Huijong of Goryeo

Huijong of Goryeo (21 June 1181 – 31 August 1237, r. 1204–1211) was the 21st Monarch of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

Huijong of Goryeo
고려 희종
高麗 熙宗
Crown Prince of Goryeo
Reign1200–1204
Coronation1200
PredecessorDeposed Crown Prince Wang Suk
SuccessorDeposed Crown Prince Wang Ji
MonarchKing Sinjong (father)
King of Goryeo
Reign1204–1211
Coronation1204
Grand Hall Gaegyeong
PredecessorSinjong of Goryeo
SuccessorGangjong of Goryeo
BornWang Yeon
21 June 1181
Gaegyeong, Kingdom of Goryeo
Died31 August 1237 (aged 56)
Beopcheonjeong Temple, Gyodong-hyeon, Yanggwang-do, Kingdom of Goryeo
Burial
Seokneung tomb[1]
San–182, Giljeong-ri, Yangdo-myeon, Ganghwa-gun, Incheon
SpouseDeposed Crown Princess Wang
(before 1211)
Issue
  • Sons:
    Wang Ji
    Wang Wi
    Wang Jo
    Wang Gyeong-ji
    Wang Gak-eung
  • Daughters:
    Princess Seungbok
    Princess Yeongchang
    Princess Deokchang
    Princess Gasun
    Princess Jeonghui
Posthumous name
King Inmok Seonghyo the Great
인목성효대왕
(誠孝仁穆誠孝大王)
Temple name
Jeongjong (정종, 貞宗)→Huijong (희종, 熙宗)
HouseHouse of Wang
FatherSinjong of Goryeo
MotherQueen Seonjeong
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationHuijong
McCune–ReischauerHŭijong
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationWang Yeon, Wang Deok, later Wang Yeong
McCune–ReischauerWang Yŏn, Wang T'ŏk, later Wang Yŏng
Courtesy name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationBulpi
McCune–ReischauerP'ulph'i
Posthumous name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSeonghyo Daewang
McCune–ReischauerSŏngh'yo Taewang

It is said of Huijong that if he were to have grown old he would have made a great King. When his father ascended to the throne and Huijong became Crown Prince, he rebelled against Choe Chungheon, the military leader of that time, and his younger brother Choe Chungsu. Huijong grew truly hostile towards them after Chungsu forced the Crown Princess to abdicate so that he could replace her with his daughter. During the rebellion, Huijong masterminded a plan to make Chungheon kill Chungsu, but Chungheon found out about it. Huijong was forced to beg for forgiveness and humble himself before one of his own subjects, which only made him hungrier for revenge.

When King Sinjong fell ill in 1204, he stepped down from the throne to let his son Huijong be King. Huijong, knowing that he had to lull Choe Chungheon into a false sense of security in order to be able to kill him, promoted him to Prime Minister of the State. This title was the one most often given out during the time of military rule to people such as Jeong Jung-bu, Yi Ui-min, and even Chungheon's father posthumously. Huijong also named Chungheon the Royal Protector, the greatest honor of the time, which was usually only given to relatives of the King. With these two titles, Choe Chungheon had political power nearly equal to that of the King himself. He used it to obliterate three rebellions, one led by his slave, another by Silla partisans, and one by his nephew Park Jinjae.

As Chungheon became secure in his new position, however, Huijong began to make preparations. Claiming illness, he tricked Choe Chungheon into coming alone into the palace without his usual host of guards. Once he arrived, Huijong attempted a coup d'état against him. Unfortunately, this failed and Choe Chungheon barely escaped with his life. Enraged, he exiled King Huijong. Chungheon had realized by this time that he held the 'power of the heavens' in his hand, and could crown and exile whomever he wished whenever he wished. King Gangjong was crowned in Huijong's place.

