Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, Turkish: Kırım Tatarları, Russian: Крымские Татары, Ukrainian: Кримськi Татари) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea. Since 2014 Crimean Tatars were officially recognized as indigenous peoples of Ukraine. Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea, the occupational Russian authorities recognized Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People as an extremist organization and liquidated[clarification needed] it.
Flag of the Crimean Tatars
|Regions with significant populations|
|Turkey||150,000 – 6,000,000|
|Russia (excl. Crimea)||2,449|
|Ukraine (excl. Crimea)||30,000–60,000|
|Crimean Tatar, Turkish, Uzbek, Russian, Ukrainian|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Dobrujan Tatars, Nogais, Volga Tatars, Turkish people, Krymchaks|
Crimean Tatars constituted the majority of Crimea's population from the time of its ethnogenesis until the mid-19th century, and the relative largest ethnic population until the end of the 19th century. Almost immediately after the liberation of Crimea, in May 1944, the USSR State Defense Committee ordered the removal of all of the Tatar population from Crimea, including the families of Crimean Tatars serving in the Soviet Army – in trains and boxcars to Central Asia, primarily to Uzbekistan. Starting in 1967, some were allowed to return to Crimea, and in 1989 the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union condemned the removal of Crimean Tatars from their motherland as inhumane and lawless. Today, Crimean Tatars constitute approximately 12% of the population of Crimea. There remains a large diaspora of Crimean Tatars in Turkey and Uzbekistan.
In the latest Ukrainian census, 248,200 Ukrainian citizens identified themselves as Crimean Tatars with 98% (or about 243,400) of them living in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. An additional 1,800 citizens (or about 0.7% of those that identified themselves as Crimean Tatars) live in the city of Sevastopol, also on the Crimean peninsula, but outside the border of the autonomous republic.
About 150,000 remain in exile in Central Asia, mainly in Uzbekistan. The official number of Crimean Tatars in Turkey is 150,000 with some Crimean Tatar activists estimating a figure as high as 6 million. The activists reached this number by taking one million Tatar immigrants to Turkey as a starting point and multiplying this number by the birth rate in the span of the last hundred years. Crimean Tatars in Turkey mostly live in Eskişehir Province, descendants of those who emigrated in the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. In the Dobruja region straddling Romania and Bulgaria, there are more than 27,000 Crimean Tatars: 24,000 on the Romanian side, and 3,000 on the Bulgarian side.
The Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three (or sometimes four) sub-ethnic groups:
- the Tats (not to be confused with Tat people, living in the Caucasus region) who used to inhabit the mountainous Crimea before 1944 (about 55%) predominantly a tatarized Greeks, Goths and other people, as Tats in Crimea also were called Hellenic Urum people (Crimean Greeks) who were deported by the Imperial Russia to the area around Mariupol;
- the Yalıboyu who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%) partially also the Crimean Turks,
- the Noğay or Mangit (not to be confused with Nogai people, living now in Southern Russia) – former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (about 15%).
- the Ortayulak (central Crimean).
Historians suggest that inhabitants of the mountainous parts of Crimea lying to the central and southern parts (the Tats), and those of the Southern coast of Crimea (the Yalıboyu) were the direct descendants of the Pontic Greeks, Armenians, Scythians, Ostrogoths (Crimean Goths) and Kipchaks along with the Cumans while the latest inhabitants of the northern steppe represent the descendants of the Nogai Horde of the Black Sea nominally subjects of the Crimean Khan. It is largely assumed that the Tatarization process that mostly took place in the 16th century brought a sense of cultural unity through the blending of the Greeks, Armenians, Italians and Ottoman Turks of the southern coast, Goths of the central mountains, and Turkic-speaking Kipchaks and Cumans of the steppe and forming of the Crimean Tatar ethnic group. However, the Cuman language is considered the direct ancestor of the current language of the Crimean Tatars with possible incorporations of the other languages like Crimean Gothic.
Another theory suggests Crimean Tatars trace their origins to the waves of ancient people Scythians, Greeks, Goths, Italians and Armenians. When the Golden Horde invaded Crimea in the 1230s, they then mixed with populations which had settled in Eastern Europe, including Crimea since the seventh century: Tatars, but also Mongols and other Turkic groups (Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans, and Kipchaks), as well as the ancient.
The Mongol conquest of the Kipchaks led to a merged society with the Mongol ruling class over a Kipchak speaking population which came to be known as Tatar and which eventually absorbed other ethnicities on the Crimean peninsula like Armenians, Italians, Greeks, and Goths to form the modern day Crimean Tatar people- up to the Soviet deportation, the Crimean Tatars could still differentiate among themselves between Tatar Kipchak Nogays and the "Tat" descendants of Tatarized Goths and other Turkified peoples.
