1300s (decade)

The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar that began on 1 January 1300 and ended on 31 December 1309.

Events

1300

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit

  • Spring – Bohemian forces under Wenceslaus II of the Czech House of Přemyslid, seize Pomerania and Greater Poland (Wielkopolska). The 28-year-old Wenceslaus already rules Lesser Poland (Małopolska) since 1291, and forced a number of Silesian princes to swear allegiance to him. He is crowned as king and reunites the Polish territories. During his reign, Wenceslaus also introduces a number of laws and reforms, the most important being the creation of a new type of official known as a starosta (or Elder), who rules a small territory as the king's direct representative.[1][2]
  • Franco–Flemish War: King Philip IV (the Fair) begins to invade Flanders again after the expiration of an armistice in January. French forces plunder and devastate the countryside around Ypres. The king's brother, Charles of Valois, marches from Bruges to the outskirts of Ghent. He burns Nevele and twelve other towns. In March, French forces besiege Damme and Ypres. At the end of April, Damme, Aardenburg and Sluis surrender. By mid-May, the whole of Flanders is under French control, and several Flemish nobles (like Guy of Namur) are taken into captivity in France.[3]
EnglandEdit
  • July – King Edward I (Longshanks) starts another Scottish campaign and marches north with his army, accompanied by several knights of Brittany and Lorraine. After a short siege lasting only 5 days, Caerlaverock Castle is captured. The 16-year-old Prince Edward of Caernarfon is appointed to take command of the rearguard of the English army but part from a small skirmish, he sees no action.[4]
  • Summer – Edward I (Longshanks) invades Galloway and confronts a Scottish army under John Comyn III (the Red) on the River Cree. During the battle, the Scottish cavalry is again defeated. Edward is unable to pursue the fugitives into the wild country, where they flee and take refuge. John escapes with his life and begins to raid the English countryside in smaller groups.[5]
  • August – Pope Boniface VIII sends a letter to Edward I (Longshanks) demanding that he should withdraw from Scotland. Edward ignores the letter, but because the campaign is not a success, the English forces begin on their home journey. Edward arranges a truce with the Scots on October 30 and returns home.
OasisamericaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
ReligionEdit

1301

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
Middle EastEdit
  • Spring – Sultan Osman I (or Othman) calls for a military campaign to strike deep into Byzantine Bithynia. During the campaign, Ottoman forces capture the towns of İnegöl and Yenişehir. The later town will be transformed into a capital city, as Osman moves his administration and personal household within its walls. By the end of the year, Ottoman forces begin blockading the major Byzantine city of Nicaea.[10]
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
  • December – Boniface VIII issues papal bulls accusing King Philip IV (the Fair) of misgovernment.

1302

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Spring – Co-Emperor Michael IX (Palaiologos) launches a campaign which reaches south up to Magnesia on the Maeander (near Ephesus). He seeks to confront the Turkish forces, but is dissuaded by his generals. In the meantime, the Turks resume their raids, isolating Michael at Magnesia. His army is dissolved without a battle, as the local forces are left behind to defend their homes. The Alans (Byzantine mercenaries) too leave, to rejoin their families in Thrace. Michael is forced to withdraw by the sea, followed by another wave of refugees.[12]
  • July 27Battle of Bapheus: To counter the Turkish threat at Nicomedia, Emperor Andronikos II (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine force (some 2,000 men) to cross over the Bosporus to relieve the city. On the plain, Turkish forces (some 5,000 light cavalry) led by Sultan Osman I (or Othman) defeat the Byzantines, who are forced to withdraw to Nicomedia. After the battle, Andronikos loses control of the countryside of Bithynia, withdrawing to the forts. Meanwhile, Turkish forces capture Byzantine settlements, such as the coastal city of Gemlik.[13][14]
  • October 4 – Andronikos II (Palaiologos) signs a peace treaty with the Republic of Venice, ending the Byzantine–Venetian War. The Venetians return most of their conquests – but keep the islands of Kea, Santorini, Serifos and Amorgos – which are retained by the privateers who have captured them. Andronikos agrees to repay the Venetians for their losses sustained during the massacre of Venetian residents (see 1296).[15]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – King Edward I (Longshanks) and the Scottish nobles led by Robert the Bruce sign a peace treaty for 9 months. John Segrave is appointed to the custody of Berwick Castle, leaving him in charge with an English force of some 20,000 men. Robert, along with other nobles, gives his allegiance to Edward.[21]
  • March – Robert the Bruce marries the 18-year-old Elizabeth de Burgh at Writtle in Essex. She is the daughter of Richard Óg de Burgh (the Red Earl), a powerful Irish nobleman and close friend of Edward I (Longshanks).
LevantEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
ReligionEdit

