Year 1238 (MCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1238 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1238
Ab urbe condita1991
Armenian calendar687
Assyrian calendar5988
Balinese saka calendar1159–1160
Bengali calendar645
Berber calendar2188
English Regnal year22 Hen. 3 – 23 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1782
Burmese calendar600
Byzantine calendar6746–6747
Chinese calendar丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
3935 or 3728
    — to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
3936 or 3729
Coptic calendar954–955
Discordian calendar2404
Ethiopian calendar1230–1231
Hebrew calendar4998–4999
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1294–1295
 - Shaka Samvat1159–1160
 - Kali Yuga4338–4339
Holocene calendar11238
Igbo calendar238–239
Iranian calendar616–617
Islamic calendar635–636
Japanese calendarKatei 4 / Ryakunin 1
Javanese calendar1147–1148
Julian calendar1238
Korean calendar3571
Minguo calendar674 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−230
Thai solar calendar1780–1781
Tibetan calendar阴火鸡年
(female Fire-Rooster)
1364 or 983 or 211
    — to —
(male Earth-Dog)
1365 or 984 or 212
Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir (right) dies at the battle of the Sit River (1896)

Events edit

By place edit

Mongol Empire edit

  • January 1520Siege of Moscow: The Mongols under Batu Khan and Subutai campaign across the northern heartland of the Kievan Rus', committing numerous atrocities across multiple settlements, including the sacking of an insignificant town known as Moscow. According to the Chronicle of Novgorod, Moscow is a fortified village, a trading post "on a crossroads of four rivers". The village is taken by the Mongols after 5 days of siege.
  • March 4Battle of the Sit River: The Mongols defeat a Kievan Rus' army (some 4,000 men) under Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir in an engagement at the Sit River (located in the Sonkovsky District). With Yuri's death, so too dies the hope of any united Rus' resistance against the Mongols. Batu Khan splits his forces up into several contingents – ordering each to wreak havoc across the Rus' territories (modern-day Russia and Ukraine).
  • March – Siege of Kozelsk: The 12-year-old Prince Vasily of Chernigov (grandson of Mstislav II Svyatoslavich), manages against all the odds, to hold out in his capital of Kozelsk for nearly two months with only citizen militia. He leads a successful sortie outside of the walls – where the garrison slaughters thousands of Mongols and destroys siege equipment. Finally, Kozelsk is conquered and Vasily is slaughtered alongside the inhabitants.
  • Evpaty Kolovrat, Kievan knight (bogatyr), returns to his hometown of Ryazan, which was burnt to the ground by the Mongols in 1237. He gathers some 1,700 survivors and pursues Batu Khan, attacking his rearguard, and annihilating thousands of Mongols. Finally, Kolovrat is slain from afar by siege-weaponry. Batu Khan shows admiration for his bravery and as a sign of respect, returns his body and allows his soldiers to return home.
  • Autumn – The Mongols under Batu Khan retire, leaving behind the ruined northern Rus' territories. He spends the rest of the year suppressing the last resistance of the Kipchaks, while his cousin Möngke (son of Tolui Khan) conquer the Alans and the northern Caucasian tribes. Later, Möngke makes a raid of reconnaissance as far as Kiev.[1]

Europe edit

England edit

  • January – Simon de Montfort marries the 23-year-old Eleanor, sister of King Henry III. While the marriage takes place with the king's approval, the act itself is performed secretly and without consulting the barons. Eleanor has previously been married to William Marshal and has sworn a vow of perpetual chastity upon his death, which she breaks by marrying Montfort. Archbishop Edmund of Abingdon condemns the marriage for this reason.

Middle East edit

Births edit

Deaths edit

References edit

  1. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 211. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  2. ^ David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Lake Peipus 1242 – Battle on the Ice, p. 48. ISBN 1-85532-553-5.
  3. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  4. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1992). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. pp. 418–420. ISBN 978-0-521-42974-0.
  5. ^ Daftary, Farhad. "The Mediaeval Ismailis of the Iranian Lands | The Institute of Ismaili Studies". Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  6. ^ Elizabeth Ewan, ed. (2006). The biographical dictionary of Scottish women : from the earliest times to 2004 (Reprinted ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 400. ISBN 0-7486-1713-2.