 – Blanche of Artois, dowager, former queen consort and regent of Navarre (b. c. 1248)
- July 11 – Pierre Flotte, French politician and lawyer
- September 18 – Eudokia Palaiologina, Empress of Trebizond (b. c. 1265)
- November 17 or November 17 1301 – St. Gertrude the Great, German saint
- December 26 – Valdemar, King of Sweden, 1250–1275 (b. c. 1238/1239)
- December 31 – Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1238)
- date unknown
- March 4 – Daniel of Russia, first prince of Moscow
- May 19 – Saint Ivan of martingale, French canon lawyer (b. 1253)
- September 7 – Gregory Bicker, archbishop of Ergosterol
- October 11 – Pope Boniface VIII
- October 27 – Beatrice of Castile, queen consort of King Alfonso III of Portugal
- October 29 – Emperor Ivan Sennafuc III of Bulgaria
- March 7 or 8 – Bartolomeo I della Scala, lord of Verona
- May 11 – Mahmud Ghazan, Mongol ruler (b. 1271)
- May 23 – Jehan de Lescurel, French poet and composer
- July 7 – Pope Benedict XI (b. 1240)
- July 17 – Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore
- August 17 – Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan (b. 1243)
- August 22 – John II, Count of Hainaut (b. 1247)
- September – John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, English soldier
- December 23 – Matilda of Habsburg, duchess regent of Bavaria (b. 1253)
- April 2 – Joan I of Navarre, queen regnant of Navarre, and queen consort of Philip IV of France (b. 1273)
- April 30 – Roger de Flor, commander-in-chief of the Almogàvers (murdered)
- June 21 – King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Poland (b. 1271)
- August 23 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot (executed)
- October 4 – Emperor Kameyama of Japan (b. 1249)
- November 18 – John II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1239)
- December 6 – Maximus, Metropolitan of Kiev
- date unknown
- February 10 – John "the Red" Comyn, Scottish nobleman
- March – Araniko, Nepali artist (b. 1245)
- March 21 – Robert II, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1248)
- May 5 – Constantine Palaiologos, Byzantine prince and general (b. 1261)
- August 4 – King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia (b. 1289)
- December 6 – Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk (b. 1270)
- Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh
- Khutulun, Mongol princess and warrior (b. 1260)
- January on a Saturday – Wareru, founder of Ramanya Kingdom, renamed Hanthawady Kingdom of Pegu (b. Makatho/Magadu, Mar. 20, 1253)
- February 10 – Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan
- April – Joan of Acre, English princess (b. 1271)
- July 4 – Rudolf I of Bohemia (b. 1281)
- July 7 – King Edward I of England (b. 1239)
- November 17
- date unknown
- March 18 – Yuri I of Galicia
- April 5 – Ivan Kőszegi, Hungarian baron
- May 1 – Albert I of Germany, Duke of Austria (murdered) (b. 1255)
- September 4 – Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of Sicily (b. 1250)
- September 10 – Emperor Go-Nijō of Japan (b. 1285)
- October 10 – Patrick Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar
- November 8 – Duns Scotus, Scottish philosopher
- December 21 – Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1244)
- date unknown
- April 10 – Elisabeth von Rapperswil, Swiss sovereign countess of Rapperswil (b. 1261)
- May 5 – Charles II of Naples
- James of St. George, Savoyard military architect (b. 1230)
- Raden Wijaya, Founder and First King of Majapahit Empire
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