Irene Angelina (Greek: Εἰρήνη Ἀγγελίνα; c. 1181 – 27 August 1208) was a Byzantine princess and member of the Angelos dynasty and by her two marriages Queen of Sicily in 1193 and Queen of Germany from 1198 to 1208.
|Queen consort of Sicily|
|Queen consort of Germany|
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
|Died||27 August 1208 (aged 26–27)|
Hohenstaufen Castle, Holy Roman Empire
|Spouse||Roger III, King of Sicily|
Philip, King of Germany
|Issue||Beatrix, Holy Roman Empress|
Maria, Hereditary Princess of Brabant
Kunigunde, Queen of Bohemia
Elisabeth, Queen of Castile
|Father||Isaac II Angelos|
Irene was born in Constantinople. Her father Isaac II inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Norman invaders on the Balkans in the 1185 Battle of Demetritzes. In 1193 he and King Tancred of Sicily arranged Irene's marriage with Tancred's eldest son, Roger. Roger was declared co-king, but died on 24 December 1193, shortly before his father's death on 20 February 1194. Sicily was claimed by Tancred's aunt Constance and her husband, Emperor Henry VI. After he had conquered the Sicilian kingdom, Irene was captured on 29 December 1194 and was married on 25 May 1197 to Henry's younger brother, Duke Philip of Swabia. In Germany, she was renamed Maria.
After the Emperor had died on September 28, Philip was elected King of the Romans in Mühlhausen on 8 March 1198. Queen Irene's father, who had been deposed in 1195, urged her to get Philip's support for his reinstatement; her brother, Alexius, subsequently spent some time at Philip's court during the preparations for the Fourth Crusade. She thus had an early influence on the eventual diversion of the Crusade to Constantinople in 1204. Rivalled by the Welf scion Otto IV, Philip was able to consolidate his rule over the German kingdom. On 21 June 1208, he was killed by the Bavarian Count Palatine Otto VIII of Wittelsbach, leaving Irene widowed a second time.
After the murder of her husband, Irene - who was pregnant at the time - retired to Hohenstaufen Castle. There, two months later on 27 August 1208, she gave birth to another daughter. Both mother and child died shortly afterwards. She was buried in the family mausoleum in the Staufen proprietary monastery of Lorch Abbey, along with her daughter and sons. Her grave was destroyed and cannot be reconstructed.
Philip and Irene had five daughters:
- Beatrix (April/June 1198 – 11 August 1212), who married her father's rival, Emperor Otto IV on 22 July 1212 and died three weeks later without issue.
- Maria (1199/1200 – 29 March 1235), who married Duke Henry II of Brabant before 22 August 1215 and had issue.
- Kunigunde (February/March 1202 – 13 September 1248), who married King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia in 1224 and had issue.
- Elisabeth (March/May 1205 – 5 November 1235), who married King Ferdinand III of Castile on 30 November 1219 and had issue.
- Daughter (posthumously born and died 20/27 August 1208). She and her mother died following childbirth complications.
Sources identified two short-lived sons, Reinald and Frederick, also born from the union of Philip and Irene-Maria Angelina, being both buried at Lorch Abbey alongside their mother. However, there were no contemporary sources who could ascertain their existence without doubt.
In his poem on King Philip's Magdeburg Christmas celebrations, the minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide described Irene as rose ane dorn, ein tube sunder gallen (Middle High German for "rose without a thorn, a dove without gall").
- O city of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniates tr. Harry J. Magoulias (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984).
- Bruno W. Häuptli: IRENE (Angelou) von Byzanz, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL), vol. 28, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-413-7, pp. 858–862.
- Alemparte, Jaime Ferreiro (1986). "Acercamiento Mutuo de Espana y Alemania". In Martín, Antonio Pérez (ed.). España y Europa, un pasado jurídico común (in Spanish). Cometa S.A.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Alio, Jacqueline (2018). Queens of Sicily 1061-1266. Trinacria (New York).
- Baldwin, Philip B. (2014). Pope Gregory X and the Crusades. The Boydell Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ciggaar, Krijna Nelly (1996). Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204. Brill.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stürner, Wolfgang (1992). Friedrich II:Teil 1 Die Konigscheffschaft in Sizilien un Deutschland 1194-1220 (in German). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Weller, Tobias (2010). Dynastische Politik (in German). Vienna: Andrea Rzihacek, Renate Spreitzer: Philipp von Schwaben. Beiträge der internationalen Tagung anlässlich seines 800. Todestages, Wien, 29. bis 30. Mai 2008. pp. 193–214.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irene Angelina.|
- Irene Angelina at Find a Grave
- Bibliography about Irene Angelina (in German) in OPAC Regesta Imperii. [retrieved 25 May 2014].
Irene AngelinaBorn: c.1181 Died: 1208
Sibylla of Acerra
| Queen consort of Sicily
Served alongside: Sibylla of Acerra
Sibylla of Acerra
Constance of Sicily
| Queen consort of Germany
Beatrice of Swabia
Constance of Hungary
| Duchess consort of Swabia
Constance of Aragon