Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1187 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1187
MCLXXXVII
Ab urbe condita1940
Armenian calendar636
ԹՎ ՈԼԶ
Assyrian calendar5937
Balinese saka calendar1108–1109
Bengali calendar594
Berber calendar2137
English Regnal year33 Hen. 2 – 34 Hen. 2
Buddhist calendar1731
Burmese calendar549
Byzantine calendar6695–6696
Chinese calendar丙午(Fire Horse)
3883 or 3823
    — to —
丁未年 (Fire Goat)
3884 or 3824
Coptic calendar903–904
Discordian calendar2353
Ethiopian calendar1179–1180
Hebrew calendar4947–4948
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1243–1244
 - Shaka Samvat1108–1109
 - Kali Yuga4287–4288
Holocene calendar11187
Igbo calendar187–188
Iranian calendar565–566
Islamic calendar582–583
Japanese calendarBunji 3
(文治3年)
Javanese calendar1094–1095
Julian calendar1187
MCLXXXVII
Korean calendar3520
Minguo calendar725 before ROC
民前725年
Nanakshahi calendar−281
Seleucid era1498/1499 AG
Thai solar calendar1729–1730
Tibetan calendar阳火马年
(male Fire-Horse)
1313 or 932 or 160
    — to —
阴火羊年
(female Fire-Goat)
1314 or 933 or 161
Saladin accepts the surrender of Guy of Lusignan after the Battle of Hattin (1187).

EventsEdit

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit

  • Spring – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force under Alexios Branas to suppress the Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion – but Alexios revolts against Isaac and is proclaimed emperor in Andrianople. He musters troops and advances on Constantinople in an attempt to seize it. However, Alexios is unable to bypass the city defenses and is defeated by the imperial forces led by Conrad of Montferrat, the emperor's brother-in-law. On the battlefield, Alexios is beheaded by Conrad's supporting footsoldiers and the rebel army flees the field.[1]
  • Siege of Lovech: Byzantine forces under Isaac II besiege the fortress city of Lovech in north-central Bulgaria. After a three-month siege, Isaac is forced to accept a truce by recognizing the joint-rule of Peter II and Ivan Asen I as emperor's (or tsar) over the territory, leading to the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire (until 1396).

LevantEdit

  • Spring – The Crusaders under Raynald of Châtillon attack a large Muslim caravan, including members of Saladin's family, journeying from Cairo. Raynald takes the merchants, and their families with all their possessions to his castle of Kerak. Saladin demands the release of the prisoners and compensation for their losses. This is refused by Raynald, who pays no attention to his order.[2]
  • March 13 – Saladin leaves Damascus with his Muslim forces, and sends letters to neighboring countries, asking for volunteers for a forthcoming jihad ("Holy War"). A week later his younger brother Al-Adil, governor of Egypt, leads his forces out of Cairo towards Syria. Meanwhile, Saladin leaves an army under his 18-year-old son Al-Afdal at Busra, to keep watch on the 'Pilgrim road'.[3]
  • April – King Guy of Lusignan summons his vassals and marches north to Nazareth, to reduce Galilee to submission.
  • April 29 – A delegation under Balian of Ibelin is sent to Tiberias, to reconcile with Raymond III, prince of Galilee. After Easter, a second delegation (supported by the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller) is sent to Tripoli, but the situation remains unchanged.
  • May 1Battle of Cresson: A Muslim reconnaissance force (some 7,000 men[4]) under Muzaffar al-Din Gökböri, defeats a small Crusader army near Nazareth. Only Gerard de Ridefort, commander of the Crusaders, and a handful of knights escape death or capture. The Muslims scattering and killing the Christian foot-soldiers (some 400 men) before pillaging the countryside.[5]
  • June 26 – Saladin regroups his Muslim forces and marches towards the Jordan River. His army numbers around 30,000 men and is divided into three columns. The following day Saladin encamps on the Golan Heights, in a marshy area near Lake Tiberias. Raiding parties are sent across the Jordan to ravage Christian territory between Nazareth, Tiberias, and Mount Tabor.[6]
  • June 30 – Saladin sends a contingent to block Tiberias and challenges the Crusaders by moving his main camp closer to Saffuriya – some 10 km west of Lake Tiberias. On July 1, he sends scouts to monitor an alternative road on his northern flank that connects Saffuriya and Tiberias. The following day he attacks Tiberias with a part of his forces, including siege equipment.[7]
  • July 23 – Saladin besieges Tiberias, the defenders, and Countess Eschiva II (wife of Raymond III) retreat to the citadel and sends messengers urging Guy of Lusignan to send help. Meanwhile, Guy and Raymond hold a war council to debate what should be done. Persuaded by Gerard de Ridefort and Raynald of Châtillon, Guy orders to march to the rescue of Tiberias.[8]
  • July 4Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusader army (some 20,000 men) under Guy of Lusignan at the Horns of Hattin. Guy is captured along with many nobles and knights, among them, Raynald of Châtillon. The latter is executed by Saladin himself.[9] The Crusader States have no reserves to defend the castles and fortified settlements against Saladin's forces.[10]
  • July 14Conrad of Montferrat, an Italian nobleman, arrives in Tyre which ends the surrender negotiations with Saladin. He finds the remnants of the Crusader army (after the battle of Hattin) and makes the Tyrians swear loyalty to him. Reginald of Sidon and several other nobles give their support, Reginald went to refortify his own castle of Beaufort on the Litani River.[11]
  • Summer – Saladin begins a campaign that paves the way for further Muslim inroads into Christian territory. Al-Adil invades Palestine with the Egyptian army, and captures the strategic castle of Mirabel (Majdal Yaba). By mid-September, Saladin has captured the cities of Acre, Jaffa, Gaza and Ascalon (blockaded by the Egyptian fleet), along with some 50 Crusader castles.
  • September 20October 2Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem, after the Crusaders led by Balian of Ibelin have surrendered the 'Holy City'. The take-over of the city is relatively peaceful; Saladin agrees to let the Muslims and Christians leave the city, taking with them their goods. Balian joins his wife Maria Komnene and family, in the County of Tripoli.

EuropeEdit

EnglandEdit

AfricaEdit

AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

EconomyEdit

  • Orio Mastropiero, doge of Venice, secure loans from the Venetian nobility to finance the siege of Zadar. Pledging the income from the Salt Office becomes a staple of the city's finance.[15]

ReligionEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Choniates, Nicetas (1984). O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniatēs, pp. 212–213. Translated by Harry J. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1764-2.
  2. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 367. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  3. ^ David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series – 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, p. 56. ISBN 1-85532-284-6.
  4. ^ David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series – 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, p. 57. ISBN 1-85532-284-6. According to David Nicolle, Gökböri's force was said to consist of 7,000 men though this is a huge exaggeration, 700 seeming more likely.
  5. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 369–370. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  6. ^ David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series – 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, p. 61. ISBN 1-85532-284-6.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 371. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  8. ^ David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series – 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, pp. 61–62. ISBN 1-85532-284-6.
  9. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 375. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  10. ^ Smail, R. C. (1995). Crusading Warfare, 1097–1193, p. 33 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45838-2.
  11. ^ David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Campaign series – 161. The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 16. ISBN 978-1-84176-868-7.
  12. ^ Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna hukkumine. Archived October 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Haridus, 2007 (7-8), p 38–41
  13. ^ Colombani, Philippe (2010). Héros corses du Moyen Age. Ajaccio: Albiana. p. 173. ISBN 978-2-84698-338-9.
  14. ^ Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  15. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.