The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
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EventsEdit

1180

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

CultureEdit
DemographyEdit

1181Edit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit

EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
ScienceEdit

1182Edit

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • AprilMassacre of the Latins: The Roman Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople massacre the Venetian, Genoan, and other Latin officials and traders who rule as agents of Empress Maria of Antioch. She is the mother and regent of 12-year-old Emperor Alexios II. In August, Andronikos Komnenos, a cousin of Maria's late husband, Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos), raises an army and enters the city, representing himself as the 'protector' of Alexios. He is proclaimed as co-emperor under the name Andronikos I, and has Maria imprisoned and later condemned to be strangled – forcing a signature from Alexios to put his mother to death.[16]
  • September – Alexios II is murdered after a 3-year reign at Constantinople. The 64-year-old Andronikos I is proclaimed emperor of the Byzantine Empire before the crowd on the terrace of the Church of Christ of the Chalke. He marries Alexios' widow, the 11-year-old Agnes of France, and makes in November a treaty with Venice in which he promised a yearly indemnity as compensation for Venetian losses during the Massacre of the Latins.[17]
LevantEdit
  • May 11Saladin leads an Egyptian expeditionary force from Cairo to Syria. In June, he arrives in Damascus and learns that his nephew Farrukh Shah has raided Galilee, and sacked the villages near Mount Tabor. On his way back, Farrukh Shah attacks the fortress of Habis Jaldak, carved out of the rock above the River Yarmuk. The garrison, Christian Syrians with no great wish to die for the Crusaders, promptly surrenders.[18]
  • July – August – Battle of Belvoir Castle: Saladin crosses into Palestine round the south of the Sea of Galilee. King Baldwin IV (the Leper) of Jerusalem marches with his army back from Oultrejordain and attacks Saladin's forces near Belvoir Castle (modern Israel). In a fierce battle, the Crusaders successfully repel Saladin's invasion. At the end of the day, each side retired, claiming the victory.[19]
  • August – Saladin sends an Egyptian fleet to blockade Beirut and leads his forces in the Bekaa Valley. The city is strongly fortified and Baldwin IV rushes with his army up from Galilee – only pausing to collect the ships that lay in the harbors of Acre and Tyre. Failing to take Beirut by assault before the Crusaders arrived, Saladin breaks of the siege and withdraws.[20]
  • September – Saladin invades the Jazira Region, ending the truce between him and the Zangids. After a feint attack on Aleppo, he crosses the Euphrates. The towns of the Jazira fall before him; the cities of Edessa, Saruj and Nisibin are captured in October. Saladin presses on to Mosul, and begins the siege of the city on November 10.[21]
  • November – Al-Nasir, caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, is shocked by the war between fellow-Muslims and tries to negotiate a peace. Saladin, thwarted by the strong fortifications of Mosul, retreats to Sinjar. He marches to conquer Diarbekir, the richest and the greatest fortress of the Jazira Region (with the finest library in Islam).[22]
  • December – Baldwin IV raids through the Hauran and reaches Bosra, while Raymond of Tripoli recaptures Habis Jaldak. A few days later, Baldwin sets out with a Crusader force to Damascus and encamped at Dareiya in the suburbs. He decides not to attack the city and retires laden with booty, to spend Christmas at Tyre.[23]
  • Winter – Raynald of Châtillon, lord of Oultrejordain, orders the building of five ships which are carried to the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern end of the Red Sea. Part of his fleet makes a raid along the coast, threatening the security of the holy cities on Pharaoh's Island (or Île de Graye).[24]
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1183Edit


By areaEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit
=Japan=
=Near East=

1184Edit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
AfricaEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
FoodEdit

1185Edit

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
LevantEdit
EnglandEdit
  • April – King Henry II knights his son and heir, the 18-year-old John of England and sends him to Ireland, accompanied by 300 knights and a team of administrators, to enforce English control. He treats the local Irish rulers with contempt, by making fun of their unfashionable long beards. Failing to make allies amongst the Anglo-Norman settlers, the English army is unable to subdue the Irish fighters in unfamiliar conditions and the expedition soon becomes a complete disaster. By the end of the year, John returns to England in defeat. Nonetheless, Henry gets him named 'King of Ireland' by Pope Urban III and procures a golden crown with peacock feathers.[57]
  • April 151185 East Midlands earthquake occurs. It is the first earthquake in England for which there are reliable reports indicating the damage.[58]
EuropeEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