1303

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • September – Emperor Andronikos II (Palaiologos), facing a possible siege of Constantinople by Ottoman-Turkish forces, seeks support from the European kingdoms. He makes Roger de Flor, Italian military adventurer and nobleman, an offer of service. Roger with his fleet and army (some 7,000 men), now known as the Catalan Company, departs from Messina with 36 ships (including 18 galleys), and arrives in Constantinople. He is adopted into the imperial family, Andronikos appoints him as grand duke (megas doux) and commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army and fleet.[24]
  • Autumn – Battle of Dimbos: The Byzantine governors (tekfurs) of Prusa, Adranos, Kestel, and Ulubat begin a military campaign against the Ottoman-Turkish forces of Sultan Osman I (or Othman). They attack the Ottoman capital city of Yenişehir and proceed to relieve Nicaea, which is under an Ottoman blockade. Osman musters a 5,000-strong army and defeats the Byzantine forces at a mountain pass near Yenişehir.[25]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • February 24Battle of Roslin: Scottish forces (some 8,000 men) led by John Comyn III (the Red) and Simon Fraser ambush and defeat an English scouting party under John Segrave at Roslin. During the battle, the Scots attack the English camp, capturing Segrave and several other nobles. But a second English brigade manages to rescue Segrave in a pitched battle. Later, the English army is again defeated, according to sources they lose between 28,000 and 30,000 men.[28]
  • May – Edward I (Longshanks) resumes his campaign against the Scots, and sets out from Roxburgh with a cavalry force and about 7,000 men. He orders that three pre-fabricated pontoon bridges be built and transported, in a fleet of 27 ships. Edward invades Scotland and during the advance, he burns hamlets and towns, granges and granaries. Meanwhile, Richard Óg de Burgh (the Red Earl) with forces from Ireland capture the castles of Rothesay and Inverkip.[29]
  • November 9 – Edward I (Longshanks) spends the winter at Dunfermline Abbey where he plans the attack on Stirling Castle. He stations an army in the field and operations continue throughout the winter. An English force (some 1,000 men) raids and plunder into Lennox as far as Drymen. Meanwhile, Lord John Botetourt raids Galloway in strength, with four bannerets (some 3,000 men).[30]
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit
  • August 26Siege of Chittorgarh: Delhi forces led by Sultan Alauddin Khalji capture the massive Chittor Fort in northern India, after an 8-month-long siege. Alauddin orders a general massacre of Chittor's population.[32]
  • Mongol invasion of India: Mongol forces appear outside Delhi and begin the siege of the city. Alauddin Khalji and a Delhi vanguard army return to the capital, while the Delhi garrison resists assaults of the Mongols.[33]
  • Autumn – Mongol forces lift the siege of Delhi after two months, they retreat with great plunder and war booty. Meanwhile, Alauddin Khaliji orders to strengthen border fortresses along the Mongol routes to India.[34]

By topicEdit

EducationEdit
  • April 20 – Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome with the papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies under his control, making it the first pontifical university.
GeologyEdit
ReligionEdit

