David IV, also known as David IV the Builder[1] (Georgian: დავით IV აღმაშენებელი, romanized: davit IV aghmashenebeli) (1073–1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the 5th king (mepe) of United Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.[2]

David IV the Builder
დავით IV აღმაშენებელი
King of Kings of Georgia
David IV on 12th century icon at Saint Catherine's Monastery
King of Georgia
PredecessorGeorge II
SuccessorDemetrius I
Died1125(1125-00-00) (aged 51–52)
SpouseRusudan of Armenia
Gurandukht of the Kipchaks [ka]
IssueDemetrius I
FatherGeorge II of Georgia
MotherElene [ka]
ReligionGeorgian Orthodox Church
KhelrtvaDavid IV the Builder დავით IV აღმაშენებელი's signature

Popularly considered to be the greatest and most successful Georgian ruler in history and an original architect of the Georgian Golden Age, he succeeded in driving the Seljuk Turks out of the country, winning the Battle of Didgori in 1121. His reforms of the army and administration enabled him to reunite the country and bring most of the lands of the Caucasus under Georgia's control. A friend of the Church and a notable promoter of Christian culture, he was canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

Sobriquet and regnal ordinal edit

The epithet aghmashenebeli (აღმაშენებელი), which is translated as "the Builder" (in the sense of "built completely"), "the Rebuilder",[3] or "the Restorer",[4][5] first appears as the sobriquet of David in the charter issued in the name of "King of Kings Bagrat" in 1452 and becomes firmly affixed to him in the works of the 17th- and 18th-century historians such as Parsadan Gorgijanidze, Beri Egnatashvili and Prince Vakhushti.[6] Epigraphic data also provide evidence for the early use of David's other epithet, "the Great" (დიდი, didi).[7]

Retrospectively, David the Builder has been variously referred to as David II, III, and IV, reflecting substantial variation in the ordinals assigned to the Georgian Bagratids, especially in the early period of their history, owing to the fact that the numbering of successive rulers moves between the many branches of the family.[8][9] Scholars in Georgia favor David IV,[8] his namesake predecessors being: David I Curopalates (died 881), David II Magistros (died 937), and David III Curopalates (died 1001), all members of the principal line of the Bagratid dynasty.[10]

Family background and early life edit

David IV with his court. Le Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure. David shown on the right dressed in a robe, wearing a crown.

The year of David's birth can be calculated from the date of his accession to the throne recorded in the Life of King of Kings David (ცხორებაჲ მეფეთ-მეფისა დავითისი), written c. 1123–1126,[11][12] as k'oronikon (Paschal cycle) 309, that is, 1089, when he was 16 years old. Thus, he would have been born in k'oronikon 293 or 294, that is, c. 1073. According to the same source, he died in k'oronikon 345, when he would have been in his 52nd or 53rd year. Professor Cyril Toumanoff gives 1070 and 24 January 1125 as the dates for David.[13] The earliest known document that makes mention of David is the royal charter of his father, George II of Georgia (r. 1072–1089), granted to the Mghvime monastery and dated to 1073.[citation needed]

According to the Life of King of Kings David, David was the only son of George II. The contemporaneous Armenian chronicler Matthew of Edessa mentions David's brother Totorme,[14] who, according to the modern historian Robert W. Thomson, was his sister.[13] The name of David's mother, Elene [ka], is recorded in a margin note in the Gospel of Matthew from the Tskarostavi monastery; she is otherwise unknown.[citation needed] David bore the name of the biblical king-prophet, from whom the Georgian Bagratids claimed their descent and whose 78th descendant David was proclaimed to be.[13]

David's father, George II, was confronted by a major threat to the kingdom of Georgia. The country was invaded by the Seljuk Turks, which were part of the same wave which had overrun Anatolia, defeating the Byzantine Empire and taking captive the emperor Romanos IV Diogenes at the battle of Manzikert in 1071.[15] In what the medieval Georgian chronicle refers to as didi turkoba, "the Great Turkish Invasion", several provinces of Georgia became depopulated and George was forced to sue for peace, becoming a tributary of the sultan Malik-Shah I in 1083 when David was 10. The great noble houses of Georgia, capitalizing on the vacillating character of the king, sought to assert more autonomy for themselves; Tbilisi, the ancient capital of Kartli, remained in the hands of its Muslim rulers, and a local dynasty, for a time suppressed by George's energetic father Bagrat IV, maintained its precarious independence in the eastern region of Kakheti under the Seljuq suzerainty.[16]