AstronomyEdit
MarketsEdit
ReligionEdit

1186Edit

1187Edit

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Spring – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force under Alexios Branas to suppress the Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion – but Alexios revolts against Isaac and is proclaimed emperor in Andrianople. He musters troops and advances on Constantinople in an attempt to seize it. However, Alexios is unable to bypass the city defenses and is defeated by the imperial forces led by Conrad of Montferrat, the emperor's brother-in-law. On the battlefield, Alexios is beheaded by Conrad's supporting footsoldiers and the rebel army flees the field.[79]
  • Siege of Lovech: Byzantine forces under Isaac II besiege the fortress city of Lovech in north-central Bulgaria. After a three-month siege, Isaac is forced to accept a truce by recognizing the joint-rule of Peter II and Ivan Asen I as emperor's (or tsar) over the territory, leading to the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire (until 1396).
LevantEdit
  • Spring – The Crusaders under Raynald of Châtillon attack a large Muslim caravan, including members of Saladin's family, journeying from Cairo. Raynald takes the merchants, and their families with all their possessions to his castle of Kerak. Saladin demands the release of the prisoners and compensation for their losses. This is refused by Raynald, who pays no attention to his order.[80]
  • March 13 – Saladin leaves Damascus with his Muslim forces, and sends letters to neighboring countries, asking for volunteers for a forthcoming jihad ("Holy War"). A week later his younger brother Al-Adil, governor of Egypt, leads his forces out of Cairo towards Syria. Meanwhile, Saladin leaves an army under his 18-year-old son Al-Afdal at Busra, to keep watch on the 'Pilgrim road'.[81]
  • April – King Guy of Lusignan summons his vassals and marches north to Nazareth, to reduce Galilee to submission.
  • April 29 – A delegation under Balian of Ibelin is sent to Tiberias, to reconcile with Raymond III, prince of Galilee. After Easter, a second delegation (supported by the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller) is sent to Tripoli, but the situation remains unchanged.
  • May 1Battle of Cresson: A Muslim reconnaissance force (some 7,000 men[82]) under Muzaffar al-Din Gökböri, defeats a small Crusader army near Nazareth. Only Gerard de Ridefort, commander of the Crusaders, and a handful of knights escape death or capture. The Muslims scattering and killing the Christian foot-soldiers (some 400 men) before pillaging the countryside.[83]
  • June 26 – Saladin regroups his Muslim forces and marches towards the Jordan River. His army numbers around 30,000 men and is divided into three columns. The following day Saladin encamps on the Golan Heights, in a marshy area near Lake Tiberias. Raiding parties are sent across the Jordan to ravage Christian territory between Nazareth, Tiberias, and Mount Tabor.[84]
  • June 30 – Saladin sends a contingent to block Tiberias and challenges the Crusaders by moving his main camp closer to Saffuriya – some 10 km west of Lake Tiberias. On July 1, he sends scouts to monitor an alternative road on his northern flank that connects Saffuriya and Tiberias. The following day he attacks Tiberias with a part of his forces, including siege equipment.[85]
  • July 23 – Saladin besieges Tiberias, the defenders, and Countess Eschiva II (wife of Raymond III) retreat to the citadel and sends messengers urging Guy of Lusignan to send help. Meanwhile, Guy and Raymond hold a war council to debate what should be done. Persuaded by Gerard de Ridefort and Raynald of Châtillon, Guy orders to march to the rescue of Tiberias.[86]
  • July 4Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusader army (some 20,000 men) under Guy of Lusignan at the Horns of Hattin. Guy is captured along with many nobles and knights, among them, Raynald of Châtillon. The latter is executed by Saladin himself.[87] The Crusader States have no reserves to defend the castles and fortified settlements against Saladin's forces.[88]
  • July 14Conrad of Montferrat, an Italian nobleman, arrives in Tyre which ends the surrender negotiations with Saladin. He finds the remnants of the Crusader army (after the battle of Hattin) and makes the Tyrians swear loyalty to him. Reginald of Sidon and several other nobles give their support, Reginald went to refortify his own castle of Beaufort on the Litani River.[89]
  • Summer – Saladin begins a campaign that paves the way for further Muslim inroads into Christian territory. Al-Adil invades Palestine with the Egyptian army, and captures the strategic castle of Mirabel (Majdal Yaba). Mid-September Saladin has captured the cities of Acre, Jaffa, Gaza and Ascalon (blockaded by the Egyptian fleet), along with some 50 Crusader castles.
  • September 20October 2Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after the Crusaders led by Balian of Ibelin have surrendered the 'Holy City'. The take-over of the city is relatively peaceful, Saladin agrees to let the Muslims and Christians leave the city – taking with them their goods. Balian joins his wife Maria Komnene and family in the County of Tripoli.
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

