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Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square kilometres (6.6×10^6 sq mi), and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has the most borders of any country in the world, with sixteen sovereign nations. It has a population of 146.2 million; and is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the nation's second-largest city and cultural centre. Russians are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state, which had a one-party system throughout most of its existence. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, and his government has been accused of authoritarianism, numerous human rights abuses, and corruption. (Full article...)

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The Battle of Kulikovo by Blinov

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Pieces of chicken Kiev in butter sauce spread on a plate
Chicken Kiev cut open

Chicken Kiev (Russian: котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; Ukrainian: котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, literally "cutlet Kyiv-style") is a dish made of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked. Stuffed chicken breast is generally known in Russian and Ukrainian cuisines as côtelette de volaille. Since fillets are often referred to as suprêmes in professional cookery, the dish is also called suprême de volaille à la Kiev. Though it has disputed origins, the dish is particularly popular in the post-Soviet states, as well as in several other countries of the former Eastern Bloc, and in the English-speaking world. (Full article...)

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Portrait by Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1753)

Leonhard Euler (/ˈɔɪlər/ OY-lər; German: [ˈɔʏlɐ] (About this soundlisten); 15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy and music theory.

Euler is held to be one of the greatest mathematicians in history and the greatest of the 18th century. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." Carl Friedrich Gauss remarked: "The study of Euler's works will remain the best school for the different fields of mathematics, and nothing else can replace it." Euler is also widely considered to be the most prolific; his more than 850 publications are collected in 92 quarto volumes, (including his Opera Omnia) more than anyone else in the field. He spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. (Full article...)

In the news

21 September 2021 –
The European Court of Human Rights rules that agents acting on behalf of the Russian government were responsible for the fatal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in 2006. (BBC)
20 September 2021 – Perm State University shooting
Six people are killed and around 20 more are wounded in a mass shooting at Perm State University in Perm, Perm Krai, Russia. The gunman, an 18-year-old student at the university, has been arrested. (BBC)
20 September 2021 – 2021 Belarus–European Union border crisis
Poland accuses Russia and Belarus of "orchestrating a wave of illegal immigration" after four people were found dead yesterday at the Polish–Belarusian border. (Al Jazeera)
15 September 2021 – 2021 Russian legislative election
Allies of Russian opposition activist Alexei Navalny, especially Leonid Volkov, call to vote for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in the upcoming parliamentary election in order to hurt the ruling United Russia party. Navalny and his allies' party was barred from the election after being branded as "extremist" last June. (Reuters)
15 September 2021 –
Russia demonstrates the use of unmanned ground vehicles in combat formations during the weeklong Zapad joint military exercises with Belarus. The two vehicles demonstrated were the Uran-9, a tracked vehicle equipped with a 30 mm autocannon, machine gun, anti-tank missiles and a flamethrower; and the Nerekhta, equipped with a mounted machine gun and a grenade launcher as well as cargo capacity. (Military.com)
14 September 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Russia


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Leon Trotsky
Let a man find himself, in distinction from others, on top of two wheels with a chain — at least in a poor country like Russia — and his vanity begins to swell out like his tires. In America it takes an automobile to produce this effect.

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