Accession to the throne edit

Reconstruction of David the Builder's personal banner

Watching his kingdom slip into chaos, George II ceded the crown to his 16-year-old son David in 1089. Although the historical tradition founded by Prince Vakhushti in the 18th century and followed by Marie-Félicité Brosset in the 19th states that David succeeded George upon his death, a number of surviving documents suggest that George died around 1112, and that although he retained the royal title until his death,[17][18] he played no significant political role, real power having passed on to David.[18] Moreover, David himself had been a co-ruler with his father sometime before his becoming a king-regnant in 1089; a document of 1085 mentions David as "king and sebastos", the latter being a Byzantine title,[17] frequently held, like other imperial dignities, by the members of the Georgian royal family. David's formal cooption into government may have occurred even earlier, in 1083, when George II left Georgia for the negotiations at the court of the Seljuk sultan Malik-Shah I.[citation needed]

Revival of the Georgian State edit

King David IV by Mikhail Sabinin

Despite his young age, he was actively involved in Georgia's political life. Backed by his tutor and an influential churchman George of Chqondidi, David IV pursued a purposeful policy, taking no unconsidered step. He was determined to bring order to the land, bridle the unsubmissive secular and ecclesiastic feudal lords, centralize the state administration, form a new type of army that would stand up better to the Seljuk Turkish military organization, and then go over to a methodical offensive with the aim of expelling the Seljuks first from Georgia and then from the whole Caucasus. Between 1089 and 1100, King David organized small detachments of his loyal troops to restore order and destroy isolated enemy troops. He began the resettlement of devastated regions and helped to revive major cities.[19] Encouraged by his success, but more importantly the beginning of the Crusades in Palestine, he ceased payment of the annual contribution to the Seljuks and put an end to their seasonal migration to Georgia. In 1101, King David captured the fortress of Zedazeni, a strategic point in his struggle for Kakheti and Hereti, and within the next three years he liberated most of eastern Georgia.

A copper coin[20] of King David IV of Georgia

In 1093, he arrested the powerful feudal lord Liparit Baghvashi, a long-time enemy of the Georgian crown, and expelled him from Georgia (1094). After the death of Liparit's son Rati, David abolished their duchy of Kldekari in 1103.

He slowly pushed the Seljuk Turks out of the country, recovering more and more land from them as they were now forced to focus not only on the Georgians but the newly begun Crusades in the eastern Mediterranean.[21] By 1099 David IV's power was considerable enough that he was able to refuse paying tribute to the Turks. By that time, he also rejected a Byzantine title of panhypersebastos [22] thus indicating that Georgia would deal with the Byzantine Empire only on a parity basis.

In 1103 a major ecclesiastical congress known as the Ruis-Urbnisi Synod was held at the monasteries of Ruisi and Urbnisi. David succeeded in removing oppositionist bishops, and combined two offices: courtier's (Mtsignobartukhutsesi, i.e. Chief Secretary) and clerical (Bishop of Tchqondidi) into a single institution of Tchqondidel-Mtzignobartukhutsesi corresponding roughly to the post of prime minister.

Next year, David's supporters in the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti captured the local king Aghsartan II (1102–1104), a loyal tributary of the Seljuk Sultan, and reunited the area with the rest of Georgia.

Military campaigns edit

Expansion of Kingdom of Georgia under David IV's reign.

