Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian (Russian: Юрий Цолакович Оганесян [ˈjʉrʲɪj t͡sɐˈlakəvʲɪt͡ɕ ɐgənʲɪˈsʲan];[a] born 14 April 1933) is a Russian nuclear physicist of Armenian origin who is considered the world's leading researcher in superheavy chemical elements. He led the discovery of these elements in the periodic table. He succeeded Georgy Flyorov as director of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1989 and is now its scientific leader.
Oganessian in 2016
|Citizenship||Soviet Union, Russia, Armenia|
|Alma mater||Moscow Engineering Physics Institute|
|Known for||Co-discoverer of the heaviest elements in the periodic table; element oganesson named after him|
|Institutions||Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research|
Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian was born in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, on 14 April 1933 to Armenian parents. His father was from Rostov, while his mother was from Armavir. Oganessian spent his childhood in Yerevan, the capital of then-Soviet Armenia, where his family relocated in 1939. His father, Tsolak, a thermal engineer, was invited to work on the synthetic rubber plant in Yerevan. When the Eastern Front of World War II broke out, his family decided to not return to Rostov, which was occupied by the Nazis. Yuri attended and finished school in Yerevan.
—Flerov on Oganessian, 1990
Ogannesian moved to Russia, where he graduated from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) in 1956. He thereafter sought to join the Institute of Atomic Energy in Moscow, but as there were no vacancies left in Gersh Budker's team, he was instead recruited by Georgi Flerov and began working at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, near Moscow.
He became director of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at JINR in 1989, after Flerov retired, and remained in the position until 1996, when he was named the scientific leader of the Flerov.
Discovery of super-heavy chemical elementsEdit
In the 1970s Oganessian invented a method of cold fusion, a technique to produce transactinide elements (super-heavy elements). It played a vital role in the discoveries of elements from 104 to 113. From the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, the partnership of JINR, led by Oganessian, and the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Germany, led to the discovery of six chemical elements (107 to 112): bohrium, meitnerium, hassium, darmstadtium, roentgenium, and copernicium.
His newer technique, called hot fusion, helped to discover the rest of the super-heavy elements: from 113 and on. The technique involved bombarding calcium into targets containing heavier radioactive elements that are rich in neutrons at a cyclotron. The elements discovered using this method are nihonium (2003–2004, along with RIKEN in Japan), flerovium (1999), moscovium (2003), livermorium (2000), tennessine (2009), and oganesson (2002).
American chemist Sherry Yennello calls him the "grandfather of super-heavy elements." Oganessian is the author of three discoveries, a monograph, 11 inventions, and more than 300 scientific papers.
In early 2016 it was speculated by science writers and bloggers that one of the super-heavy elements would be named Oganessium or Oganesson. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) announced in November 2016 that element 118 would be named oganesson to honor Oganessian. It was first observed in 2002 at JINR, by a joint team of Russian and American scientists. Headed by Oganessian, the team included American scientists of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California. Prior to this announcement, a dozen elements had been named after people,[b] but of those, only seaborgium was likewise named while the person (Glenn T. Seaborg) was alive.
Oganessian was granted Armenian citizenship in July 2018 by Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan. Oganessian is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Foundation for Armenian Science and Technology (FAST). He is also the chairman of the international scientific board of the Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute). In 2017 HayPost issued a postage stamp dedicated to Yuri Oganessian.
Honors and awardsEdit
In 1990 he was elected Corresponding Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and in 2003 a Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Oganessian holds honorary degrees from Goethe University Frankfurt (2002), University of Messina (2009), and Yerevan State University. The chemical element oganesson was named after him in 2016, the second instance that an element was named after a living person.
- State orders and awards
- USSR State Prize (1975)
- Lise Meitner Prize of the European Physical Society (2000)
- Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" 3rd class (2003)
- Russian Federation National Award (2010)
- Order of Honor of the Republic of Armenia (2016)
- Lomonosov Gold Medal (2018) "for fundamental research in the fields of interaction of complex nuclei and experimental evidence of existence of an 'island of stability' for superheavy elements"
- Armenian: Յուրի Ցոլակի Հովհաննիսյան Yuri Ts‘olaki Hovhannisyan [juˈɾi t͡sʰɔlɑˈki hɔvhɑnnisˈjɑn]. Oganessian is the Russified version of the Armenian last name Hovhannisyan. The article on Oganessian in the Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (1980) described him as an "Armenian Soviet physicist."
- 12 other elements named in honor of people: curium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium, rutherfordium, seaborgium, bohrium, meitnerium, roentgenium, copernicium
- "President Armen Sarkissian receive Academician Yuri Oganessian". Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia. 12 July 2018.
President Sarkissian said that on July 11 he signed the decree to granting Armenian citizenship to Yuri Oganessian.
- "Премьер Армении предоставил гражданство российскому ученому Юрию Оганесяну" (in Russian). TASS. 10 July 2018.
- "Dr. Yuri Oganessian". Texas A&M University Hagler Institute for Advanced Study.
- "Հովհաննիսյան Յուրի Ցոլակի (1933-) [Hovhannisyan Yuri Tsolaki (1933-)]". sci.am (in Armenian). National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017.
- "Presidential Decree on Awarding Y. Ts. Hovhannisyan with the Order of Honor". president.am (in Armenian). 17 September 2016.
- Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia Volume 6 (in Armenian). Yerevan. 1980. p. 572.
ՀՈՎՀԱՆՆԻՍՅԱՆ Յուրի Ցոլակի (ծն. 14.4.1933, Դոնի Ռոստով), հայ սովետական ֆիզիկոս
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In honour of Yuri Oganessian for his laurea honoris causa that will be conferred by the University of Messina.
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