# Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russian: Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan), members of the institution. Most scientists, however, are eminent Russian scientists.

Formation March 26, 1956; 63 years ago[1] Georgy Flyorov Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia 18 countries English and Russian Victor A. Matveev Victor A. Matveev www.jinr.ru

The Institute has seven laboratories, each with its own specialisation: theoretical physics, high energy physics (particle physics), heavy ion physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear reactions, neutron physics, and information technology. The institute has a division to study radiation and radiobiological research and other ad hoc experimental physics experiments.

Principal research instruments include a nuclotron superconductive particle accelerator (particle energy: 7 GeV), three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron (4 GeV). The site has a neutron fast-pulse reactor (1500MW pulse) with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams.

## Founding

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was established on the basis of an agreement signed on March 26, 1956 in Moscow by representatives of the governments of the eleven founding countries, with a view to combining their scientific and material potential. The USSR contributed 50 percent, the People's Republic of China 20 percent. On February 1, 1957, JINR was registered by the United Nations. The Institute is located in Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow.

At the time of the creation of JINR, the Institute of Nuclear Problems (INP) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR already existed at the site of the future Dubna since the late 1940s, and it launched a program of fundamental and applied research at the synchrocyclotron. The Electrophysics Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (EFLAN) was established, and under the guidance of Academician Vladimir Veksler, work began to create a new accelerator - a proton synchrophasotron - with a record energy of 10 GeV at that time.

By the mid-1950s, there was a worldwide consensus that nuclear science should be accessible and that only broad cooperation could ensure the progressive development of this research, as well as the peaceful use of atomic energy. Thus, in 1954, near CERN, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) was established. At about the same time, the countries that belonged to the socialist community decided to establish a Joint Institute for Nuclear Research on the basis of the INP and EFLAN.

The first director of the United Institute was Professor D. I. Blokhintsev, who just completed the creation of Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant the world's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk. The first vice-directors of JINR were professors Marian Danysz (Poland) and V. Votruba (Czechoslovakia).

The history of the formation of the United Institute is connected with the names of such prominent scientists and leaders of science as Nikolay Bogolyubov, Leopold Infeld, Igor Kurchatov , G. Nevodnichansky, AM Petrosyants, E. Slavsky, Igor Tamm, A. V. Topchiev, H. Hulubey, L. Janos and others.

In the formation of the main scientific directions and the development of the Institute, outstanding physicists[2]:

## Cooperation

The JINR members are 18 states:[4]

Associate members are:

## Structure

The JINR has eight laboratories and University Centre:

• Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP)
• Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies (VBLHE)
• Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP)
• Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP)
• Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR)
• Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP)
• Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT)
• Laboratory of Radiation Biology (LRB)
• University Centre (UC)

Experimental Physics workshops are also parts of the Institute.

## Fields of research

The main fields of the Institute's research are:

## Discoveries

More than 40 major discoveries have been made.

## JINR Prize

In 1961 the JINR Prizes were instituted.

• JINR Prize 1961
A group of physicists headed by Wang Ganchang, deputy director from 1958 to 1960 and the Soviet Professor Vladimir Veksler was awarded the first prize for the discovery of antisigma-minus hyperon. The experimental group led by Professor Wang Ganchang, analysed more than 40,000 photographs which recorded tens of thousands of nuclear interactions taken in the propane bubble chamber, produced by the 10 GeV synchrophasotron used to bombard a target forming high energy mesons, was the first to discover the anti-sigma minus hyperon particles on March 9, 1959:[6]
${\displaystyle \pi ^{-}+C\to {\bar {\Sigma }}^{-}+K^{0}+{\bar {K}}^{0}+K^{-}+p^{+}+\pi ^{+}+\pi ^{-}+{\hbox{nucleus recoil}}}$
The discovery of this new unstable antiparticle which decays in (1.18±0.07)·10−10 s into an antineutron and a negative pion was announced in September of that year:[7]
${\displaystyle {\bar {\Sigma }}^{-}\to {\bar {n}}^{0}+\pi ^{-}}$
No-one doubted at the time that this particle was elementary, but a few years later, this hyperon, the proton, the neutron, the pion and other hadrons had lost their status of elementary particles as they turned out to be complex particles too consisting of quarks and antiquarks.