Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan. It is divided into two dialects, Northeastern Karakalpak and Southeastern Karakalpak. It developed alongside Uzbek and neighboring Kazakh languages, being markedly influenced by both. Typologically, Karakalpak belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, thus being closely related to and highly mutually intelligible with Kazakh.
|Qaraqalpaq tili, Қарақалпақ тили, قاراقالپاق تىلى|
|Native to||Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan|
|Karkalpak alphabet (Latin, Cyrillic, Arabic script)|
Official language in
Map showing locations of Karakalpak (red) within Uzbekistan
Karakalpak is a member of the Kipchak branch of Turkic languages, which includes Kazakh, Bashkir, Tatar, Kumyk, Karachay, Nogai and Kyrgyz. Due to its proximity to Uzbek, much of Karakalpak's vocabulary and grammar has been influenced by Uzbek. Like the vast majority of Turkic languages, Karakalpak has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb.
Karakalpak is spoken mainly in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic of Uzbekistan. Approximately 2,000 people in Afghanistan and smaller diaspora in parts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey and other parts of the world speak Karakalpak.
Karakalpak has official status in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic.
Ethnologue identifies two dialects of Karakalpak: Northeastern and Southwestern. Menges mentions a third possible dialect spoken in the Fergana Valley. The Southwestern dialect has /tʃ/ for the Northeastern /ʃ/.
Karakalpak has 25 native consonant phonemes and regularly uses four non-native phonemes in loan words. Non-native sounds are shown in parentheses.
Vowel harmony functions in Karakalpak much as it does[clarification needed] in other Turkic languages. Words borrowed from Russian or other languages may not observe rules of vowel harmony, but the following rules usually apply:[What are the rules for Karakalpak words?]
|Vowel||May be followed by:|
|o||a, o, u, ɯ|
|œ||e, i, œ, y|
|u||a, o, u|
|y||e, œ, y|
|1st person||men 'I'||bizler 'we'|
|2nd person||sen 'you'||sizler 'you (pl.)'|
|3rd person||ol 'he/she/it'||olar 'they'|
- bir 1
- eki 2
- úsh 3
- tórt 4
- bes 5
- altı 6
- jeti 7
- segiz 8
- toǵız 9
- on 10
- júz 100
- mıń 1000
Karakalpak was written in the Arabic and Persian script until 1928, in the Latin script (with additional characters) from 1928 to 1940, after which Cyrillic was introduced. Following Uzbekistan's independence in 1991, the decision was made to drop Cyrillic and revert to the Latin alphabet. Whilst the use of Latin script is now widespread in Tashkent, its introduction into Karakalpakstan remains gradual.
The Cyrillic and Latin alphabets are shown below with their equivalent representations in the IPA. Cyrillic letters with no representation in the Latin alphabet are marked with asterisks. The last changes to the new Karakalpak alphabet were made in 2016: instead of letters with apostrophes, letters with acutes were introduced. Therefore, the new Karakalpak alphabet will act in the same way the new Kazakh and Uzbek alphabets represent – that is, with acutes.
Before 2009, C was written as TS; I and Í were written as dotted and dotless I.
- ^ Karakalpak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
- ^ "Karakalpak". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2016-03-12.
- ^ "Латын жазыўына тийкарланған қарақалпақ әлипбеси". Каракалпакский государственный университет им. Бердаха (in Kara-Kalpak). Archived from the original on 2017-12-24. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
- ^ Karakalpak Cyrillic – (Old / New) Latin transliterator
- Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Ágnes, eds. (1998), The Turkic Languages, London: Routledge, ISBN 9780415082006, OCLC 40980286
- Menges, Karl H. (1947), Qaraqałpaq Grammar, Translated from German by Leora P. Cunningham, New York: King's Crown Press, OCLC 3615928