|Ab urbe condita||2090|
|Balinese saka calendar||1258–1259|
|English Regnal year||10 Edw. 3 – 11 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar||丙子年 (Fire Rat)|
4033 or 3973
— to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
4034 or 3974
|- Vikram Samvat||1393–1394|
|- Shaka Samvat||1258–1259|
|- Kali Yuga||4437–4438|
|Japanese calendar||Shōkei 6|
|Minguo calendar||575 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1879–1880|
1463 or 1082 or 310
— to —
1464 or 1083 or 311
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1337.|
- March 16 – Edward, the Black Prince established the Duchy of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke.
- May 24 – Philip VI of France confiscates Gascony from English control.
- August – English forces relieve Stirling Castle, ending Edward III of England's last campaign in Scotland.
- October – Edward III of England formally rejects Philip VI's claim to the French throne, initiating the first hostilities of what will become the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
- November – Battle of Cadzand: English troops raid the Flemish island of Cadzand.
- Bisham Priory is founded in England.
- The Scaligeri Family loses control of Padua; Alberto della Scala, patron of the music of the Trecento, moves to Verona.
- Petrarch, "father" of Renaissance humanism, first visits Rome to wander its mysterious ruins, with an eye for aesthetics as well as for history, exciting a renewed interest in Classical civilisation.
- The Sofia Psalter is produced in Bulgaria.
- The famine in China, which has lasted since 1333 and killed 6,000,000, comes to an end.
- January 8 – Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter (b. 1267)
- June 7 – William I, Count of Hainaut (b. 1286)
- June 15 – Angelo da Clareno, Italian Franciscan and leader of a group of Fraticelli (b. 1247)
- June 25 – Frederick III of Sicily (b. 1272)
- June 30 – Eleanor de Clare, politically active English noble (b. 1290)
- date unknown
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 100–102. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.