1304

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Battle of Skafida: Emperor Michael IX (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 10,000 men) to halt the expansion of the Bulgarians in Thrace. The two armies meet near Sozopol on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. During the battle, the Bulgarian army led by Tsar Theodore Svetoslav is defeated and routed. The Byzantines, infatuated with the chase of the retreating enemy, crowd on a bridge – which possibly is sabotaged, and break down. The Bulgarians capture many Byzantine soldiers and some nobles are held for ransom. Svetoslav secures his territorial gains and stabilizes himself as the sole ruler of the Bulgarian Empire (until 1322).[36]
  • The Byzantines lose the island of Chios, in the Aegean Sea, to the Genoese under Admiral Benedetto I Zaccaria. He establishes an autonomous lordship and justifies the act to the Byzantine court as necessary to prevent the island from being captured by Turkish pirates. Benedetto is granted the island as a fief for a period of 10 years.[37][38]
  • December – Roger de Flor, Italian nobleman and adventurer, settle with the Catalan Company in Gallipoli and other towns in the southern part of Thrace and visits Constantinople to demands pay for his forces. He lives at the expense of the local population and uses the city as a base for his marauding raids in the surrounding area.[39]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
Middle EastEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1305

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • April 30 – Co-Emperor Michael IX (Palaiologos) invites Roger de Flor, Italian nobleman and adventurer, to Adrianople and has him assassinated there. Along with de Flor, 300 horsemen and some 1,000 foot soldiers who accompanied him are killed. The plan is executed by Alan mercenaries, who at that time are enlisted in the Byzantine army. The murder of the commander of the Catalan Company does not have the expected results. Not only is the Company not disbanded, but its attacks on Byzantine territory becomes more severe. The period of destruction in Macedonia and Thrace after the murder of de Flor becomes known as the "Catalan Revenge".[53]
  • July – Battle of Apros: Byzantine forces (some 6,000 men) under Michael IX (Palaiologos), consisting of a large contingent of Alans and Turcopoles (Christianized Turks), attack the Catalan Company near Apros. Michael orders a general cavalry charge, but the Turcopoles desert en block to the Catalans. During the battle, the Byzantines are defeated (with many losses from the crossbowmen) and Michael is injured but escapes the field.[54]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • August 5William Wallace, Scottish rebel leader and knight, is captured by English troops led by John de Menteith. He is transported to London and led, crowned mockingly with laurel, in procession to Westminster Hall. The judgement, like the trial (which last for almost three weeks), is a formality, and Wallace is condemned for treason and for atrocities against civilians in war. After the trial, he is dragged through the streets of Smithfield and executed on August 23. Wallace is hanged, drawn and quartered – strangled by hanging – but cut down while still alive, emasculated, disemboweled (with his bowels burned before him), beheaded, and then cut into four parts. Wallace's head is placed on a spike above the London Bridge, and his limbs are displayed separately, in Newcastle, Berwick, Stirling, and Perth.[58]
  • September – King Edward I (Longshanks) issues ordinances for the government of Scotland. He issues the first commission of Trailbaston – which empowers him to appoint judicial commissions to punish crimes (such as homicide, theft, arson, and rape) and certain trespasses. Edward adds also conspiracy to the list of presentments.[59]
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1306

By placeEdit

EnglandEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

EconomyEdit
  • In London, a city ordinance decrees that heating with coal is forbidden when Parliament is in session (the ordinance is not particularly effective).[76]
ReligionEdit

