List of Bohemian monarchs

The Duchy of Bohemia was established in 870 and raised to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198. Several Bohemian monarchs ruled as non-hereditary kings beforehand, first gaining the title in 1085. From 1004 to 1806, Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and its ruler was an elector. During 1526–1804 the Kingdom of Bohemia, together with the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, was ruled under a personal union as part of the Habsburg monarchy. From 1804 to 1918, Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire, which itself was part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918. Following the dissolution of the monarchy, the Bohemian lands, now also referred to as Czech lands, became part of Czechoslovakia, and they have formed today's Czech Republic since 1993.

Monarchy of Bohemia
Znak českého království.png
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchBořivoj I (as duke)
Last monarchCharles III (as king)
Formationc. 870
Abolition28 October 1918
ResidencePrague Castle, Prague
AppointerHereditary 870-1212
Electoral college 1212-1620
Hereditary 1637-1918

Legendary rulers of BohemiaEdit

Princes of Great MoraviaEdit

Dukes of Bohemia (c. 870–1198)Edit

Dukes of Bohemia
House of Přemyslid
Image Name Date Notes
Bořivoj I c. 870–888/9
Strojmír c. 883–885
Spytihněv I 894–915 Son of Bořivoj I.
Vratislaus I
915–921 Brother of Spytihněv I.
Wenceslaus I
921–935 Son of Vratislaus I; known as St. Wenceslaus ("Good King Wenceslas" for English-speaking people), the patron saint of the Czech lands
Boleslaus I the Cruel
(Boleslav I. Ukrutný)
935–972 Brother of Wenceslaus I.
Boleslaus II the Pious
(Boleslav II. Pobožný)
972–999 Son of Boleslaus I.
Boleslaus III the Redhead
(Boleslav III. Ryšavý)
999–1002 Son of Boleslaus II.
Vladivoj 1002–1003 Of the Piast dynasty. First cousin of Boleslav III. Polish name Władywoj
Boleslaus III 1003 Second time
Boleslaus IV the Brave
(Boleslav Chrabrý)
1003–1004 Member of the Piast dynasty; elder brother of Vladivoj, grandson of Boleslaus I. Duke and later king of Poland
Jaromír 1004–1012 Brother of Boleslaus III.
Oldřich 1012–1033 Brother of Jaromír
Jaromír 1033–1034 Second time
Oldřich 1034 Second time
Bretislaus I (Břetislav I.) 1034–1055 Son of Oldřich
Spytihněv II 1055–1061 Son of Bretislaus I.
Vratislaus II
(Vratislav II.)
1061–1092 Brother of Spytihněv II. King 1085–1092 as Vratislaus I.
Conrad I
(Konrád I. Brněnský)
1092 Brother of Vratislaus II.
Bretislaus II
(Břetislav II.)
1092–1100 Nephew of Conrad I, son of Vratislav II.
Bořivoj II 1101–1107 Brother of Bretislaus II.
(Svatopluk Olomoucký)
1107–1109 First cousin of Bořivoj II.
Vladislaus I (Vladislav I.) 1109–1117 Brother of Bořivoj II.
Bořivoj II 1117–1120 Second time
Vladislaus I 1120–1125 Second time
Soběslav I 1125–1140 Brother of Vladislaus I.
Vladislaus II
(Vladislav II.)
1140–1172 Nephew of Sobeslaus I, son of Duke Vladislaus I. King 1158–1172 as Vladislaus I.
Frederick I (Bedřich) 1172–1173 Son of Vladislaus II.
Soběslav II 1173–1178 First cousin once removed of Frederick I, Son of Sobeslaus I.
Frederick 1178–1189 Second time
Conrad II Otto
(Konrád II. Ota)
1189–1191 Descendant of Conrad I.
Wenceslaus II
(Václav II.)
1191–1192 Brother of Sobeslaus II.
Ottokar I (Přemysl I. Otakar) 1192–1193 Son of Vladislaus II.
Bretislaus III Henry
(Břetislav III. Jindřich)
1193–1197 First cousin of Ottokar I.
Vladislaus III Henry
(Vladislav III. Jindřich)
1197 Brother of Ottokar I.
Ottokar I 1197–1198 Second time. Became king in 1198, and his descendants retained the title.

Kings of Bohemia (1085–1092, 1158–1172, 1198–1918)Edit

Kings of Bohemia
House of Přemyslid
Image Name Date Notes
Vratislaus II
(Vratislav II.)


1085–1092 First King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085. He ruled as Vratislaus I. under non-hereditary royal title.
Vladislaus II
(Vladislav II.)


1158–1172 Nephew of Sobeslaus I, son of Duke Vladislaus I. King 1158–1172 as Vladislaus I. Father of king Ottokar I
  Ottokar I
(Přemysl I. Otakar)


1198–1230 First king of hereditary royal title, confirmed by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1212 by issuing Golden Bull of Sicily
  Wenceslaus I
(Václav I.)