Goths, Gypsies, and Greeks were assumed to be some of the ancestors of the Tatars on the coast of Crimea, while there were "mixed hill Tatars" and finally "Asiatic" steppe Tatars. Italians and Greeks mixed with the coastal Crimean Tatars.
Today, Crimean Tatars are often considered as the indigenous peoples of the Crimean peninsula.
The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate, an Ottoman vassal state during the 15th to 18th centuries and one of the great centers of slave trade to the Ottoman Empire. The Turkic-speaking population of Crimea had mostly adopted Islam already in the 14th century, following the conversion of Ozbeg Khan of the Golden Horde. By the time of the first Russian invasion of Crimea in 1736, the Khan's archives and libraries were famous throughout the Islamic world, and under Khan Krym-Girei the city of Simferopol was endowed with piped water, sewerage and a theatre where Molière was performed in French, while the port of Gözleve stood comparison with Rotterdam and Bakhchysarai, the capital, was described as Europe's cleanest and greenest city.
Until the beginning of the 18th century, Crimean Tatars were known for frequent, at some periods almost annual, devastating raids into Ukraine and Russia. For a long time, until the late 18th century, the Crimean Khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East which was the most important basis of its economy. One of the most important trading ports and slave markets was Kefe. Slaves and freedmen formed approximately 75% of the Crimean population.
Some researchers estimate that altogether up to 3 million people were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. In retaliation, the lands of Crimean Tatars were being raided by Zaporozhian Cossacks, armed Slavic horsemen, who defended the steppe frontier – Wild Fields – against Tatar slave raids and often attacked and plundered the lands of Ottoman Turks and Crimean Tatars. The Don Cossacks and Kalmyk Mongols also managed to raid Crimean Tatars' land. The last recorded major Crimean raid, before those in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) took place during the reign of Peter the Great (1682–1725). However, Cossack raids continued after that time; Ottoman Grand Vizier complained to the Russian consul about raids to Crimea and Özi in 1761. In 1769 one last major Tatar raid, which took place during the Russo-Turkish War, saw the capture of 20,000 slaves.
In the Russian EmpireEdit
The Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans by the Russians, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) signed after the war, Crimea became independent and the Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. After a period of political unrest in Crimea, Russia violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate in 1783. After the annexation, the wealthier Tatars, who had exported wheat, meat, fish and wine to other parts of the Black Sea, began to be expelled and to move to the Ottoman Empire. Further expulsions followed in 1812 for fear of the reliability of the Tatars in the face of Napoleon's advance. Particularly, the Crimean War of 1853–1856, the laws of 1860–63, the Tsarist policy and the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) caused an exodus of the Tatars; 12,000 boarded Allied ships in Sevastopol to escape the destruction of shelling, and were branded traitors by the Russian government. Of total Tatar population 300,000 of the Taurida Governorate about 200,000 Crimean Tatars emigrated. Many Crimean Tatars perished in the process of emigration, including those who drowned while crossing the Black Sea. Today the descendants of these Crimeans form the Crimean Tatar diaspora in Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey.
Ismail Gasprali (1851–1914) was a renowned Crimean Tatar intellectual, influenced by the nationalist movements of the period, whose efforts laid the foundation for the modernization of Muslim culture and the emergence of the Crimean Tatar national identity. The bilingual Crimean Tatar-Russian newspaper Terciman-Perevodchik he published in 1883–1914, functioned as an educational tool through which a national consciousness and modern thinking emerged among the entire Turkic-speaking population of the Russian Empire. His New Method (Jadid) schools, numbering 350 across the peninsula, helped create a new Crimean Tatar elite.
The educated "Crimean Tatars" during this period refused the appellation of "Tatars" given to them by the Turks (which however in earlier times had also been used natively). They wished to be known simply as "Turks", and their language as "Turkish" (the Crimean Tatar language had indeed been substantially influenced by Ottoman Turkish).
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 this new elite, which included Noman Çelebicihan and Cafer Seydamet proclaimed the first democratic republic in the Islamic world, named the Crimean People's Republic on 26 December 1917. However, this republic was short-lived and abolished by the Bolshevik uprising in January 1918.