In 1110 the Georgians led by George Chqondideli, his nephew Theodore, Abuleti and Ivane Orbelian, retaliated against the Seljuk settlement and recaptured the town of Samshvilde, which was added to the royal domains, without a major battle.[23] Following this capture, the Seljuks left a large part of their captured territories, allowing Georgian troops to capture Dzerna [ka].[24]

The Seljuks felt this kind of defeat very hard and they could not easily give up the territory they had once conquered. That is why, after the loss of Samshvilde and Dzerna, in 1110, the Sultan sent an army of 100,000 men to Georgia. David was in Nacharmagevi. David was faced with a choice: to avoid the enemy and gather an army or to try to stop them. The first option would result in ruining the country. More over, the king would probably not even be able to form an army before the Turks retreat. He chose the more aggressive course. All of his subsequent steps are brilliant illustrations of the implementation of the strategic maneuver proposed by the treatise: as soon as he received information about the Seljuk army, he made a swift decision. David with 1,500 Tadzreulis [ka] warriors, organized a forced march at night and managed to block the enemy's path in the Trialeti mountains, before they could enter the Kartli plain. As a result, events unfolded exactly as described in the treatise: the Georgian gained an obvious moral advantage and the Seljuk, exhausted by a long march, were forced to fight in an unfavorable position. Despite their numerical superiority, the Turks were unable to defeat David's detachment (located in a better position) and left the battlefield in despair. The Georgians then chased the Seljuks for a long time until they were sure that the enemy would not dare to come again.[24]

The Battle of Trialeti deprived the Seljuk Empire of the opportunity to conduct a major military campaign against Georgia for several years, and for the next 11 years, until the Battle of Didgori the Seljuks did not organized a campaign against Georgia. In 1115 while David IV was in Mukhrani (Shida Kartli), George Chqondideli who commanded the Georgian forces captured Rustavi,[24][23] one of the strong Seljuk strongholds in southern Georgia.[25]

In February 1116 by the order of the king, the army of Kartli and Meskhetians were gathered at Klarjeti, David suddenly attacked and destroyed the Turks in Tao ("fell unexpectedly upon the unsuspecting Turks").[25]

In 1117 David Captured the Gishi.[26] Also in 1117 David sent his Son, Demetrius to Shirvan to fight, and the young commander astonished the people with his deftness in battle. Demetrius seized Kaladzori Castle and returned home with many captives and much wealth.[27]

in 1118 Beshken Jaqeli was killed by the Seljuks in Javakheti, David heard from Nakhiduri the story of the Seljuks invasion of Javakheti and killing of Beshken Jaqeli. David refused to listen to his nobles' advice to retreat and managed to avenge Beshken's death by defeating the Seljuks in Rakhsi and massacred the Seljuk garrisons on Araxes in April 1118. [27]

In 1118 David captured Lori. Since 1065, the city had been the capital of Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget, created by the Kiurikian dynasty. David annexed Lori with its surrounding territory to Georgia.[26] In July 1118, David IV captured Agarani in one day. Bagrat IV, David's grandfather, had taken three months to capture Agarani in the previous century.[28]

Problems began to crop up for David now. His population, having been at war for the better part of twenty years, needed to be allowed to become productive again. Also, his nobles were still making problems for him, along with the city of Tbilisi which still could not be liberated from Seljuk grasp. Again David was forced to solve these problems before he could continue the reclamation of his nation and people. For this purpose, David IV radically reformed his military. He resettled a Kipchak tribe of 40,000 families from the Northern Caucasus in Georgia in 1118–1120.[29] Every Georgian and Kipchak family was obliged to provide one soldier with a horse and weapons. Kipchaks were settled in different regions of Georgia. Some were settled in Inner Kartli province, others were given lands along the border. They were Christianized and quickly assimilated into Georgian society.

Georgia at the end of the reign of King David IV.

In February 1120, David first moved to Geguti, and from there to Khupati. The Seljuks found out how far it was, they camped at Botora. On February 14, David attacked the Seljuks and completely destroyed them. In the battle the Georgians captured many opponents and gained a lot of booty.[30]

In November 1120, David's army attacked and defeated the Seljuks in Arsharunik and Sevgelamej, And in 1121 he did the same in Khunan. In June 1121, David with the Kipchaks raided the camped Seljuks in Barda. In all these episodes the camp was destroyed meaning that the Georgian army managed to secretly approach it and perform a surprise attack.[30]

In the winter of 1120–1121, the Georgian troops successfully attacked the Seljuk settlements on the eastern and southwestern approaches to the Transcaucasus.[31]

fresco of King David the Builder, Shio-Mghvime monastery.

