Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1258 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1258
Ab urbe condita2011
Armenian calendar707
Assyrian calendar6008
Balinese saka calendar1179–1180
Bengali calendar665
Berber calendar2208
English Regnal year42 Hen. 3 – 43 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1802
Burmese calendar620
Byzantine calendar6766–6767
Chinese calendar丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
3955 or 3748
    — to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
3956 or 3749
Coptic calendar974–975
Discordian calendar2424
Ethiopian calendar1250–1251
Hebrew calendar5018–5019
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1314–1315
 - Shaka Samvat1179–1180
 - Kali Yuga4358–4359
Holocene calendar11258
Igbo calendar258–259
Iranian calendar636–637
Islamic calendar655–656
Japanese calendarShōka (era) 2
Javanese calendar1167–1168
Julian calendar1258
Korean calendar3591
Minguo calendar654 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−210
Thai solar calendar1800–1801
Tibetan calendar阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1384 or 1003 or 231
    — to —
(male Earth-Horse)
1385 or 1004 or 232
Mongols besiege the walls of Baghdad

Events edit

By place edit

Mongol Empire edit

  • February 10Siege of Baghdad: Mongol forces (some 150,000 men), led by Hulagu Khan, besiege and conquer Baghdad after a siege of 13 days. During the first week of February, the eastern walls begin to collapse, and the Mongols swarm into the city, on February 10. Caliph Al-Musta'sim surrenders himself to Hulagu – together with all the Abbasid chief officers and officials. They are ordered to lay down their arms, and are massacred. Hulagu imprisons Al-Musta'sim among his treasures, to starve him to death. Meanwhile, massacres continue throughout the whole city; in 40 days about 80,000 citizens are murdered. The only survivors are the ones who are hiding in cellars which are not discovered, and a number of attractive girls and boys who are kept to be slaves, and the Christian community, who take refuge in the churches which are left undisturbed, by the special orders of Hulagu's wife, Doquz Khatun.[1]
  • February 15 – Hulagu Khan enters Baghdad, where many quarters of the city are ruined by fire. The Great Library (or House of Wisdom) is destroyed, numerous precious book collections are thrown into the Tigris River. Before the siege, about 400,000 manuscripts are rescued by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian polymath and theologian, who takes them to Maragheh (located in East Azerbaijan Province). The sack of Baghdad brings an end to the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) and the Islamic Golden Age. Many professors, physicians, scientists, clerics, artists and lecturers are also massacred.

Europe edit

England edit

Levant edit

  • June 25Battle of Acre: The Genoese sends an armada (some 50 galleys) to relieve the blockade at Acre and asks the assistance of Philip of Montfort, lord of Tyre, and the Knights Hospitaller for a combined attack from the land side. The Genoese fleet's arrival takes the Venetians by surprise but the superior experience and seamanship result in a crushing Venetian victory, with half the Genoese ships lost. Later, the Genoese garrison is forced to abandon Acre.[5][6]

Asia edit

  • Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Mongol forces (some 30,000 men) under Uriyangkhadai, son of Subutai, invade Vietnam. After many battles, the Vietnam army is routed and defeated. The senior leaders are able to escape on pre-prepared boats, while the remnants are destroyed on the banks of the Red River. The Mongols occupy the capital city, Thăng Long (modern-day Hanoi), and massacres the city's inhabitants, by the end of January.[7]

By topic edit

Global edit

Markets edit

  • In Genoa, the Republic starts imposing forced loans, known as luoghi, to its taxpayers; they are a common resource of medieval public finance.[9]

Religion edit

Births edit

Deaths edit

References edit

  1. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: Kingdom of Acre, p. 253. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  2. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, p. 161. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  3. ^ Stubbs, William (2012) [1913]. Select Charters and Other Illustrations of English Constitutional History from the Earliest Times to the Reign of Edward the First (in Latin). Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 389. ISBN 9781108044936.
  4. ^ Brand, Paul (2003). Kings, Barons and Justices: The Making and Enforcement of Legislation in Thirteenth-Century England. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9781139439077.
  5. ^ Marshall, Christopher (1994). Warfare in the Latin East, 1192–1291, pp. 39–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521477420.
  6. ^ Stanton, Charles D. (2015). Medieval Maritime Warfare, pp. 182–184. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-4738-5643-1.
  7. ^ Baldanza, Kathlene (2016). Ming China and Vietnam: Negotiating Borders in Early Modern Asia, p. 18. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-53131-0.
  8. ^ Stothers, R. B. (2000). "Climatic and Demographic consequences of the massive volcanic eruption of 1258". Climatic Change. 45 (2): 361–374. doi:10.1023/A:1005523330643. S2CID 42314185.
  9. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.