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Bakhchysarai

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Bakhchysarai (Ukrainian: Бахчисарáй; Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray; Russian: Бахчисарáй; Turkish: Bahçesaray; Persian: باغچه سرایBāghche Sarāy) is a town in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed[2] by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. It is the administrative center of the Bakhchysarai Raion (district), as well as the former capital of the Crimean Khanate. Its main landmark is Hansaray, the only extant palace of the Crimean Khans, currently opened to tourists as a museum. Population: 27,448 (2014 Census).[3]

Bakhchysarai

Bağçasaray
Бахчисарай
Minaret of a mosque in Bakhchisaray Palace
Minaret of a mosque in Bakhchisaray Palace
Coat of arms of Bakhchysarai
Coat of arms
Bakhchysarai is located in Crimea
Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
Location of Bakhchysarai on a map of Crimea.
Coordinates: 44°45′10″N 33°51′39″E / 44.75278°N 33.86083°E / 44.75278; 33.86083Coordinates: 44°45′10″N 33°51′39″E / 44.75278°N 33.86083°E / 44.75278; 33.86083
CountryDisputed:
Autonomous Republic Crimea
DistrictBakhchysarai Raion
Founded1532[1]
Founded bySahib I Giray
Elevation
300 m (1,000 ft)
Population
 • Total27,448
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
298400 — 298408
Area code(s)+7-36554
ClimateCfb
The Bakhchisaray Palace in Bakhchisaray

GeographyEdit

Bakhchysarai lies in a narrow valley of the Çürük Suv [uk] river, about 30 Kilometers south-west of Simferopol.

HistoryEdit

 
The city in 1856, by Carlo Bossoli.

The earliest known artifacts of human presence in the valley date from the Mesolithic period. Settlements have existed in the valley since Late Antiquity. The founding of Bakhchysaray was preceded by the Qırq Yer fortress (modern Çufut Qale), Salaçıq, and Eski Yurt — these have become incorporated into the urban area of modern Bakhchisaray.

Bakhchysarai first appears in historical documents in 1502. In 1532 Sahib I Giray, the Khan of Crimea from 1532 to 1551, established his residence there. From that time it served as the capital of the Crimean Khanate and the center of political and cultural life of the Crimean Tatar people. After several wars with Russia from 1737 (when General Burkhard Christoph von Münnich burnt down the capital of the Khanate) and following the annexation of the Crimean Khanate by the Russian Empire in 1783, Bakhchysarai became an ordinary town, having lost administrative significance. However, it remained the cultural center of the Crimean Tatars for several decades following, fostered by Ismail Gaspirali (1851-1914) who founded the local newspaper Tercüman.

During the Crimean War of 1853-56, Bakhchysarai essentially became a hospital town as wounded Russian soldiers from the battlefield were brought in to be treated. The Battle of the Alma, one of the earliest battles of the war, was waged not far from the city. But although the front line was close to the city, it was never taken by the Allies as the port city of Sevastopol was their primary wartime objective.

With the collapse of the Russian Empire and the unification of several socialist republics that spawned off the empire, Bakhchysarai became part of the Soviet Union in 1922.

The Sürgün, the deportation of the Crimean Tatars on 18 May 1944 by the Soviet authorities, occurred in Bakhchysarai during the Second World War, as a response to the accusations that the Tatars collaborated with the Axis occupants. Although deportation of Tatar locals have begun as early as 1860 during the era of the Russian Empire, this served to be the final blow as this time the city was rendered empty of Crimean Tatars. The Crimean Tatars are not to return to the city until 1989 when Soviet policies cooled and relaxed.

Bakhchysarai became a part of newly-independent Ukraine in 1991. However, it became a de facto part of the Russian Federation when Russian Armed Forces invaded and annexed invaded and annexed the city and the whole of Crimea in 2014.

Name and associationsEdit

Spellings of the town's name in different languages include:

The name comes from Persian باغچه سرای bāghche-sarāy, which means the Garden Palace. In Crimean Tatar, bağça means "garden" and saray means "palace".

Russian-speakers associate the town with the Romantic connotations of Alexander Pushkin's poem The Fountain of Bakhchisaray (1822). Adam Mickiewicz devoted some of the finest poems in his Polish-language Crimean Sonnets (1825) to the landmarks of Bakhchysarai (Polish: Bakczysaraj).

An asteroid, 3242 Bakhchisaraj, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979, takes its name after the town.[4]

AttractionsEdit

Famous attractions within or near Bakhchysarai are:

There is a network of well marked hiking trails around the town. All the main attractions are connected with red-marked trail.

Since 2011 thanks to the support of the Czech Government and USAID the Tourist information centre has been working.

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±%
193010,450—    
193910,891+4.2%
198925,363+132.9%
200626,400+4.1%
201126,215−0.7%
Source:

In 1930 the population of the city was 10,450. The ethnic groups represented were 7,420 Crimean Tatars, 1,850 Russians, 315 Jews, 205 Greeks, 185 Ukrainians, 50 Germans, 30 Armenians, 30 Bulgarians, and 365 others.\

EducationEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Bakhchysarai is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2012-12-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "European Council Conclusions as of 20 March 2015" (PDF).
  3. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  4. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p.269
  5. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.

External linksEdit