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Kipchak portrait in a 12th-century balbal in Luhansk.

The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and later as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, Syr Darya and Siberia. The Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century.

Contents

TerminologyEdit

The Kipchaks described their name as meaning 'hollow tree'; according to them, inside a hollow tree, their original human ancestress gave birth to her son.[1]

Their name appears occasionally transliterated in other languages, such as Arabic: قفجاق‎, translit. Qifjāq; Persian: قبچاق‎, translit. Qabčāq/Qabcâq‎; Georgian: ყივჩაყები; Turkish: Kıpçak; Crimean Tatar: Kıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ; Uzbek: Qipchoq, Қипчоқ/قىپچاق; Uyghur: قىپچاق‎/Қипчақ; Kazakh: Қыпшақ, translit. Qıpşaq; Kumyk: Къыпчакъ; Kyrgyz: Кыпчак; Nogai: Кыпчак; Chinese: 欽察/钦察; and Romanian: Copceac. Other English transliteration include Kypchaks and Qipchaks.

AnthropologyEdit

In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries.[2] The western Kipchak tribes absorbed people of Oghuz, Pecheneg, ancient Bashkir, Bulgar and other origin; the eastern Kipchak merged with the Oghuz-Kimek, Karluk, Kara-Khitai and others. They were all identified by the ethnonym Kipchak.[2]

According to Ukrainian anthropologists, Kipchaks had racial characteristics of Caucasians and Mongoloids, namely a broad flat face and protruding nose. Researcher E. P. Alekseeva drew attention to the fact that European Kipchak stone images have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid faces. However, in her opinion, Kipchaks, who settled in Georgia in the first half of the 12th century, were predominantly Caucasoid in appearance with some admixture of Mongoloid traits. They were already joined by Cumans. In the course of the Turkic expansion they migrated into Siberia and further into the Trans-Volga region.[3]

HistoryEdit

The Kipchaks appear in the 8th-century Moyun Chur inscription as Türk-Qïbchaq, mentioned as having been part of the Turkic Khaganate for fifty years.[4] It is unclear if the Kipchaks could be identified as the Chueh-Yueh Shih in Chinese sources.[4] The relationship between the Kipchaks and Cumans is unclear.[4]

While part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region.[4] When the Khaganate collapsed, they became part of the Kimek confederation, with which they expanded to the Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol rivers.[4] They then appeared in Islamic sources.[4] In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation.[4] They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes.[5] In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king.[4] The Kimek confederation, probably spearheaded by the Kipchaks, moved into Oghuz lands, and Sighnaq in Syr Darya became the Kipchak urban centre.[4] Kipchak remnants remained in Siberia, while others pushed westwards in the Qun migration.[4] As a result, three Kipchak groups emerged:[6]

The early 11th century saw a massive Turkic nomadic migration towards the Islamic world.[7] The first waves were recorded in the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1017–18.[7] It is unknown whether the Cumans conquered the Kipchaks or were simply the leaders of the Kipchak–Turkic tribes.[7] By the 12th century, the two separate confederations of Cumans and Kipchaks merged.[8]

 
Cumania in c. 1200.

The Mongols defeated the Alans after convincing the Kipchaks to desert them through pointing at their likeness in language and culture.[9] Nonetheless, the Kipchaks were defeated next.[9] Under khan Köten, Kipchaks fled to the Grand Principality of Kiev (the Russians), where the Kipchaks had several marriage relations, one of which was Köten's son-in-law Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia.[9] The Russians and Kipchaks forged an alliance against the Mongols, and met at the Dnieper to locate them.[9] After an eight-day pursuit, they met at the Kalka River (1223).[9] The Kipchaks, who were horse archers like the Mongols, served as the vanguard and scouts.[9] The Mongols, who appeared to retreat, tricked the Russian–Kipchak force into a trap after suddenly emerging behind the hills and surrounding them.[9] The fleeing Kipchaks were closely pursued, and the Russian camp was massacred.[9]

The nomadic Kipchaks were the main targets of the Mongols when they crossed the Volga in 1236.[10] The defeated Kipchaks mainly entered the Mongol ranks, while others fled westward.[10] Köten led 40,000 families into Hungary, where King Bela IV granted them refuge in return for their Christianization.[10] The refugee Kipchaks fled Hungary after Köten was murdered.[10]

After their fall, Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have become mercenaries in Europe and taken as slave warriors. In Egypt, the Mamluks were in part drawn from Kipchaks and Cumans.

LanguageEdit

The Kipchak–Cuman confederation spoke a Turkic language.[7] Mongolian ethno-linguistic elements in the Kipchak–Kimek remain unproven.[7]

Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Turkic language (Kipchak language, Cuman language) whose most important surviving record is the Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Cuman, and Latin. The presence in Egypt of Turkic-speaking Mamluks also stimulated the compilation of Kipchak/Cuman-Arabic dictionaries and grammars that are important in the study of several old Turkic languages.