In the Soviet Union (1917–1991)Edit
Soviet policies on the peninsula led to widespread starvation in 1921. More than 100,000 Tatars, Russians, Ukrainians and other inhabitants of the peninsula starved to death, and tens of thousands of Tatars fled to Turkey or Romania. Thousands more were deported or slaughtered during the collectivization in 1928–29. The Soviet government's "collectivization" policies led to a major nationwide famine in 1931–33. During Stalin's Great Purge, statesmen and intellectuals such as Veli Ibraimov and Bekir Çoban-zade (1893–1937), were imprisoned or executed on various charges.
In May 1944, the entire Crimean Tatar population of Crimea was exiled to Central Asia, mainly to Uzbekistan, on the orders of Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Chairman of the USSR State Defense Committee. Although a great number of Crimean Tatar men served in the Red Army and took part in the partisan movement in Crimea during the war, the existence of the Tatar Legion in the Nazi army and the collaboration of Crimean Tatar religious and political leaders with Hitler during the German occupation of Crimea provided the Soviet leadership with justification for accusing the entire Crimean Tatar population of being Nazi collaborators. In actuality, much of this is Soviet revisionism as the persecution of "suspect nations" and most of the genocide of the Crimean Tatars preceded the war, while statements justifying it appear after the war – as the threat of war heightened Stalin’s perception of marginal and politically suspect populations as the potential source of an uprising in case of invasion. He began to plan for the preventive elimination of such potential recruits for a mythical “fifth column of wreckers, terrorists and spies.” (Hagenloh, 2000; Shearer, 2003). Tatar historian Alan Fisher has said that between 1917 and 1933, 150,000 Tatars—about 50% of the population at the time—either were killed or forced out of Crimea. According to Yitzhak Arad, "In January 1942 a company of Tatar volunteers was established in Simferopol under the command of Einsatzgruppe 11. This company participated in anti-Jewish manhunts and murder actions in the rural regions."
Some modern researchers argue that Crimea's geopolitical position[which?] fueled Soviet perceptions of Crimean Tatars as a potential threat. This belief is based in part on an analogy with numerous other cases of deportations of non-Russians from boundary territories, as well as the fact that other non-Russian populations, such as Greeks, Armenians and Bulgarians were also removed from Crimea.
All 240,000 Crimean Tatars were deported en masse, in a form of collective punishment, on 17–18 May 1944 as "special settlers" to the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic and other distant parts of the Soviet Union. This event is called Sürgün in the Crimean Tatar language; the few who escaped were shot on sight or drowned in scuttled barges, and within months half their number had died of cold, hunger, exhaustion and disease. Many of them were re-located to toil as indentured workers in the Soviet GULAG system.
Although a 1967 Soviet decree removed the charges against Crimean Tatars, the Soviet government did nothing to facilitate their resettlement in Crimea and to make reparations for lost lives and confiscated property. Crimean Tatars, having a definite tradition of non-communist political dissent, succeeded in creating a truly independent network of activists, values and political experience. Crimean Tatars, led by the Crimean Tatar National Movement Organization, were not allowed to return to Crimea from exile until the beginning of the Perestroika in the mid-1980s.
After Ukrainian independenceEdit
Today, more than 250,000 Crimean Tatars have returned to their homeland, struggling to re-establish their lives and reclaim their national and cultural rights against many social and economic obstacles. In 1991, the Crimean Tatar leadership founded the Kurultai, or Parliament, to act as a representative body for the Crimean Tatars which could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies. Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is the executive body of the Kurultai.
Since the 1990s till October 2013, the political leader of the Crimean Tatars and the chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People was former Soviet dissident Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu. Since October 2013 the chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is Refat Chubarov.
2014 Crimean crisisEdit
Following news of Crimea's independence referendum organized with the help of Russia on 16 March 2014, the Kurultai leadership voiced concerns of renewed persecution, as commented by a U.S. official before the visit of a UN human rights team to the peninsula. At the same time, Rustam Minnikhanov, the president of Tatarstan was dispatched to Crimea to quell Crimean Tatars' concerns and to point out that "in the 23 years of Ukraine's independence the Ukrainian leaders have been using Crimean Tatars as pawns in their political games without doing them any tangible favors". The issue of Crimean Tatar alleged persecution has since been raised regularly on an international level.
On 18 March 2014, the day Crimea was annexed by Russia and Crimean Tatar was declared one of the three official languages of Crimea, it was also announced that Crimean Tatars will be required to relinquish coastal lands on which they squatted since their return to Crimea in early 1990s and be given land elsewhere in Crimea. Crimea stated it needed the relinquished land for "social purposes", since part of this land is occupied by the Crimean Tatars without legal documents of ownership. The situation was caused by the inability of the USSR (and later Ukraine) to give back to the Tatars the land owned before deportation, once they or their descendants returned from Central Asia (mainly Uzbekistan). As a consequence, Crimean Tatars settled as squatters, occupying land that was and is still not legally registered.