Muslim powers became increasingly concerned about the rapid rise of a Christian state in southern Caucasia. In 1121, Sultan Mahmud b. Muhammad (1118–1131) declared a holy war on Georgia and rallied a large coalition of Muslim states led by the Artuqid Ilghazi and Toğrul b. Muhammad. The size of the Muslim army is still a matter of debate with numbers ranging from a fantastic 600,000 men (Walter the Chancellor's Bella Antiochena, Matthew of Edessa) to 400,000 (Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle) to modern Georgian estimates of 250,000–400,000 men. All sources agree that the Muslim powers gathered an army that was much larger than the Georgian force of 56,000 men. However, on 12 August 1121, King David routed the enemy army on the field of Didgori, achieving what is often considered the greatest military success in Georgian history. The victory at Didgori signaled the emergence of Georgia as a great military power and shifted the regional balance in favor of Georgian cultural and political supremacy.

Following his success, David captured Tbilisi,[32] the last Muslim enclave remaining from the Arab occupation, in 1122 and moved the Georgian capital there. A well-educated man, he preached tolerance and acceptance of other religions, abrogated taxes and services for the Muslims and Jews, and protected the Sufis and Muslim scholars. In 1123, David's army liberated Dmanisi, the last Seljuk stronghold in southern Georgia. In 1124, David finally conquered Shirvan and took the Armenian city of Ani from the Muslim emirs,[32] thus expanding the borders of his kingdom to the Araxes basin. Armenians met him as a liberator providing some auxiliary force for his army. It was then that the important component of "Sword of the Messiah" appeared in the title of David the Builder. It is engraved on a copper coin of David's day:

King of Kings, David, son of George, Sword of the Messiah.

Humane treatment of the Muslim population, as well as the representatives of other religions and cultures, set a standard for tolerance in his multiethnic kingdom. It was a hallmark not only for his enlightened reign, but for all of Georgian history and culture.

Sultan Mahmud II soon resumed the war against Georgia, despite his defeat at Battle of Didgori a year earlier. In November 1122, he began his invasion of Shirvan and captured Tabriz, before reaching the local capital, Shamakhi, the following spring. Mahmud then captured the regional sovereign Manuchihr III and sent a letter to the king of the Georgians saying: "You are the king of the forests, and you never go down to the plains. Now I have taken Shirvanshah and I demand Kharaj [tribute] from him. If you wish, send me suitable presents; if not, come and see me in all haste.[33]

Following this provocation, the Christian monarch called in all his troops and assembled an army of 50,000 men, most of them Kipchaks. The Seljuk sultan locked himself in Shamakhi after learning of the arrival of the Georgian troops, prompting David IV to halt his advance, deeming it disrespectful to pursue a retreating army. Mahmud II then offered the king the opportunity to regain control of his vassal province if he would let him leave in peace, but the monarch categorically refused and resumed his march towards the Shirvan capital after defeating an army of 4,000 Seljuks led by the Atabeg of Arran. Once he had laid siege to Shamakhi, the Seljuk left the city in a hurry via the commune's excrement drainage system.[34]

In June 1123, a month after the defeat of the Seljuks, David IV invaded Shirvan, starting by capturing the town of Gulistan. He soon dethroned his own son-in-law, establishing him in Georgia and directly annexing the region. [34]

David the Builder died on 24 January 1125, and upon his death, as he had specified, was buried under the stone inside the main gatehouse of the Gelati Monastery so that anyone coming to his beloved Gelati Academy stepped on his tomb first. He was survived by three children, his eldest son Demetrius, who succeeded him and continued his father's victorious reign; and two daughters, Tamar, who was married to the Shirvan Shah Manuchihr III, and Kata (Katai), married to Isaac Comnenus, the son of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. Beside his political and military skills, King David earned fame as a writer, composing Galobani sinanulisani (Hymns of Repentance, c. 1120), a powerful work of emotional free-verse psalms, which reveal the king's humility and religious zeal.

Cultural life edit

Gelati Monastery fresco of King David, 16th century

King David the Builder gave close attention to the education of his people. The king selected children who were sent to the Byzantine Empire "so that they be taught languages and bring home translations made by them there". Many of them later became well-known scholars.

