Bashkir language

Bashkir (/ˈbɑːʃkɪər, ˈbæʃ-/; Bashkir: Башҡортса Bashqortsa, Башҡорт теле Bashqort tele,[2] [bɑʃˈqort tɘˈlɘ] (listen)) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.4 million native speakers in Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Estonia and other neighboring post-Soviet states, and among the Bashkir diaspora. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.

Bashkir
Башҡортса, Башҡорт теле
Bashkir.png
Bashkir in Cyrillic, Latin, and Arabic scripts
Pronunciation[bɑʃˈqort tɘˈlɘ] (listen)
Native toBashkortostan (Russian Federation)
RegionVolga, Ural region
EthnicityBashkirs
Native speakers
1.4 million (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Early form
Cyrillic (Bashkir alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Bashkortostan (Russia)
Regulated byInstitute of history, language and literature of the Ufa Federal research center the RAS
Language codes
ISO 639-1ba
ISO 639-2bak
ISO 639-3bak
Glottologbash1264
Linguasphere44-AAB-bg
Bashkir language in the Russian Empire (1897).svg
Geographic distribution of Bashkir language in the Russian Empire according to 1897 census
Lang Status 80-VU.svg
Bashkir is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

SpeakersEdit

 
Bashkirs in Russia by administrative districts (raions) in 2010

Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the republic of Bashkortostan (a republic within the Russian Federation). Many speakers also live in Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Tyumen, Sverdlovsk and Kurgan Oblasts and other regions of Russia. Minor Bashkir groups also live in Kazakhstan and other countries.

ClassificationEdit

Bashkir together with Tatar belongs to the Bulgaric (Russian: кыпчакско-булгарская) subgroups of the Kipchak languages. They share the same vocalism and the vowel shifts (see below) that make both languages stand apart from most other Kipchak and Oghuz Turkic languages.

However, Bashkir differs from Tatar in several important ways:

  • Bashkir has dental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ in the place of Tatar (and other Turkic) /s/ and /z/. Bashkir /θ/ and /ð/, however, cannot begin a word (there are exceptions: ҙур dhur 'big', and the particle/conjunction ҙа/ҙә dha/dhä). The only other Turkic language with a similar feature is Turkmen. However, in Bashkir /θ/ and /ð/ are two independent phonemes, distinct from /s/ and /z/, whereas in Turkmen [θ] and [ð] are the two main realizations of the common Turkic /s/ and /z/. In other words, there are no /s/ and /z/ phonemes in Turkmen, unlike Bashkir which has both /s/ and /z/ and /θ/ and /ð/.
  • The word-initial and morpheme-initial /s/ is turned into /h/. An example of both features can be Tatar сүз süz [syz] and Bashkir һүҙ hüź [hyð], both meaning "word".
  • Common Turkic // (Tatar /ɕ/) is turned into Bashkir /s/, e.g., Turkish ağaç [aˈatʃ], Tatar агач aghach [ɑˈʁɑɕ] and Bashkir ағас aghas [ɑˈʁɑs], all meaning "tree".
  • The word-initial /ʑ/ in Tatar always corresponds to /j/ in Standard Bashkir, e.g., Tatar җылы zhïlï [ʑɤˈlɤ] and Bashkir йылы yïly [jɤˈlɤ], both meaning "warm". However, the eastern and northern dialects of Bashkir have the /j/ > /ʑ~ʒ/ shift.

The Bashkir orthography is more explicit. /q/ and /ʁ/ are written with their own letters Ҡ ҡ and Ғ ғ, whereas in Tatar they are treated as positional allophones of /k/ and /ɡ/, written К к and Г г.

Labial vowel harmony in Bashkir is written explicitly, e.g. Tatar тормышым tormïshïm and Bashkir тормошом tormoshom, both pronounced [tormoˈʃom], meaning "my life".

OrthographyEdit

 
Trilingual sign in Ufa Airport in Bashkir, Russian and English

After the adoption of Islam, which began in the 10th century and lasted for several centuries, the Bashkirs began to use Turki as a written language. Turki was written in a variant of the Arabic script.

In 1923, a writing system based on the Arabic script was specifically created for the Bashkir language. At the same time, the Bashkir literary language was created, moving away from the older written Turkic influences. At first, it used a modified Arabic alphabet. In 1930 it was replaced with the Unified Turkic Latin Alphabet, which was in turn replaced with an adapted Cyrillic alphabet in 1939.

The modern alphabet used by Bashkir is based on the Russian alphabet, with the addition of the following letters: Ә ә /æ/, Ө ө /ø/, Ү ү [y], Ғ ғ /ʁ/, Ҡ ҡ /q/, Ң ң /ŋ/, Ҙ ҙ /ð/, Ҫ ҫ /θ/, Һ һ /h/.