1230–1253 Son of Ottokar I.
Ottokar II
(Přemysl II. Otakar)


1253–1278 Son of Wenceslaus I. Also Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Friuli and margrave of Carniola.
Wenceslaus II
(Václav II.)


1278–1305 Son of Ottokar II. Also Duke of Cracow (from 1291) and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus III
(Václav III.)


1305–1306 Son of Wenceslaus II. Uncrowned (as Bohemian king). Also King of Hungary (1301–1305) and King of Poland.
Henry the Carinthian
(Jindřich Korutanský)
1306 Meinhardiner. Son-in-law of Wenceslaus II. Non-crowned.
Rudolph I
(Rudolf I.)
1306–1307 Habsburg. Second husband of Elisabeth Richeza of Poland, widow of Wenceslaus II. Non-crowned.
Henry the Carinthian 1307–1310 Second time
House of Luxembourg
John the Blind
(Jan Lucemburský)
1310–1346 Son-in-law of Wenceslaus II.
Charles IV
(Karel I.)
1346–1378 Son of John. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV.
Wenceslaus IV
(Václav IV.)
1378–1419 Son of Charles I. Also King of the Romans until 1400.
1419–1437 Brother of Wenceslaus IV. Ruled effective 1436–1437 only (because of the Hussite Revolution). Also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
(Albrecht Habsburský)
1437–1439 Son-in-law of Sigismund. Also King of the Romans and of Hungary.
Interregnum 1440–1453 The succession of Albert's son was not recognized by the Czech nobility for most of this era; the land was administered by the Landfrieden (provincial and territorial).
  Ladislaus the Posthumous
(Ladislav Pohrobek)
1453–1457 Son of Albert born after his father's death. Also King of Hungary.
  George of Podebrady
(Jiří z Poděbrad)
1458–1471 Elected king from the Czech noble family House of Kunštát. Although he had descendants, the succession devolved to the prince from Polish kingdom.
  Matthias I
(Matyáš I. Korvín)
1469–1490 King of Hungary, elected by the insurgent Catholic Czech aristocrats as anti-king in 1469, but never crowned. In 1479, he agreed to limit his rule to Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, while retaining his title.
House of Jagiellon
Vladislaus II the Jagiellonian
(Vladislav II. Jagellonský)
1471–1516 Nephew of Ladislaus the Posthumous; elected on request of his predecessor George. Also King of Hungary after 1490.
  Louis the Jagiellonian
(Ludvík Jagellonský)
1516–1526 Son of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
  Ferdinand I 1526–1564 Brother-in-law of Louis; elected king. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor-elect from 1558.
  Maximilian I
(Maxmilián I.)
1564–1576 Son of Ferdinand I, grandson of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Rudolph II
(Rudolf II.)
1576–1612 Son of Maximilian I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Matthias II
(Matyáš II.)
1612–1615 Brother of Rudolph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Ferdinand II 1615–1619,1620-1637 Cousin of Matthias. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
House of Wittelsbach
  Frederick I
(Fridrich I.)
1619–1620 Elected by the Crown's Estates at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, but after losing the Battle of White Mountain, he fled the country.
House of Habsburg
  Ferdinand III 1637–1657 Son of Ferdinand II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor. From this time on, Bohemia no longer had an elective monarchy, with the Habsburgs having imposed their exclusive rule at the Battle of the White Mountain.
Ferdinand IV 1646–1654 Son of Ferdinand III. Junior co-monarch during his father's reign. Also King of Hungary and King of the Romans.
  Leopold I 1657–1705 Brother of Ferdinand IV. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Joseph I
(Josef I.)
1705–1711 Son of Leopold I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Charles II
(Karel II.)
1711–1740 Brother of Joseph I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VI.
  Maria Theresa
(Marie Terezie)
1740-1741,1743-1780 Daughter of Charles II. Also Queen of Hungary.
House of Wittelsbach
  Charles Albert
(Karel Albrecht)
1741–1743 Son-in-law of Joseph I. Anti-king to Maria Theresa during the War of the Austrian Succession. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VII.
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
  Joseph II
(Josef II.)
1780–1790 Son of Maria Theresa. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Leopold II 1790–1792 Brother of Joseph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Francis I
(František I.)
1792–1835 Son of Leopold II. Also King of Hungary, Holy Roman Emperor to 1806, Emperor of Austria from 1804.
  Ferdinand V 1835–1848 Son of Francis I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Last crowned King of Bohemia. Forced to abdicate during the Revolution of 1848.
  Franz Joseph I
(František Josef I.)
1848–1916 Nephew of Ferdinand V. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
  Charles III
(Karel III.)
1916–1918 Grandnephew of Francis Joseph I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Ruled briefly during World War I; in November 1918 renounced participation in state affairs but did not abdicate.

See alsoEdit