Some Crimean Tatars fled to Mainland Ukraine due to the Crimean crisis - reportedly around 2000 by 23 March. On 29 March 2014, an emergency meeting of the Crimean Tatars representative body, the Kurultai, voted in favor of seeking "ethnic and territorial autonomy" for Crimean Tatars using "political and legal" means. The meeting was attended by the Head of the Republic of Tatarstan and the chair of the Russian Council of Muftis. Decisions as to whether the Tatars will accept Russian passports or whether the autonomy sought would be within the Russian or Ukrainian state have been deferred pending further discussion.
^ Controlled and administrated by the Russian Federation as Crimean Federal District: Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol. Recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community as Autonomous Republic of Crimea and city with special status Sevastopol. Northern part of the Arabat Spit is a part of the Kherson Oblast and is not a subject of territorial dispute.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- 2000 estimate: (in Russian) Этнический атлас Узбекистана Институт "Открытое общество", 2002. ISBN 5-862800-10-7. — стр. 206
- "Crimean Tatars and Noghais in Turkey".
- "Recensamant Romania 2002". Agentia Nationala pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii (in Romanian). 2002. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
- Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived 24 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian)
- "Bulgaria Population census 2001".
- (in Russian) Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. Перепись 2009. Archived 1 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (Национальный состав населения Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine..rar)
- Verkhovna Rada recognized Crimean Tatars indigenous people of Ukraine (Рада визнала кримських татар корінним народом у складі України). Mirror Weekly. 20 March 2014
- Illarionov, A. (2014). "The ethnic composition of Crimea during three centuries". Institute of Economical Analysis (in Russian). Moscow, R.F. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014.
- Troynitski, N.A. (1905). "First General Census of Russian Empire's Population, 1897 (Первая Всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Под ред. Н.А.Тройницкого. т.II. Общий свод по Империи результатов разработки данных Первой Всеобщей переписи населения, произведенной 28 января 1897 года. С.-Петербург: типография "Общественная польза", 1899-1905, 89 томах (119 книг))" (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- see my book, referenced in the notes for this article: The Crimean Tatars. Alan Fisher
- "About number and composition population of UKRAINE by data All-Ukrainian population census'". Ukrainian Census (2001). State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "About number and composition population of AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA by data All-Ukrainian population census'". Ukrainian Census (2001). State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Crimean Tatars (КРИМСЬКІ ТАТАРИ). Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine.
- Shirin and Mangit: struggle of clans in Crimea (Ширини й мангити: боротьба кланів у Криму). Crimean Reality at Radio Liberty. 21 November 2015
- "The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation". Iccrimea.org. 1944-05-18. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Khodarkovsky – Russia's Steppe Frontier p. 11
- Williams, BG. The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation. Pgs 7–23. ISBN 90-04-12122-6
- István Vásáry (2005) Cumans and Tatars, Cambridge University Press.
- "CUMAN". Christusrex.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Stearns (1978). "Sources for the Krimgotische". p. 37. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation. By Brian Glyn Williams 
- Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative approaches, By Marc Weller 
- Williams, Brian Glyn. 2001. “The Ethnogenesis of the Crimean Tatars. An Historical Reinterpretation”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11 (3). Cambridge University Press: 329–48. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25188176.
- William Zebina Ripley (1899). The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study (Lowell Institute Lectures). D. Appleton and Company. pp. 420–.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica: The New Volumes, Constituting, in Combination with the Twenty-nine Volumes of the Eleventh Edition, the Twelfth Edition of that Work, and Also Supplying a New, Distinctive, and Independent Library of Reference Dealing with Events and Developments of the Period 1910 to 1921 Inclusive. Encyclopædia Britannica Company, Limited. 1911. pp. 448–.
- Williams, BG. The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation. Pg 12. ISBN 90-04-12122-6
- Rayfield, Donald, 2014: "Dormant claims", Times Literary Supplement, 9 May 2014 p 15
- "The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine." (PDF). Eizo Matsuki, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University.
- Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Oxford University. pp. 2–7.
- Slavery. Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History.
- Andrew G. Boston (18 April 2005). "Black Slaves, Arab Masters". Frontpage Magazine. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
Relying upon admittedly incomplete sources (“…no doubt there are many more slave raids that the author has not uncovered”), his conservative tabulations 26 indicate that at least 3 million (3,000,000) persons- men, women, and children- were captured and enslaved during this so-called “harvesting of the steppe”." -- Alan Fisher, "“Muscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade
- Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards:The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captivesin the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2.