David's chronicler claimed that "he knew the deeds better than any other king" because he was enthralled with theology, astrology, and history, and he brought his books with him on campaign.[35] It seems that he read both Persian poetry and the Qur'an.[35]

At the time of David the Builder there were quite a few schools and academies in Georgia, among which Gelati occupies a special place. King David's historian calls Gelati Academy

a second Jerusalem of all the East for learning of all that is of value, for the teaching of knowledge – a second Athens, far exceeding the first in divine law, a canon for all ecclesiastical splendors.

Besides Gelati there also were other cultural-enlightenment and scholarly centers in Georgia at that time, e.g. the academy of Ikalto.

David IV's processional cross

David himself composed, c. 1120, "Hymns of Repentance" (გალობანი სინანულისანი, galobani sinanulisani), a sequence of eight free-verse psalms, with each hymn having its own intricate and subtle stanza form. For all their Christianity, cult of the Mother of God, and the king's emotional repentance of his sins, David sees himself to be similar to the Biblical David, with a similar relationship to God and to his people. His hymns also share the idealistic zeal of the contemporaneous European crusaders to whom David was a natural ally in his struggle against the Seljuks.[36]

Family edit

Autograph of David IV.
"მე დავით უნარჩევესმან მონამან ჴელითა მონითა ქრისტესთა მან გავგზავნე წიგნი ესე მთას წმიდას სინას ვინც მოიხმარებდეთ ლოცვა ყავთ ჩემთვინ"
"I David the servant of Jesus sent this book to Holy Mount Sinai and who uses it pray for me"
Document from Saint Catherine's Monastery, 12th century

Marriages edit

  • Rusudan, an Armenian princess (divorced in 1107)
  • Gurandukht, daughter of the Kipchak chief Otrok (c. 1107)

Issue edit

  1. Demetrius I (c. 1093–1156), king of Georgia (1125-1155, 1155-1156)
  2. Prince Vakhtang (1118–1138)
  3. Prince George (1114–1129)
  4. Princess Rusudan, who was married to Prince of Alania.
  5. Prince Zurab (died 1125)
  6. Princess Tamar, who married Shirvanshah Manuchehr III (died c. 1154), and became a nun in widowhood.
  7. Princess Kata, who has been theorized to be the same person as Irene who married the Byzantine prince Isaakios Comnenus.
  8. An unnamed daughter who married the son of Anna Komnene in 1122[37]

Burial edit

The "Tomb of David IV" at Gelati reads:

A tombstone at the entrance of Gelati monastery, bearing a Georgian inscription in the asomtavruli script, has traditionally been considered to be that of David IV. Although there are no clear and reliable indications that David was indeed buried in Gelati and that the present epitaph is his, this popular belief had already been established by the mid-19th century as evidenced by the French scholar Marie-Félicité Brosset who published his study of the Georgian history between 1848 and 1858. The epitaph, modeled on the Psalm 131 (132), 14, reads: "Christ! This is my resting place for eternity. It pleases me; here I shall dwell."[38]

Legacy edit

Also known as David the Builder, he occupies a special place among the kings of the Georgian "Golden Age" in the period of the defense against the Seljuqs.[39] The "Order of David the Builder" is given to regular citizens, military and clerical personnel for outstanding contributions to the country, for fighting for the independence of Georgia and its revival, and for significantly contributing to social consolidation and the development of democracy.[40]

After being elected President of Georgia, Georgia's former leader Mikheil Saakashvili took an oath at David the Builder's tomb at Gelati Monastery on the day of his inauguration on 25 January 2004.

The airport at Kutaisi is known as David the Builder Kutaisi International Airport. The National Defense Academy is named after him.

