An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution or extralegal killing) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process. They often target political, trade union, dissident, religious and social figures.
Agnès Callamard is the current United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions supported by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
Human rights groupsEdit
Democratic Republic of the CongoEdit
Argentina's dictatorial government during the 1976–1983 period used extrajudicial killings systematically as way of crushing the opposition in the so-called "Dirty War" or what is known in Spanish as La Guerra Sucia. During this violent period, it is estimated that the military regime killed between eleven thousand and fifteen thousand people and most of the victims were known or suspected to be opponents of the regime. These included intellectuals, labor leaders, human rights workers, priests, nuns, reporters, politicians, and artists as well as their relatives. Authorities Half of the number of extrajudicial killings were reportedly carried out by the murder squad that operated from a detention center in Buenos Aires called Escuela Mecanica de la Armada. The dirty wars in Argentina sometimes triggered even more violent conflicts since the killings and crackdowns precipitated responses from insurgents.
When General Augusto Pinochet assumed power in 1973, he immediately ordered the purges, torture, and deaths of more than 3,000 supporters of the previous government without trial. During his regime, which lasted from 1973 to 1989, elements of the military and police continued committing extrajudicial killings. These included Manuel Contreras, the former head of Chile's National Intelligence Directorate (DINA), which served as Pinochet's secret police. He was behind numerous assassinations and human rights abuses such as the 1974 abduction and forced disappearance of Socialist Party leader Victor Olea Alegria. Some of the killings were also coordinated with other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone in the so-called Operation Condor. There were reports of United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) involvement, particularly within its activities in Central and South America that promoted anti-Communist coups. While CIA's complicity was not proven, American dollars supported the regimes that carried out extrajudicial killings such as the Pinochet administration. CIA, for instance, helped create DINA and the agency admitted that Contreras was one of its assets.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in El Salvador. During the Salvadoran civil war, death squads achieved notoriety when far-right vigilantes assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero for his social activism in March 1980. In December 1980, four Americans—three nuns and a lay worker—were raped and murdered by a military unit later found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of peasants and activists, including such notable priests as Rutilio Grande. Because the death squads involved were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran military, which was receiving U.S. funding and training from American advisors during the Carter administration, these events prompted outrage in the U.S. and led to a temporary cutoff in military aid from the Reagan administration, although death squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years (1981–1989) as well.
Honduras also had death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of which was Battalion 316. Hundreds of people, including teachers, politicians and union bosses, were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion 316 received substantial support and training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
On 7, 8, and 9 December 1982 fifteen prominent Surinamese men who had criticized the ruling military regime were murdered. This tragedy is known as the December murders. The acting commander of the army Dési Bouterse has been sentenced 20 years of prison by the Surinamese court martial at 29 November 2019.
One issue regarding extrajudicial killing is the legal and moral status of targeted killing by unmanned aerial vehicles of the United States.
a deliberate killing not authorized by a previous judgment pronounced by a regular constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. Such term, however, does not include any such killing that, under international law, is lawfully carried out under the authority of a foreign nation.[a]
The legality of killings such as in the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011 and the death of Qasem Soleimani in 2020 have been brought into question. In that case, the US defended itself claiming the killing was not an assassination but an act of "National Self Defense". There had been just under 2,500 assassinations by targeted drone strike by 2015, and these too have questioned as being extrajudicial killings. Concerns about targeted and sanctioned killings of non-Americans and American citizens in overseas counter-terrorism activities have been raised by lawyers, news firms and private citizens.
On September 30, 2011 a drone strike in Yemen killed American citizens Anwar al-Awlaki and Samir Khan. Both resided in Yemen at the time of their deaths. The executive order approving Al-Awlaki's death was issued by Barack Obama in 2010, was and challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union and the Center for Constitutional Rights in that year. The U.S. president issued an order, approved by the National Security Council, that Al-Awlaki's normal legal rights as a civilian should be suspended and his death should be imposed, as he was a threat to the United States. The reasons provided to the public for approval of the order were Al-Awlaki's links to the 2009 Fort Hood Massacre and the 2009 Christmas Day bomb plot, the attempted destruction of a Detroit-bound passenger-plane. The following month, al-Awlaki's son Abdulrahman al-Awlaki, an American citizen, was killed by another US drone strike and in January 2017 Nawar al-Awlaki, al-Awlaki's eight-year-old daughter, also an American citizen and half-sister of Abdulrahman, was shot to death during the raid on Yakla by American forces along with between 9 and 29 other civilians, up to 14 al-Qaeda fighters, and American Navy SEAL William Owens.