1307

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • October 13 – King Philip IV (the Fair) orders the arrest of the Knights Templar in France. The Templars, together with their Grand Master Jacques de Molay, are imprisoned, interrogated, and tortured into confessing heresy. In Paris, the king's inquisitors torture some 140 Templars, most of whom eventually make confessions. Many are subjected to "fire torture": their legs are fastened in an iron frame and the soles of their feet are greased with fat or butter. Unable to withstand these tortures, many Templars eventually confess.[78][79]
  • Januli I da Corogna seizes the Aegean Island of Sifnos and becomes an autonomous lord, by renouncing his allegiance to the Knights Hospitaller.
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – King Robert I (the Bruce) crosses with a small force (some 600 men) from the Isle of Arran in the Firth of Clyde to his earldom of Carrick in Ayrshire. He attacks the English garrison at Turnberry Castle, plundering and destroying the stronghold. Meanwhile, James Douglas (the Black) attacks the English garrison in Douglas Castle at Palm Sunday – while they are slaughtered during a church mass (known as the "Douglas Larder").[80]
  • February – Battle of Loch Ryan: Thomas de Brus and Alexander de Brus sail with an invasion force of 1,000 men and 18 galleys, into the harbor at Loch Ryan. But they are defeated by rival Scots under Dungal MacDouall. During the attack, only two galleys escape and all the leaders are captured. Thomas and Alexander are taken as captives to Carlisle, where they are later executed by being hanged, drawn and quartered on February 17.[81]
  • April – Battle of Glen Trool: Scottish forces led by Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the English army at Glen Trool, Galloway. During the battle, Robert gives the order to push down several boulders to ambush the English, who are approaching through a narrow glen (called the "Steps of Trool"). Scottish forces charge down an extremely steep 700-meter sloop, the narrowness of the defile prevents support from either the front or the rear. Without any room to maneuver, many of the English are killed and routed.[82]
  • May 10Battle of Loudoun Hill: Scottish forces under Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the English army (some 3,000 men) at Loudoun Hill. During the battle, a frontal charge by the English knights led by Aymer de Valence is halted by Robert's spearmen militia, who effectively slaughtered them as they are on marshy ground. Aymer manages to escape the carnage and flees to the safety of Bothwell Castle. The battle marks the turning point in Robert's struggle to reclaim the independence of Scotland.[83]
  • July 7 – King Edward I (Longshanks) dies at Burgh by Sands after a 34-year reign. He is succeeded by his son 23-year-old Edward II, who becomes new ruler of England. After his death Edward's body is embalmed and transported to Waltham Abbey in Essex. Here it lay unburied for several weeks so that people can come and see the body lying in state. After this, Edward is taken to Westminster Abbey for a proper burial on October 28.[84][85]
  • July 20 – Edward II travels from London, after he is proclaimed king and continues north into Scotland, where he receives homage from his Scottish supporters at Dumfries, before abandoning the campaign and returning home on August 4. Meanwhile, Edward recalls his friend and favourite, Piers Gaveston, who is in exile, and makes him Earl of Cornwall, before arranging his marriage to the wealthy 13-year-old Margaret de Clare.[86]
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
FolkloreEdit