EconomyEdit
  • Orio Mastropiero, doge of Venice, secure loans from the Venetian nobility to finance the siege of Zadar. Pledging the income from the Salt Office becomes a staple of the city's finance.[92]
ReligionEdit

1188Edit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
LevantEdit
  • Spring – Siege of Tyre: Muslim forces under Saladin withdraw from Tyre after a 1½-month siege. For the Crusaders the city-port becomes a strategic rallying point for the Christian revival during the Third Crusade.
  • May 14 – Saladin begins a campaign and marches north but finds Tripoli too strong to be besieged. He decides to take other Crusader fortifications and signs an 8-month truce with Prince Bohemond III of Antioch.
  • May – Saladin besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, in Syria. Seeing that the castle is too well defended, he decides instead to march on the Castle of Margat, which he also failed to capture.[94]
  • July – Saladin marches through the Buqaia, and occupies Jabala and Lattakieh. From Lattakieh he turns inland and takes after a few days of fierce fighting Sahyun Castle (called Castle of Saladin) on July 29.[95]
  • September 4 – King Guy of Lusignan is released by Saladin after Ascalon is forced to surrender. Guy and his wife, Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem, seek refuge in Tyre, which is defended by Conrad of Montferrat.
EnglandEdit
SpainEdit

1189Edit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • May 11 – Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) sets out from Regensburg, at the head of a German expeditionary force (some 15,000 men, including 4,000 knights). He has ensured that his lands are safe while he is away on crusade and leaves his son Henry VI in charge of the country. After leaving Germany, Frederick's army is increased by a contingent of 2,000 men led by Prince Géza, younger brother of King Béla III of Hungary. On July 27, he arrives at Niš and is welcomed by Stefan Nemanja, Grand Prince of Serbia. In order to ease his passage, Frederick makes diplomatic contacts with Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.[97]
  • July 6 – King Henry II dies at Chinon, near Tours, after doing homage to Philip II (Augustus), and surrendering the territories around Issoudun in the Centre-Val de Loire. He ends the hostilities against Philip, by agreeing to the peace terms and pays him 20,000 marks in tribute. Henry is succeeded by his son, Richard I (the Lionheart), as ruler of England.[98]
  • August – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) denies any crusader access and begins to hinder the German forces, who try to cross the Byzantine frontier. Frederick I progressed with force, by capturing Philippopolis and defeats a Byzantine army (some 3,000 men) that attempts to recapture the city. The Germans are delayed for six months in Thrace.[99]
  • King Sancho I (the Populator) turns his attention towards the Moorish small kingdoms (called taifas) and begins a campaign in southern Portugal. With the help of crusader forces he conquers (during the Reconquista) the town of Silves. He orders the fortification of the city and builds a castle. Sancho styles himself "King of Silves".[100]
  • November 11 – King William II (the Good) makes peace with Isaac II, he abandons Thessalonika and other conquests, and dies childless at Palermo. The Sicilian nobles elect Tancred of Lecce (illegitimate son of Roger II) as the new ruler of Sicily, instead of Princess Constance and her husband Henry VI, to avoid German rule.[101]
British IslesEdit
LevantEdit
  • May – Saladin has reconquered the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem except for Tyre. The castles of Montréal and Kerak are captured by Muslim forces. In the north, Saladin has regained the Principality of Antioch except for Antioch and the castle of Al-Qusayr in Syria.[104]
  • August 28Siege of Acre: King Guy of Lusignan moves from Tyre, where Conrad of Montferrat refuses to hand over the city. Guy and his crusader army (some 7,000 men, including 400 knights) besiege Acre. He makes camp outside, to wait for more reinforcements.[105]
  • September – Guy of Lusignan receives reinforcements of some 12,000 men from Denmark, Germany, England, France, and Flanders. He encircles Acre with a double line of fortified positions. On September 15, Saladin launches a failed attack on Guy's camp.[106]
  • October 4 – Guy of Lusignan lead the crusader forces to launch a full-on assault on Saladin's camp. With heavy casualties on both sides, neither force gains the upperhand. On October 26, Saladin moves his camp from Acre to Mount Carmel (modern Israel).[107]
  • October 30 – An Egyptian fleet (some 50 ships) breaks through the crusader blockade at Acre and reinforced the port-city with some 10,000 men, as well as food and weapons.
  • December – An Egyptian fleet reopens communications with Acre. The rest of the winter passed without major incidents, but the supply situation is poor in the besieged city.
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

LiteratureEdit

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

1180

1181

1182

1183

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1185

1186

1187

1188

1189

DeathsEdit

1180

1181

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ReferencesEdit

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