When members of the Armenian diaspora moved from the Crimean peninsula to the Polish-Ukrainian borderland, at the end of the 13th century, they brought Kipchak, their adopted Turkic language, with them.[11] During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Turkic language among the Armenian communities of the Kipchak people was Armeno-Kipchak. They were settled in the Lviv and Kamianets-Podilskyi areas of what is now Ukraine.[12]

ReligionEdit

The Kipchaks practiced Shamanism.[13] Muslim conversion occurred near Islamic centers.[13] Some Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have converted to Christianity around the 11th century, at the suggestion of the Georgians, as they allied in their conflicts against the Muslims. A great number were baptized at the request of Georgian King David IV, who also married a daughter of Kipchak Khan Otrok. From 1120, there was a Kipchak national Christian church and an important clergy.[14] Following the Mongol conquest, Islam rose in popularity among the Kipchaks of the Golden Horde.[15]

CultureEdit

Kurgan stelaeEdit

ConfederationsEdit

KimekEdit

The confederation or tribal union which Kipchaks entered in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century as one of seven original tribes is known in historiography as that of the Kimek (or Kimäk).[5] Turkic inscriptions do not mention the state with that name.[16] 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam mentions the "country of Kīmāk", ruled by a khagan (king) who has eleven lieutenants that hold hereditary fiefs.[17] Furthermore, Andar Az Khifchāq is mentioned as a country (nāḥiyat) of the Kīmāk, 'of which inhabitants resemble the Ghūz in some customs'.[17]

In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation.[4] They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes.[5] In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king.[4]

LegacyEdit

Kipchak peoples and languagesEdit

The modern Northwestern branch of the Turkic language is often referred to as the Kipchak branch. The languages in this branch are mostly considered to be descendants of the Kipchak language, and the people who speak them may likewise be referred to as Kipchak peoples. Some of the groups traditionally included are the Karachays, Siberian Tatars, Nogays, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Volga Tatars, and Crimean Tatars. There is also a village named Kipchak in Crimea. Kypshak is one of the constituent tribes of the Middle Horde confederation of the Kazakh people. The name Kipchak also occurs as a surname in Kazakhstan. Some of the descendants of the Kipchaks are the Bashkirian clan Qipsaq.[18]

Notable peopleEdit

Kipchak confederations
  • Ayyub Khan (fl. 1117), Kipchak leader.
  • Bačman (fl. 1229–36), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
  • Qačir-üküle (fl. 1236), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
  • Köten (fl. 1223–39), Kipchak leader.
Kipchak ancestry

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Julian Baldick, Animal and Shaman: Ancient Religions of Central Asia, p.55.
  2. ^ a b Agajanov 1992, p. 74.
  3. ^ Carl Waldman; Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 475–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Golden 1990, p. 278.
  5. ^ a b c Agajanov 1992, p. 69.
  6. ^ Golden 1990, pp. 278–279.
  7. ^ a b c d e Golden 1990, p. 279.
  8. ^ Vásáry 2005, p. 6.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h May 2016, p. 96.
  10. ^ a b c d May 2016, p. 103.
  11. ^ An Armeno-Kipchak Chronicle on the Polish-Turkish Wars in 1620-1621, Robert Dankoff, p. 388
  12. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 85, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  13. ^ a b May 2016, p. 221.
  14. ^ (Roux 1997, p. 242)
  15. ^ Islamic Civilization
  16. ^ Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 1998. 
  17. ^ a b Hudud al-'Alam, ch. 18
  18. ^ Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов из сако-динлинской подветви R1a+Z2123//Суюнов Р.Р. Гены наших предков (2-е издание). Том 3, серия «Этногеномика и ДНК-генеалогия», ЭИ Проект «Суюн». Vila do Conde, Lidergraf, 2014, — 250 c., илл., Португалия (Portugal), С.15-77
  19. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  20. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  21. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 

SourcesEdit


Further readingEdit

  • Boswell, A. Bruce. "The Kipchak Turks." The Slavonic Review 6.16 (1927): 68-85.
  • Győrfi, Dávid. "Khwarezmian: Mapping the Kipchak component of Pre-Chagatai Turkic." Acta Orientalia 67.4 (2014): 383-406.
  • Shanijazov, K. "Early Elements in the Ethnogenesis of the Uzbeks." The Nomadic Alternative: Modes and Models of Interaction in the African-Asian Deserts and Steppes (1978): 147.
  • Ushntskiy, Vasiliy V. "KIPCHAK COMPONENT IN THE SAKHA ETHNOGENESIS." VESTNIK TOMSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO UNIVERSITETA-ISTORIYA 3 (2015): 97-101.
  • Mukhajanova, T. N., and A. M. Asetilla. "KIPCHAK" ETHNONYM AND THE HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN." International Scientific and Practical Conference World science. Vol. 3. No. 12. ROST, 2016.
  • Baski, Imre. "On the ethnic names of the Cumans of Hungary." Kinship in the Altaic World. Proccedings of the 48th PIAC (2006): 43-54.
  • Róna-Tas, András. "The reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the genetic question." (1998).
  • Biro, M. B. "The «Kipchaks» in the Georgian Martyrdom of David and Constantin." Annales. Sectio linguistics 4 (1973).
  • Kadyrbaev, Aleksandr. "Turks (Uighurs, Kipchaks and Kanglis) in the history of the Mongols." Acta Orientalia 58.3 (2005): 249-253.
  • Halperin, Charles J. "The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks and Ayn Jalut." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 63.2 (2000): 229-245.
  • Eckmann, János. "The Mamluk-Kipchak Literature." Central Asiatic Journal (1963): 304-319.
  • Csáki, E. (2006). Middle Mongolian loan words in Volga Kipchak languages. Turcologica, Bd. 67. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05381-X

External linksEdit