See also edit

  Media related to David IV of Georgia at Wikimedia Commons

References edit

  1. ^ Britannica online
  2. ^ Georgia in the Developed Feudal Period (XI–the first quarter of the XIII c.) http://www.parliament.ge/ Retrieved 13 August 2006.
  3. ^ Rapp 2003, p. 161
  4. ^ Massingberd 1980, p. 60
  5. ^ Vasiliev 1936, p. 4
  6. ^ Mariam Lortkipanidze, Roin Metreveli, Kings of Georgia, Tbilisi, 2007, pp. 122–130 ISBN 99928-58-36-2
  7. ^ Otkhmezuri 2012, p. 38
  8. ^ a b Rapp 2007, p. 189
  9. ^ Eastmond 1998, p. 262
  10. ^ Metreveli 1990, pp. 10–11
  11. ^ Toumanoff 1943, p. 174
  12. ^ Rapp 2007, p. 210
  13. ^ a b c Thomson 1996, p. 315
  14. ^ Dostourian 1993, p. 231
  15. ^ Rapp 2000, p. 572
  16. ^ Toumanoff 1966, p. 624
  17. ^ a b Toumanoff 1943, pp. 174–175, n. 63
  18. ^ a b Eastmond 1998, p. 46
  19. ^ "Blessed David IV the King of Georgia", Orthodox Church in America
  20. ^ Maia Pataridze: The Silver Coin of David the Builder from the Mestia Museum. Bulletin of the Georgian National Museum. Series of Social Sciences #2 (47-B), 2010,
  21. ^ Fighting against the Seljuks, Georgia and the Crusaders developed fairly friendly relations. A 13th-century anonymous Georgian author (conventionally known as the First Chronicler of Queen Tamar) as well as Abul-Faraj gives a version, though unproven otherwise, about the participation of a Georgian auxiliary force in the Siege of Jerusalem (1099). Some 300 Crusaders (known to the Georgians as Franks) are also known to take part in the famous Battle of Didgori (1121). King Baldwin II of Jerusalem is said by the historian Ioane Bagrationi, who refers to unknown medieval sources, to have visited incognito David IV's court
  22. ^ Since the Bagrationi dynasty established the Tao-Klarjeti principality under the Byzantine protectorate in 813, representatives of the dynasty had been granted various Byzantine titles such as kouropalates, magistros, sebastos, etc. David was the last Georgian monarch to wear a Byzantine title.
  23. ^ a b Samushia 2015, p. 29.
  24. ^ a b c Metreveli 2011, p. 66.
  25. ^ a b Metreveli 2011, p. 67.
  26. ^ a b Metreveli 2011, p. 68.
  27. ^ a b History of Georgia 2012, p. 386.
  28. ^ History of Georgia 2012, p. 387.
  29. ^ Norris 2009, p. 36.
  30. ^ a b Metreveli 2011, p. 80.
  31. ^ Gocha Japaridze, Georgia and the Islamic world of the Near East in the first third of the XII–XIII centuries, Tbilisi, 1995, pp. 38–39
  32. ^ a b Pubblici 2022, p. 20.
  33. ^ Metreveli 2011, pp. 110–111.
  34. ^ a b Metreveli 2011, p. 111.
  35. ^ a b Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires : A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. p. 95.
  36. ^ Donald Rayfield, "Davit II", in: Robert B. Pynsent, S. I. Kanikova (1993), Reader's Encyclopedia of Eastern European Literature, p. 82. HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-270007-3.
  37. ^ Michael Jeffreys and Elizabeth Jeffreys, "Who Was Eirene the Sevastokratorissa?" Byzantion 64, no. 1 (1994):55, https://www.jstor.org/stable/44172130
  38. ^ Jost Gippert / Manana Tandashvili (2002), The Epitaph of David the Builder. Gelati Academy of Sciences Project: Old Georgian texts from the Gelati school (TITUS project). Accessed 19 June 2011.
  39. ^ Hannick, Christian, "David IV of Georgia", in: Religion Past and Present. First print edition: ISBN 978-9004146662, 2006
  40. ^ "State Awards Issued by Georgian Presidents in 2003–2015"

Further reading edit

  • Toria, Malkhaz; Javakhia, Bejan (2021). "Representing fateful events and imagining territorial integrity in Georgia: cultural memory of David the Builder and the Battle of Didgori". Caucasus Survey. 9 (3): 270–285. doi:10.1080/23761199.2021.1970914. S2CID 238993015.
Preceded by King of Georgia
Succeeded by