The second millennium was a period of time spanning the years AD 1001 to 2000 (11th to 20th centuries).[note 1] It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages of the Old World, followed by the Early Modern period, characterized by the Wars of Religion in Europe, the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of Discovery and the colonial period. Its final two centuries coincide with Modern history, characterized by industrialization, the rise of nation states, the rapid development of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in the Western world. The 20th century saw increasing globalization, most notably the two World Wars and the subsequemt formation of the United Nations. 20th-century technology includes powered flight, television and semiconductor technology, including integrated circuits. The term "Great Divergence" was coined to refer the unprecedented cultural and political ascent of the Western world in the second half of the millennium, by the 18th century emerging as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Qing China and the Islamic World.
World population has grown without precendent over the millennium, from 310 million in AD 1000 to about 6,000 million in AD 2000. Doubling time was at first seven centuries (reaching 600 million in 1700), and during the final three centuries population growth accelerated extremely, growth rate peaking at 1.8% p.a. in the second half of the 20th century. Unchecked globalization and population growth also caused considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.
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- List of political entities in 1143, 1400, 1495, 1528, 1648, 1660, 1777, 1800s, 1900s, List of sovereign states in the 1950s, 1990s
- Kingdom of England (927–1707): see medieval England
- Kingdom of Scotland (843–1707): see medieval Scotland
- Holy Roman Empire (962–1806): see medieval Germany
- Kingdom of France (987–1789): see medieval France
- Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1526)
- Kingdom of Bosnia (1154–1463)
- medieval Spain: see also Reconquista
- Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396)
- Kievan Rus (880–1150)
- Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
- Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
- Byzantine Empire (330–1453)
- Fatimid Caliphate (910–1171)
- Seljuks (1037–1194)
- Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517)
- Crusader states
- North Africa
- East Asia
- Goryeo (918–1392)
- Hoysala Empire (1026–1343)
- Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
- Joseon Dynasty
- Khmer Empire (802–1431)
- Liao dynasty (907–1125)
- Mongol Empire (1206–1368)
- Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)
- Pagan Kingdom (849–1287)
- Song dynasty (960–1279)
- Western Xia (1038–1227)
- Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty (1271–1368)
- Sahel / Sudan and Sub-Saharan Africa
- see Islamization of the Sudan region, List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa
- Sultanate of Ifat
- Mali Empire (1230–1600)
- Songhai Empire (1375–1591)
- Sultanate of Hobyo
- Sultanate of the Geledi
- Warsangali Sultanate
- Sokoto Caliphate
- Funj sultanate of Sinnar
- Empire of Kitara
- Ashanti Empire
- Kingdom of Dahomey
- Oyo Empire.
- Benin Empire
- Kongo Empire
- Kingdom of Bonny
- Kingdom of Nri
- Pre-Columbian Americas
- Maya civilisation
- Mississippian culture
- Kingdom of Cuzco
- Aztec Empire
- Inca Empire
Early Modern periodEdit
- Ottoman Empire (1299–1922)
- Kingdom of Poland
- Holy Roman Empire
- Kingdom of France
- Kingdom of England
- Kingdom of Scotland
- Kingdom of Great Britain
- Habsburg Empire (1526–1867)
- Spanish Empire (1402–1975)
- Portuguese Empire (1415–2000)
- French colonial empire (1605–1960)
- Dutch Empire (1543–1975)
- sub-Saharan Africa
- British Empire (1583–1997)
- Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918)
- United Kingdom
- Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
- German Empire (1871–1918)
- World Wars
- Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
- Russian Empire (1721–1917)
- Soviet Union (1922–1991)
- European Union
- United States of America
- Gran Colombia
- Mexican Empire
- Federal Republic of Central America
- Empire of Brazil
- Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire
- British India
- Russian Empire
- Qajar dynasty
- Republic of China
- First Philippine Republic
- People's Republic of China
- Partition of India
- European exploration of Africa
- Scramble for Africa
- French West Africa
- French Equatorial Africa
- French Algeria
- German East Africa
- Italian Libya
- Portuguese Angola
- Portuguese Mozambique
- Spanish Sahara
- Spanish protectorate in Morocco
- List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa
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The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
Cultural and technological historyEdit
|Communication and Technology||Science and Mathematics||Manufacturing||Transportation and
The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. For this reason, the end date of the 2nd millennium is usually calculated based on the Gregorian calendar, while the beginning date is based on the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar).
In 1999, there was some public debate as to whether the millennium should be taken to end on on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000. Stephen Jay Gould at the time argued there is no objective way of deciding this question. Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on 1 January 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000. Many public celebrations for the end of the second millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000—with a few people marking the end of the millennium a year later.
Centuries and decadesEdit
- "The Sixth Extinction – The Most Recent Extinctions". Archived from the original on 2015-12-18.
- "Africa AD 600–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- Toast, Scott (2002-02-19). "Top 100 Events of the Millennium". adapted from LIFE Magazine. Scott Toast. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- "Americas AD 1000–1492". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- nationsonline.org, klaus kästle -. "Portugal – Portuguese Republic – Country Profile – República Portuguesa – Travel and Tourism Portugal". www.nationsonline.org. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "www.visitportugal.com". www.visitportugal.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Asia AD 1200–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Whitmore, Robbie. "Timeline of events in New Zealand history". New Zealand in History. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Oceania AD 1000–1520". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Society, National Geographic. "Da Gama Discovers a Sea Route to India". Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Cabral Discovers Brazil | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
- "Africa AD 1500–1850". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Oceania AD 1520–1770". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Americas 1492–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- "Asia AD 1500–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand
- Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X.
- "Africa AD 1950–2000". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- Keeley, Larry (2007-02-16). "The Greatest Innovations of All Time". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "The Big 100: the Science Channels 100 Greatest Discoveries". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
- Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
- "Millennium FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions". When does the Millennium start?. Greenwich2000.ltd.uk. 2008-08-12. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-29.