А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Ҙ ҙ Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Ҡ ҡ Л л М м Н н
Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я
Letters and symbols of the Bashkir Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic version Pronunciation Notes
Аа [ɑ̜], [ä] "A" is usually pronounced as [ɑ̜] in all syllables except last, in last syllable it is pronounced as [ä].
Бб [b]
Вв [v], [w] [v] in Russian loanwords, [w] in Arabic and Persian loanwords.
Ғғ [ɣ˗]
Дд [d]
Ҙҙ [ð] In eastern dialect and some of northern subdialects it is an allophone of [d].
Ее [jɪ̞], [ɪ̞], [je̞], [e̞] The letter is iotated in beginning of a word, after a vowel or after a soft or hard sign.
Ёё [jo] Only used in Russian loanwords.
Жж [ʐ̟] Only occurs in loanwords.
Зз [z]
Ии [i]
Йй [j] In west subdialects of northwestern dialect and in a few subdialects of the eastern dialect it is pronounced as [ʑ] at word-initial position. In most other dialects, except the literary standard and southeastern subdialects, it is closer to [ʝ].
Кк [k]
Ҡҡ [q]
Лл [ɭ̺], [ɫ] In front vowel contexts occurs as apical [ɭ̺], in back vowel contexts occurs as [ɫ].
Мм [m]
Нн [n]
Ңң [ŋ]
Оо [ʊ̞], [o]
Өө [ø]
Пп [p]
Рр [r]
Сс [s]
Ҫҫ [θ]
Тт [t]
Уу [u], [w]
Үү [y], [w]
Фф [f]
Хх [χ]
Һһ [h]
Цц [ts]
Чч [tɕ]
Шш [ʂ]
Щщ [ɕɕ]
Ъъ [-]
Ыы [ɯ], [ɨ]
Ьь [ʲ]
Ээ [ɪ̞], [e]
Әә [æ]
Юю [ju]
Яя [jɑ], [ja]

PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

Bashkir has nine native vowels, and three or four loaned vowels (mainly in Russian loanwords).[3]

Phonetically, the native vowels are approximately thus (with the Cyrillic letter followed by the usual Latin romanization in angle brackets):

Front Back
Spread Rounded Spread Rounded
Close и i
[i]
ү ü
[y~ʉ]
у u
[u]
Mid э, е e
[ĕ~ɘ̆]
ө ö
[ø~ɵ]
ы y
[ɤ̆~ʌ̆]
о o
[o]
Open ә ä
[æ~a]
а a
[ɑ]

In Russian loans there are also [ɨ], [ɛ], [ɔ] and [ä], written the same as the native vowels: ы, е/э, о, а respectively.[3]

The mid vowels may be transcribed as lowered near-high [ɪ̞, ʏ̞, ɯ̞, ʊ̞], and the close front or close central rounded vowel [y~ʉ] may be transcribed as near-close near-front [ʏ].

Historical shiftsEdit

Historically, the Old Turkic mid vowels have raised from mid to high, whereas the Old Turkic high vowels have become the Bashkir reduced mid series. (The same shifts have also happened in Tatar.)[4]

Vowel Old Turkic Tatar Bashkir Gloss
*e *et it it 'meat'
*söz süz hüdh [hyð] 'word'
*o *sol sul hul 'left'
*i *it et et 'dog'
*qyz qëz [qɤ̆z] qëź [qɤ̆θ] 'girl'
*u *qum qom qom 'sand'
*kül köl köl 'ash'

ConsonantsEdit

The consonants of Bashkir[3]
Labial Labio-
velar
Dental Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals м m
/m/
н n
/n/
ң ng
/ŋ/
Plosives Voiceless п p
/p/
т t
/t/
к k
/c/
к k
/k/*
ҡ q
/q/
ь/ъ 
/ʔ/*
Voiced б b
/b/
д d
/d/
г g
/ɟ/
г g
/ɡ/*
Affricates Voiceless ц ts
/ts/*
ч ç
//*
Fricatives Voiceless ф f
/f/*
ҫ ś
/θ/
х kh
/χ/
һ h
/h/
Voiced в v
/v/*
ҙ ź
/ð/
ғ gh
/ʁ/
Sibilants Voiceless с s
/s/
ш sh
/ʃ/
Voiced з z
/z/
ж zh
/ʒ/
Trill р r
/r/
Approximants у/ү/в w
/w~ɥ/
л l
/l/
й y
/j/
Notes
^* The phonemes /f/, /v/, /ts/, //, /k/, /ɡ/, /ʔ/ are found only in loanwords, and, in the case of /ʔ/, in a few native onomatopoeic words.
  • /θ, ð/ are dental [θ, ð], and /r/ is apical alveolar []. The exact place of articulation of the other dental/alveolar consonants is unclear.

GrammarEdit

A member of the Turkic language family, Bashkir is an agglutinative, SOV language.[3][5] A large part of the Bashkir vocabulary has Turkic roots; and there are many loan words in Bashkir from Russian, Arabic and Persian sources.

