The Gediminids (Lithuanian: Gediminaičiai, Samogitian: Gedėmėnātē, Polish: Giedyminowicze, Belarusian: Гедзімінавічы, Ukrainian: Гедиміновичі, Russian: Гедиминовичи) were a dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that reigned from the 14th to the 16th century. One branch of this family, known as the Jagiellonian dynasty, reigned also in the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Bohemia. Several other branches ranked among the leading aristocratic dynasties of Russia and Poland into recent times.
(Gediminaičiai, Gedėmėnātē, Giedyminowicze, Гедзімінавічы, Гедиміновичі, Гедиминовичи)
The Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and coat of arms of the Gediminids
|Country||Grand Duchy of Lithuania|
|Founded||1315 or 1316|
|Final ruler||Žygimantas Augustas|
|Titles||Grand Duke of Lithuania|
Their monarchical title in Lithuanian primarily was, by some folkloristic data, kunigų kunigas ("Duke of Dukes"), and later on, didysis kunigas ("Great/High Duke") or, in a simple manner, kunigaikštis. In the 18th century, the latter form was changed into tautological didysis kunigaikštis, which nevertheless would be translated as "Grand Duke" (for its etymology, see Grand Prince).
The origin of Gediminas himself is much debated. Some sources say he was Vytenis' ostler, others that he was of peasant stock. Some historians consider him as the son or grandson of Lithuanian or Yatvingian duke Skalmantas. Most scholars agree, however, that Gediminas was Vytenis' brother (the parentage of Vytenis is explained differently in various fake genealogies, compiled from the 16th century onwards; according to the latest Polish research, his parentage cannot be established).
Confirmed Gediminid rulersEdit
Branches of the dynastyEdit
The Eastern Orthodox branches of the family were mostly Ruthenian, which also was one of the two main languages of their established state. Some of these families (e.g., Czartoryski) later converted to Roman Catholicism and became Polonized. Others (e.g., Galitzine) moved to Muscovy and became thoroughly Russified.
In Poland, most Gediminid families (such as Olelkowicz-Słucki, Wiśniowiecki, Zbaraski) are extinct, but at least some families survive to the present: Khovanski, Czartoryski, Sanguszko, and Koriatowicz-Kurcewicz.
I. The descendants of* Bujwid Vytianis Rex.King Lithuainia.
- Dukes Prince of Bujwid
I. The descendants of Narimantas:
- Dukes of Pinsky (nobility) [ru] (faded at the end of the 15th century)
- Dukes of Patrikeyev [ru]
- Dukes of Korecki
II. The descendants of Algirdas:
- Duke Andrei of Polotsk
- Dmitrijus Algirdaitis
- Konstantinas Algirdaitis [ru]
- Dukes of Czartoryski
- Vladimiras Algirdaitis
- The descendants of Kaributas
- The descendants of Fiodoras Algirdaitis [ru]
- The descendants of Lengvenis
- Dukes of Mstislavsky
III. The descendants of Kęstutis (faded in the second half of the 15th century)
IV. The descendants of Jaunutis:
V. The descendants of Liubartas (faded in the first half of the 15th century)
(? – c. 1292)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1285 – c. 1292
(? – c. 1296)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1292 – c. 1296
(? – 1316)
G. Duke of Lith., c. 1296–1316
G. Duke of Lith., 1316–1341
G. Duke of Lith., 1341–1345
G. Duke of Lith., 1345–1377
G. Duke of Lith., 1377–1401
King of Poland, 1386–1434
G. Duke of Lith., 1430–1432
G. Duke of Lith., 1401–1430
(? – 1440)
G. Duke of Lith., 1432–1440
- Jan Tęgowski, "Pierwsze pokolenia Gedyminowiczów", 1999
- Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Gediminas". Genealogy.EU.