February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days (the other four months that fall under this category are: April, June, September, and November), and the only month to have a length of fewer than 30 days, with the other seven months having 31 days. In 2019, February had 28 days.
February is the third and last month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, February is the third and last month of summer (the seasonal equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, in meteorological reckoning).
February is pronounced either as // ( listen) FEB-yoo-err-ee or // FEB-roo-err-ee. Many people pronounce the first "r" as // rather than //, as if it were spelled "Febuary". This comes about by analogy with "January" (// ( listen)), as well as by a dissimilation effect whereby having two "r"s close to each other causes one to change for ease of pronunciation.
The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 (full moon) in the old lunar Roman calendar. January and February were the last two months to be added to the Roman calendar, since the Romans originally considered winter a monthless period. They were added by Numa Pompilius about 713 BC. February remained the last month of the calendar year until the time of the decemvirs (c. 450 BC), when it became the second month. At certain intervals February was truncated to 23 or 24 days, and a 27-day intercalary month, Intercalaris, was inserted immediately after February to realign the year with the seasons.
February observances in Ancient Rome include Amburbium (precise date unknown), Sementivae (February 2), Februa (February 13–15), Lupercalia (February 13–15), Parentalia (February 13–22), Quirinalia (February 17), Feralia (February 21), Caristia (February 22), Terminalia (February 23), Regifugium (February 24), and Agonium Martiale (February 27). These days do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.
Under the reforms that instituted the Julian calendar, Intercalaris was abolished, leap years occurred regularly every fourth year, and in leap years February gained a 29th day. Thereafter, it remained the second month of the calendar year, meaning the order that months are displayed (January, February, March, ..., December) within a year-at-a-glance calendar. Even during the Middle Ages, when the numbered Anno Domini year began on March 25 or December 25, the second month was February whenever all twelve months were displayed in order. The Gregorian calendar reforms made slight changes to the system for determining which years were leap years and thus contained a 29-day February.
Historical names for February include the Old English terms Solmonath (mud month) and Kale-monath (named for cabbage) as well as Charlemagne's designation Hornung. In Finnish, the month is called helmikuu, meaning "month of the pearl"; when snow melts on tree branches, it forms droplets, and as these freeze again, they are like pearls of ice. In Polish and Ukrainian, respectively, the month is called luty or лютий, meaning the month of ice or hard frost. In Macedonian the month is sechko (сечко), meaning month of cutting [wood]. In Czech, it is called únor, meaning month of submerging [of river ice].
In Slovene, February is traditionally called svečan, related to icicles or Candlemas. This name originates from sičan, written as svičan in the New Carniolan Almanac from 1775 and changed to its final form by Franc Metelko in his New Almanac from 1824. The name was also spelled sečan, meaning "the month of cutting down of trees".
In 1848, a proposal was put forward in Kmetijske in rokodelske novice by the Slovene Society of Ljubljana to call this month talnik (related to ice melting), but it did not stick. The idea was proposed by a priest, Blaž Potočnik. Another name of February in Slovene was vesnar, after the mythological character Vesna.
Having only 28 days in common years, February is the only month of the year that can pass without a single full moon. Using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis for determining the date and time of a full moon, this last happened in 2018 and will next happen in 2037. The same is true regarding a new moon: again using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis, this last happened in 2014 and will next happen in 2033.
February is also the only month of the calendar that, once every six years and twice every 11 years consecutively, either back into the past or forward into the future, has four full 7-day weeks. In countries that start their week on a Monday, it occurs as part of a common year starting on Friday, in which February 1st is a Monday and the 28th is a Sunday; this occurred in 1965, 1971, 1982, 1993, 1999 and 2010, and occur will again in 2021. In countries that start their week on a Sunday, it occurs in a common year starting on Thursday, with the next occurrence in 2026, and previous occurrences in 1987, 1998, 2009 and 2015. The pattern is broken by a skipped leap year, but no leap year has been skipped since 1900 and no others will be skipped until 2100.
February meteor showers include the Alpha Centaurids (appearing in early February), the Beta Leonids, also known as the March Virginids (lasting from February 14 to April 25, peaking around March 20), the Delta Cancrids (appearing December 14 to February 14, peaking on January 17), the Omicron Centaurids (late January through February, peaking in mid-February), Theta Centaurids (January 23 – March 12, only visible in the southern hemisphere), Eta Virginids (February 24 and March 27, peaking around March 18), and Pi Virginids (February 13 and April 8, peaking between March 3 and March 9).
This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.
- In Catholic tradition, February is the Month of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
- American Heart Month (United States)
- Black History Month (United States, Canada)
- National Bird-Feeding Month (United States)
- National Children's Dental Health Month (United States)
- Season for Nonviolence: January 30 – April 4 (International observance)
- Turner Syndrome Awareness Month (United States)
Non-Gregorian observances, 2019Edit
This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance. Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.
- February 4: Yom Kippur Katan (Judaism, optional observance)
- February 5-6: Rosh Chodesh of Adar (Judaism)
- February 8: Martyrdom of Fatima (Iran) (Islam)
- February 11: Anniversary of Islamic Revolution (Iran, Solar Hijri calendar)
- February 18: Shia day of Remembrance:Death of Umm ul-Banin (mother of Abbas ibn Ali) (Islam, Shia only)
- February 19: Purim Katan (Judaism)
- February 24: Sepandārmazgān (Iran, Solar Hijri calendar)
- February 25: Shia day of Celebration: Birth of Janab-e-Fatima-az-Zahra, 8 B.H./Mother's Day in Iran (Islam, Shia only)
Movable observances, 2019 datesEdit
First Friday: February 1
First Saturday: February 2
First Sunday: February 3
First Monday: February 4
First Week of February (first Monday, ending on Sunday): February 4-10
- Doppelganger Week
- World Interfaith Harmony Week
- Safer Internet Day: February 5 (international observance)
Second Saturday: February 9
Second Sunday: February 10
- Autism Sunday (United Kingdom)
- Children's Day (Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Tokelau, Cayman Islands)
- Mother's Day (Norway)
- World Marriage Day
Second Monday: February 11
Second Tuesday: February 12
Third Friday: February 15
10th Sunday before Pascha in Eastern Christianity: February 17
Week of February 22: February 17-23
Third Monday: February 18
- Family Day (Canada) (provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.)