- Alan W. Fisher, The Russian Annexation of the Crimea 1772–1783, Cambridge University Press, p. 26.
- Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013.
- "Hijra and Forced Migration from Nineteenth-Century Russia to the Ottoman Empire" Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., by Bryan Glynn Williams, Cahiers du Monde russe, 41/1, 2000, pp. 79–108.
- E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4, pp. 1084f.
- Maria Drohobycky, Crimea: Dynamics, Challenges and Prospects, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995, p.91, ISBN 0847680673
- Minahan, James (2000). Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups. p. 189.
- Yitzhak Arad (2009). "The Holocaust in the Soviet Union". U of Nebraska Press, p.211, ISBN 080322270X
- Aurélie Campana, Sürgün: "The Crimean Tatars’ deportation and exile, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence", 16 June 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2012, ISSN 1961-9898
- Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 483. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- The Muzhik & the Commissar, TIME Magazine, 30 November 1953
- Buttino, Marco (1993). In a Collapsing Empire: Underdevelopment, Ethnic Conflicts and Nationalisms in the Soviet Union, p.68 ISBN 88-07-99048-2
- Abdulganiyev, Kurtmolla (2002). Institutional Development of the Crimean Tatar National Movement, International Committee for Crimea. Retrieved on 2008-03-22
- Ziad, Waleed; Laryssa Chomiak (20 February 2007). "A Lesson in Stifling Violent Extremism: Crimea's Tatars have created a promising model to lessen ethnoreligious conflict". CS Monitor. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- "Chairman". qtmm.org. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- "U.N. human rights team aims for quick access to Crimea - official". Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Temirgaliyev, Rustam. "Crimean Deputy Prime Minister". Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Trukhan, Vassyl. "Crimea's Tatars flee for Ukraine far west". Yahoo. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- "Crimean Tatars' want autonomy after Russia's seizure of peninsula". Reuters.
- Crimean Tatars: Mejlis Continues Work in Emergency Mode from Kiev
- Conquest, Robert. 1970. The Nation Killers: The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (London: Macmillan). (ISBN 0-333-10575-3)
- Fisher, Alan W. 1978. The Crimean Tatars. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press. (ISBN 0-8179-6661-7)
- Fisher, Alan W. 1998. Between Russians, Ottomans and Turks: Crimea and Crimean Tatars (Istanbul: Isis Press, 1998). (ISBN 975-428-126-2)
- Nekrich, Alexander. 1978. The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War (New York: W. W. Norton). (ISBN 0-393-00068-0)
- Quelquejay, Lemercier. "The Tatars of the Crimea, a retrospective summary." Central Asian Review 16#1 (1968): 15-25.
- Uehling, Greta (June 2000). "Squatting, self-immolation, and the repatriation of Crimean Tatars". Nationalities Papers. 28 (2): 317–341. doi:10.1080/713687470.
- Williams, Brian Glyn. "The hidden ethnic cleansing of Muslims in the Soviet Union: The exile and repatriation of the Crimean Tatars." Journal of Contemporary History (2002): 323-347. in JSTOR
- Williams, Brian Glyn. "The Crimean Tatar exile in Central Asia: a case study in group destruction and survival." Central Asian Survey 17.2 (1998): 285-317.
- Williams, Brian Glyn. "The Ethnogenesis of the Crimean Tatars. An Historical Reinterpretation" Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (2001) 11#3 pp. 329–348 in JSTOR
- Williams, Brian G., The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation, Leyden: Brill, 2001.
- Vozgrin, Valery, 2013, Istoriya krymskykh tatar ((in Russian) Valery Vozgrin "Исторические судьбы крымских татар"), Simferopol (four volumes).
- Smirnov V D, 1886, Krymskoe khanstvo
- Campana (Aurélie), Dufaud (Grégory) and Tournon (Sophie) (ed.), Les Déportations en héritage. Les peuples réprimés du Caucase et de Crimée, hier et aujourd'hui, Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crimean Tatars.|
- Official website of Qirim Tatar Cultural Association of Canada
- Official web-site of Bizim QIRIM International Nongovernmental Organization
- International Committee for Crimea
- UNDP Crimea Integration and Development Programme
- Crimean Tatar Home Page
- Crimean Tatars
- Crimean Tatar words (Turkish)
- Crimean Tatar words (English)
- State Defense Committee Decree No. 5859ss: On Crimean Tatars (See also Three answers to the Decree No. 5859ss)
- Crimean Tatars