Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic[a] was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula.

Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Крымская АССР
ASSR of the Russian SFSR (1921–1941), (1944–1945)
ASSR of the Ukrainian SSR/Ukraine (1991–1992)
 • TypeAutonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
• Established
October 18, 1921
• Became Crimean Oblast
June 30, 1945
• Re-established
June 19, 1991
• Disestablished
May 6, 1992
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Government of South Russia
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Crimean Oblast
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Crimean Oblast
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Today part of


It was created on October 18, 1921, as the Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Russian SFSR. It was renamed the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on December 5, 1936 by the VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the USSR.[1]

Crimea was under de facto control of Nazi Germany from September 1942 to October 1943, administratively incorporated into Reichskommissariat Ukraine as Teilbezirk Taurien. Alfred Frauenfeld was appointed as General Commissar (although it seems that Frauenfeld spent most of his time in Crimea researching the peninsula's Gothic heritage and the actual government was in the hands of Erich von Manstein).[2]

In 1944, under the pretext[3] of alleged collaboration of the Crimean Tatars with the Nazi occupation regime, the Soviet government on orders of Joseph Stalin and Lavrentiy Beria deported the Crimean Tatar people from Crimea.[4]

Actual collaboration in the military sense had been rather limited, with a recorded 9,225 Crimean Tatars serving in anti-Soviet Tatar Legions and other German formed battalions,[5] but there was in fact a surprisingly high degree of co-operation between the occupation government and the local administration; this has been significantly due to Frauenfeld's unwillingness to implement the policy of brutality towards the local population pursued by Reichskommissar Erich Koch, which led to a series of public conflict between the two men.[6] The constitutional rights of the forcibly-resettled Tatars were restored with a decree dated September 5, 1967, but they were not allowed to return until the last days of the Soviet Union.[7]

The Crimean ASSR was converted into the Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR on June 30, 1945 by the decree of the both presidia of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR (published on May 26, 1946), and the Crimean Oblast was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.[8]

The ASSR was re-established on June 19, 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR[9][10] following a referendum held on January 20, 1991,[11] and it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, part of the newly independent state of Ukraine, effective May 6, 1992.

Administrative divisionsEdit

Okrugs and raions of the Crimean ASSR in May 1921 (in Russian)

With the establishment of the autonomous republic in 1921, Crimea was divided into seven okrugs, which in turn were divided into 20 raions:

In November 1923, the okrugs were abolished and 15 raions were created instead, but in 1924, five of these were abolished.

Raions with national status; Crimean Tatar regions in light blue, Jewish in indigo, German in orange, Ukrainian in yellow

On 30 October 1930, the remaining ten raions were reorganized into 16 new ones, and four cities under direct republican control. In 1935, 10 new raions were added and one abolished. In 1937, one more raion was established. Some of the raions had national status for Crimean Tatars, Jews, Germans and Ukrainians. By the beginning of World War II, all of these raions had lost their national status.

Heads of StateEdit

Russian SFSREdit

Central Executive Committee
Supreme Soviet
  • July 21, 1938 – May 18, 1944 Abdul-Celil Menbariyev (deported to Middle Asia as part of Stalin's collective punishment for collaboration with the Nazis)
  • May 18, 1944 – June 30, 1945 N.Sachiova (acting)

Ukrainian SSR/UkraineEdit

Heads of GovernmentEdit

Chairmen of RevkomEdit

Council of People's CommissarsEdit

Council of MinistersEdit

  • March 22, 1991 – May 20, 1993 Vitaliy Kurashik

Principal ChekistsEdit

  • until April 1921 Mikhail Vikhman (later in Chernihiv)
  • April 1921 – June 1921 Smirnov
  • June 20, 1921 – 1921 Fyodor Fomin (transferred to Kiev)
  • November 11, 1921 – February 1922 Aleksandr Rotenberg
Crimea GPU
  • February 1922 – September 11, 1922 Aleksandr Rotenberg
  • September 11, 1922 – April 25, 1923 Stanislav Redens
Merged GPU
  • April 25, 1923 – June 9, 1924 Stanislav Redens
  • May 20, 1924 – July 29, 1925 Sergei Szwarz (transferred to the Special department of the Black Sea Navy)
  • 1925 Aleksandr Toropkin (transferred to Ural)
  • October 1926 – April 26, 1928 Ivan Apeter (transferred to the Special department of the Black Sea Navy)
  • April 26, 1928 – December 1929 Grigoriy Rapoport (transferred to Belarus Military District)
  • January 23, 1930 – July 10, 1934 Eduard Salins (Eduards Saliņš)
Narkom of State Security
  • February 26, 1941 – July 31, 1941 Major Grigoriy Karanadze
  • October 5, 1943 – July 5, 1945 Commissar of the 3rd rank Pyotr Fokin

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Modern Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Sotsialist Sovet Cumhuriyeti; Official Crimean Tatar name in the Uniform Turkic Alphabet: Qrьm Avonomjalь Sotsialist Sovet Respublikasь; Russian: Крымская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика Krymskaja Avtonomnaja Socialističeskaja Sovetskaja Respublika


  1. ^ Handbook of history of Communist Party and Soviet Union
  2. ^ Alan W. Fisher, The Crimean Tatars, 1978, p. 156
  3. ^ line Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. "Sürgün: The Crimean Tatars' deportation and exile – Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence". Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  4. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 483. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
  5. ^ Document reproduced in T.S. Kulbaev and A. Iu. Khegai, Deportatsiia (Almaty: Deneker, 2000), pp. 206–207.
  6. ^ Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Simon & Schuster, 1990, p. 137.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "The Transfer of Crimea to Ukraine". International Committee for Crimea. July 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
  9. ^ Про внесення змін і доповнень до Конституції (Основного Закону) Української РСР
  10. ^ История референдумов в Крыму. Досье
  11. ^ "Day in history – 20 January". RIA Novosti (in Russian). January 8, 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.