- President's Day/Washington's Birthday (United States)
2nd Monday before Clean Monday in Eastern Christianity and the following three days: February 18-21
Third Thursday: February 21
Last Friday: February 22
Last Saturday: February 23
9th Sunday before Easter in Western Christianity: February 24
Sunday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 24
Monday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 25
Tuesday before Ash Wednesday: February 26
- Shrove Tuesday
Last Tuesday: February 26
Last Thursday before Lent (Western Christianity): February 28
Thursday of the 8th week before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 28
Last day of February: February 28
- February 1
- Abolition of Slavery Day (Mauritius)
- Air Force Day (Nicaragua)
- Federal Territory Day (Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya, Malaysia)
- Heroes' Day (Rwanda)
- Imbolc (Ireland, Scotland, Isle of Man, and some Neopagan groups in the Northern hemisphere)
- Lammas (some Neopagan groups in the Southern hemisphere)
- Memorial Day of the Republic (Hungary)
- National Freedom Day (United States)
- World Hijab Day
- February 2
- Anniversary of Treaty of Tartu (Estonia)
- Constitution Day (Philippines)
- Day of Youth (Azerbaijan)
- Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (or Candlemas) (Western Christianity), and its related observances:
- Groundhog Day (United States and Canada)
- Inventor's Day (Thailand)
- National Tater Tot Day (United States)
- World Wetlands Day
- February 3
- February 4
- February 5
- February 6
- International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation
- Ronald Reagan Day (California, United States)
- Sami National Day (Russia, Finland, Norway and Sweden)
- Waitangi Day (New Zealand)
- February 7
- February 8
- February 9
- February 10
- February 11
- 112 day (European Union)
- Armed Forces Day (Liberia)
- Day of Revenue Service (Azerbaijan)
- Evelio Javier Day (Panay Island, the Philippines)
- Feast day of Our Lady of Lourdes (Catholic Church), and its related observance:
- Inventors' Day (United States)
- National Foundation Day (Japan)
- Youth Day (Cameroon)
- February 12
- Darwin Day (International)
- Georgia Day (Georgia (U.S. state))
- International Day of Women's Health
- Lincoln's Birthday (United States)
- National Freedom to Marry Day (United States)
- Red Hand Day (United Nations)
- Sexual and Reproductive Health Awareness Day (Canada)
- Union Day (Myanmar)
- Youth Day (Venezuela)
- February 13
- February 14
- February 15
- Candlemas (Eastern Orthodox Church)
- International Duties Memorial Day (Russia, regional)
- John Frum Day (Vanuatu)
- Liberation Day (Afghanistan)
- National Flag of Canada Day (Canada)
- National I Want Butterscotch Day (United States)
- Parinirvana Day (most Mahayana Buddhist traditions, some celebrate on February 8)
- Serbia's National Day
- Statehood Day (Serbia)
- Susan B. Anthony Day (United States)
- The ENIAC Day (Philadelphia, United States)
- Total Defence Day (Singapore)
- February 16
- February 17
- February 18
- February 19
- February 20
- February 21
- February 22
- Feast of the Chair of Saint Peter (Roman Catholic Church)
- Independence Day (Saint Lucia)
- Celebrity Day (Church of Scientology)
- Founder's Day or "B.-P. day" (World Organization of the Scout Movement)
- National Margarita Day (United States)
- World Thinking Day (World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts)
- February 23
- Mashramani-Republic Day (Guyana)
- Meteņi (Latvia)
- National Banana Bread Day (United States)
- National Day (Brunei)
- Red Army Day or Day of Soviet Army and Navy in the former Soviet Union, also held in various former Soviet republics:
- February 24
- February 25
- Armed Forces Day (Dominican Republic)
- Kitano Baika-sai or "Plum Blossom Festival" (Kitano Tenman-gū Shrine, Kyoto, Japan)
- Meher Baba's birthday (followers of Meher Baba)
- Memorial Day for the Victims of the Communist Dictatorships (Hungary)
- National Day (Kuwait)
- People Power Day (Philippines)
- Revolution Day (Suriname)
- Soviet Occupation Day (Georgia)
- February 26
- February 27
- February 28
- February 29
- "February | Definition of February by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec] (PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02.
- Vasmer, Max, ed. (1972). "Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie". 36–37. Markert&Petters: 115.
- "Slovenska imena mesecev" [Slovene Names of Months]. Kmetijske in rokodelske novice. 6 (37). 13 September 1848.
- Bogataj, Janez (2005). "Slovenska mitologija – Vesna" [Slovene Mythology – Vesna]. Bilten; poštne znamke [Bulletin: Postage Stamps] (in Slovenian, English, and German) (56). ISSN 1318-6280.
- "Zodiac Signs". Mistupid.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "Birth Month Flowers". Babiesonline.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "February Birthstone | Amethyst". Americangemsociety.org. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "National Children's Dental Health Month". American Dental Association. 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05.
- "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org.
- Anthony Aveni, "February's Holidays: Prediction, Purification, and Passionate Pursuit," The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 29–46.
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- The Straight Dope: How come February has only 28 days?
- . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.