Declension of nounsEdit

Case father mother child dog cat
Singular Nominative атай atay әсәй äsäy бала bala эт et бесәй besäy
Genitive атайҙың ataydhïng әсәйҙең äsäydheng баланың balanïng эттең etteng бесәйҙең besäydheng
Dative атайға ataygha әсәйгә äsäygä балаға balagha эткә etkä бесәйгә besäygä
Accusative атайҙы ataydhï әсәйҙе äsäydhe баланы balanï этте ette бесәйҙе besäydhe
Locative атайҙа ataydha әсәйҙә äsäydhä балала balala эттә että бесәйҙә besäydhä
Ablative атайҙан ataydhan әсәйҙән äsäydhän баланан balanan эттән ettän бесәйҙән besäydhän
Plural Nominative атайҙар ataydhar әсәйҙәр äsäydhär балалар balalar эттәр ettär бесәйҙәр besäydhär
Genitive атайҙарҙың ataydhardhıng әсәйҙәрҙең äsäydhärdheng балаларҙың balalardhïng эттәрҙең ettärdheng бесәйҙәрҙең besäydhärdheng
Dative атайҙарға ataydhargha әсәйҙәргә äsäydhärgä балаларға balalargha эттәргә ettärgä бесәйҙәргә besäydhärgä
Accusative атайҙарҙы ataydhardhï әсәйҙәрҙе äsäydhärdhe балаларҙы balalardhï эттәрҙе ettärdhe бесәйҙәрҙе besäydhärdhe
Locative атайҙарҙа ataydhardha әсәйҙәрҙә äsäydhärdhä балаларҙа balalardha эттәрҙә ettärdhä бесәйҙәрҙә besäydhärdhä
Ablative атайҙарҙан ataydhardhan әсәйҙәрҙән äsäydhärdhän балаларҙан balalardhan эттәрҙән ettärdhän бесәйҙәрҙән besäydhärdhän

Declension of pronounsEdit

Interrogative pronouns Personal pronouns
Case who what Singular Plural
I you (thou) he, she, it we you they
Nominative кем
kem
нимә
nimä
мин
min
һин
hin
ул
ul
беҙ
bedh
һеҙ
hedh
улар
ular
Genitive кемдең
kemdeng
нимәнең
nimäneng
минең
mineng
һинең
hineng
уның
unyng
беҙҙең
bedhdheng
һеҙҙең
hedhdheng
уларҙың
ulardhïng
Dative кемгә
kemgä
нимәгә
nimägä
миңә
mingä
һиңә
hingä
уға
ugha
беҙгә
bedhgä
һеҙгә
hedhgä
уларға
ulargha
Accusative кемде
kemde
нимәне
nimäne
мине
mine
һине
hine
уны
unı
беҙҙе
bedhdhe
һеҙҙе
hedhdhe
уларҙы
ulardhï
Locative кемдә
kemdä
нимәлә
nimälä
миндә
mindä
һиндә
hindä
унда
unda
беҙҙә
bedhdhä
һеҙҙә
hedhdhä
уларҙа
ulardha
Ablative кемдән
kemdän
нимәнән
nimänän
минән
minän
һинән
hinän
унан
unan
беҙҙән
bedhdhän
һеҙҙән
hedhdhän
уларҙан
ulardhan
Demonstrative pronouns
Case Singular Plural
this that these those
Nominative был
byl
ошо
osho
шул
shul
теге
tege
былар
bylar
ошолар
osholar
шулар
shular
тегеләр
tegelär
Genitive бының
bynyng
ошоноң
oshonong
шуның
shunyng
тегенең
tegeneng
быларҙың
bylardhıng
ошоларҙың
osholardhïng
шуларҙың
shulardhïng
тегеләрҙең
tegelärdheng
Dative быға
bygha
ошоға
oshogha
шуға
shugha
тегегә
tegegä
быларға
bylargha
ошоларға
osholargha
шуларға
shulargha
тегеләргә
tegelärgä
Accusative быны
byny
ошоно
oshona
шуны
shuny
тегене
tegene
быларҙы
bylardhy
ошоларҙы
osholardhy
шуларҙы
shulardhy
тегеләрҙе
tegelärdhe
Locative бында
bynda
ошонда
oshonda
шунда
shunda
тегендә
tegenda
быларҙа
bylardha
ошоларҙа
osholardha
шуларҙа
shulardha
тегеләрҙә
tegelärdhä
Ablative бынан
bynan
ошонан
oshonan
шунан
shunan
тегенән
tegenän
быларҙан
bylardhan
ошоларҙан
osholardhan
шуларҙан
shulardhan
тегеләрҙән
tegelärdhän

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bashkir at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ https://transliteration.eki.ee/pdf/Bashkir.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ a b c d Berta, Árpád (1998). "Tatar and Bashkir". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. pp. 283–300. ISBN 9780415082006.
  4. ^ Johanson, Lars (1998). "The History of Turkic". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 9780415082006.
  5. ^ "Overview of the Bashkir Language". Learn the Bashkir Language & Culture. Transparent Language. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011.

Further readingEdit

  • Poppe, Nicholas (1997) [1964]. Bashkir Manual. Routledge. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7007-0836-9.
  • Грамматика современного башкирского литературного языка (in Russian). Москва: Наука. 1981.
  • Дмитриев, Н. К. (1948). Грамматика башкирского языка (in Russian). Из-во АН СССР.

External linksEdit