1308

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • November 13 – The Teutonic Knights capture Gdańsk by treachery – while a Brandenburger force of 100 knights and 200 followers led by Heinrich von Plötzke and Günther von Schwarzburg, disputed king of Germany, lay siege to the city. The garrison of Gdańsk castle is too weak to defend itself against the Brandenburgers. Meanwhile, Władysław I Łokietek (Elbow-High), Polish ruler of Gdańsk Pomerania, is unable to send reinforcements. The citizens call upon the Teutonic Knights for military help and offer to pay their costs. The arrival of the knights, lead the Brandenburgers to beat a hasty retreat. In an act of supreme treachery, the Teutonic Knights attack the city they have come to save. The houses of both Polish and German are burnt and destroyed. Many people are slaughtered without mercy, including women and children who have sought sanctuary in churches. Within a year, the German Crusaders occupy the whole of Eastern Pomerania and consolidate their power at the Baltic Sea.[87]
  • November 27
  • December – Władysław I Łokietek (Elbow-High) imprisons Jan Muskata, bishop of Kraków. In response, Polish and German citizens revolted against his rule in Kraków (as in all Poland's cities at this time). Władysław in a delicate position responds with force and arrests the revolt's leaders. He ties them to horses and drags them through the city streets.
  • December 19Treaty of Alcalá de Henares: King Ferdinand IV (the summoned) and James II (the Just) sign an alliance in the Monastery of Santa María de Huerta. Ferdinand agrees to join James in making war by sea and by land against Granada. He also promises to give up one-sixth of Granada to Aragon, and grants him the Province of Almería.[90]
  • Sultan Mesud II, Seljuk vassal of the Mongol Ilkhanate, is murdered after a 5-year reign. During his rule, he exercises no real authority and becomes the last ruler. Ending the Sultanate of Rum after 230 years.[91]
  • King Philip IV (the Fair) purchases Hôtel de Nesle in Paris and builds one of the earliest indoor tennis courts there.[92]
EnglandEdit
  • January 25 – King Edward II marries the 13-year-old Isabella of France, daughter of King Philip IV (the Fair). The marriage takes place at Boulogne and Edward leaves his friend and favourite, Piers Gaveston, as regent in his absence. Isabella's wardrobe indicates her wealth and style – she has dresses of silk, velvet, taffeta and cloth along with numerous furs; she has over 72 headdresses and coifs. Isabella brings with her two gold crowns, gold and silver dinnerware and 419 yards of linen. Meanwhile, Edward alienates the nobles by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position, who react by signing the Boulogne agreement on January 31.[93][94]
  • February 25 – Edward II is crowned at Westminster Abbey under the guidance of Henry Woodlock, bishop of Winchester. During the ceremony, Piers Gaveston is given the honour of carrying the crown. At the banquet that followed, Edward spends more time with Gaveston than with his wife Isabella of France. Isabella's family, who have travelled with her from France, leave to report back to Philip IV of Edward's favouritism for Gaveston over Isabella. As part of the coronation, Edward swears an oath to uphold "the rightful laws and customs which the community of the realm shall have chosen".[95][96]
  • May 23Battle of Inverurie: Scottish forces led by King Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the rival Scots under John Comyn at Oldmeldrum. During the battle, Robert repulses a surprise attack on his camp, and counter-attacks the Scots of Clan Cumming (or Comyn). John flees to seek refuge at the English court and is well-received by Edward II, who appoints him as Lord Warden of the Marches. Meanwhile, Robert orders his forces to burn the farms, houses and strongholds associated with Clan Cumming in north-east Scotland. The Earldom of Buchan will never again rise for Clan Cumming.[97]
  • June 25 – Piers Gaveston is exiled for the second time by the Parliament, due to possible corruption and exploited personal gains. As compensation for the loss of the Earldom of Cornwall, which is another condition of his exile, Gaveston is granted land worth 3,000 marks annually in Gascony. Further to this, he is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland – so that a certain amount of honour can be maintained despite the humiliation of the exile. Gaveston is also threatened with ex-communication by Pope Clement V. Edward II accompanies him to Bristol, from where he sets sail for Ireland.[98][99]
  • Summer – Battle of the Pass of Brander: Scottish forces under King Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the rival Scots of the Clan MacDougall, kinsmen of John Comyn III (the Red). During the battle, Robert orders to bypass the Pass of Brander. He sends James Douglas (the Black) with a party of archers to take up positions above the pass to avoid an ambush. Robert breaks through the MacDougalls blockade and defeats them at the Bridge of Awe. The MacDougalls are chased westwards across the River Awe to Dunstaffnage. The Lord of Argyll surrenders and does homage to Robert.[100][101]
  • The Harrying of Buchan (also known as the Herschip), Scottish forces under Edward Bruce devastate the lands of John Comyn, and his supporters following the victory at Inverurie. Meanwhile, Robert I (the Bruce) takes Aberdeen, conquers Galloway and threatens northern Scotland.
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

1309

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
ReligionEdit

Significant peopleEdit

Births

1300

1301

1302

1303

1304

1305

1306

1307

1308

1309

Deaths

1300

1301

1302 

1303

1304

1305

1306

1307

1308

1309


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