FamilyEdit

  1. Deposed Crown Princess consort, of the Gaeseong Wang clan (폐태자비 왕씨); third cousin once removed – No issue.
  2. Queen Seongpyeong of the Jangheung Im clan (성평왕후 임씨; d. 1247); fifth cousin.
    1. Wang Ji, Duke Changwon (왕지 창원공)
    2. Wang Wi, Marquess Siryeong (왕위 시령후)[2]
    3. Wang Jo, Duke Gyeongwon (왕조 경원공)[3]
    4. Wang Gyeong-ji (왕경지)[4]
    5. Wang Gak-eung (왕각응)[5]
    6. Princess Seungbok (승복궁주)
    7. Princess Yeongchang (영창공주)[6]
    8. Princess Deokchang (덕창궁주)[7]
    9. Princess Gasun (가순궁주)[8]
    10. Princess Jeonghui (정희궁주)[9]

Popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ One of the four Goryeo Royal Tombs who left in South Korea, along with:
    • Golleung Tomb (곤릉, 坤陵) – his first cousin-in-law, Queen Wondeok's tomb.[1]
    • Hongneung Tomb (홍릉, 洪陵) – his first cousin once removed, King Gojong's tomb.[2]
    • Gareung Tomb (가릉, 嘉陵) – his first cousin twice removed in-law, Queen Mother Sungyeong's tomb.[3]
  2. ^ In 1211, he became the "Marquess Siryeong", but eventually exiled to Baekryeong Province upon his father was forced to abdicated the throne by Choe Chung-heon, along with some of his brothers. He was later recorded to have a son named Wang Goeng (왕굉).
  3. ^ Well-versed in rites and arts, he was called as "Master of Rites" (예, 禮) by people at that time and when King Wonjong had a doubts, he was sure to find Wang Jo and ask him, even becomes the epitome of succession. Wang Jo was later died in 1279.
  4. ^ Became a Buddhist monk in 1120, he firstly was a disciple of the Wonjin (원진국사) who was the head of Bogyeong Temple. During King Gojong's reign, Gyeong-ji served as a governor at Jingu Temple and it grand ambassador while known by his buddhist title, Wonjeong (원정국사, 圓靜國師) later. In 1276, he went to Monggye Temple in Gangyang and published the unprinted Second Volume of "Neungeomgyeongsingwa" (능엄경신과) written by monk Bo Hwan. The Goryeo scholar, Yi Seung-hyu (이승휴) at his 12 years old, went to Gyeong-ji's residence to study. He was also known as Great Master Gyeongji (대선사 경지, 大禪師 鏡智).
  5. ^ One of Huijong's son who became a Buddhist monk, served as a governor at Buseok Temple in Yeongju, Gyeongsang Province and developed the temple greatly. Meanwhile, in 22 May 1982, it was believed that the temple's woodblocks which designated as Treasure No. 735 (제735호) were made when Chungmyeong (충명국사, 冲明國師; Gak-eung's buddhist title) was the temple's chief.
  6. ^ Married Wang Seo, Prince Danyang (왕서 단양군) who was the second son of King Jeonggan's descendant, Wang Gyeong the Marquess Cheonghwa (청화후 왕경) and had a son, Wang Ji the Duke Jangyang (장양공 왕지).
  7. ^ Married Choe Jeon (최전) who was the son of Choe Chung-heon (최충헌) who would expelled Deokchang's father from the throne and this marriage making Deokchang becomes the only Goryeo princess (born from queen) that didn't marry her relative from the Gaeseong Wang clan. Although Huijong was exiled, but Deokchang was pardoned and not exiled too since she was once Chung-heon's daughter-in-law.
  8. ^ Married Wang Jeon, Duke Sinan (왕전 신안공) who was the son of Wang Chun the Duke Hawon (하원공 왕춘) and one of King Jeonggan's descendant. Together, they had a daughter who would marry King Wonjong, Princess Gyeongchang. Meanwhile, in November 2007, relic related to Princess Gasun was discovered at Samcheon Temple Site, Bukhan Mountain, Goyang City, Gyeonggi Province with the name "Princess Gasun Wood Pieces" (가순궁주 명금니목가구편, 嘉順宮主 銘金泥木家具片), which was believed that she often donated to Samcheon Temple during her lifetime.[4][5][6]
  9. ^ Married Wang Hui, Duke Yeongan (왕희 영안공) who was the fourth son of Wang Seo the Duke Yangyang (양양공 왕서), making Wang Hui was initially Jeonghui's first cousin and were the grandchildren of King Sinjong.
  • 희종 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia.
Huijong of Goryeo
Born: 21 June 1181 Died: 31 August 1237
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Goryeo
1204–1211
Succeeded by