The New York Times reported 13 November 2020 that Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah was assassinated 7 August 2020 on the streets of Tehran by Israeli operatives at the behest of the United States, according to four intelligence officials of the United States.
Encouragement of extrajudicial killings by President TrumpEdit
In a Fox News cable television interview September 12, 2020, hosted by Jeanine Pirro, President Trump expressed encouragement for law enforcement officers to carryout extrajudicial retribution killing of suspected criminals. Trump made his comments in reference to a law enforcement officer who – on September 3, 2020, in Lacey, Washington – fatally shot Michael Forest Reinoehl, a self-described anti-fascist activist who is suspected of fatally shooting on August 29, 2020, a Patriot Prayer supporter, Aaron J. Danielson, in Portland, Oregon. Trump told Pirro, "This guy [Reinoehl] was a violent criminal, and the U.S. Marshals killed him ... And I will tell you something – that's the way it has to be". At an October 15, 2020 rally in Greenville, North Carolina he further elaborated on his praise, highlighting his extrajudicial characterization of the killing by saying, "they didn't want to arrest him" although in a statement immediately after the death the U.S. Marshals Service had said that their task force was attempting to arrest Reinoehl.
Afghan officials have presided over murders, abduction, and other abuses with the tacit backing of their government and its western allies, Human Rights Watch says in its report from March 2015.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi special security force Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) has long been known for extrajudicial killing. In a leaked WikiLeaks cable it was found that RAB was trained by the UK government. 16 RAB officials (sacked afterwards) including Lt Col (sacked) Tareque Sayeed, Major (sacked) Arif Hossain, and Lt Commander (sacked) Masud Rana were given death penalty for abduction, murder, concealing the bodies, conspiracy and destroying evidences in the Narayanganj Seven Murder case.
Beside this many alleged criminals were killed by Bangladesh police by the name of Crossfire. In 2018, many alleged drug dealers were killed in the name of "War on Drugs" in Bangladesh.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in India. A form of extrajudicial killing is called police encounters. Such encounters are being staged also by military and other security forces. Extrajudicial killings are also common in Indian states especially in Uttar Pradesh where 73 people were killed from March 2017 to March 2019. Police Encounter on 6 December 2019, by Telangana police in the Priyanka Reddy rape case killing the 4 accused is another form of extrajudicial killing
In 1953 a regime was installed through the efforts of the American CIA and the British MI6 in which the Shah (hereditary monarch) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi used SAVAK death squads (also trained by the CIA) to imprison, torture and/or kill hundreds of dissidents. After the 1979 revolution death squads were used to an even greater extent by the new Islamic government. In 1983, the CIA gave the Supreme Leader of Iran—Ayatollah Khomeini—information on KGB agents in Iran. This information was probably used. The Iranian government later used death squads occasionally throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s; however by the 2000s it seems to have almost entirely, if not completely, ceased using them.
The Dutch secretary of Foreign Affairs Stef Blok wrote Januari 2019 to the Dutch parliament that the intelligence service AIVD had strong indications that Iran is responsible for the murder of Mohammad Reza Kolahi Samadi in 2015 in Almere and of Ahmad Mola Nissi in 2017 in The Hague.
Iraq was formed by the partition and domination of various tribal lands by the British in the early 20th century. Britain granted independence to Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi of Iraq ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. The United Kingdom invaded Iraq in 1941 (see Anglo-Iraqi War), for fear that the government of Rashid Ali al-Gaylani might cut oil supplies to Western nations, and because of his links to the Axis powers. A military occupation followed the restoration of the Hashemite monarchy, and the occupation ended on October 26, 1947. Iraq was left with a national government led from Baghdad made up of Sunni ethnicity in key positions of power, ruling over an ad hoc nation splintered by tribal affiliations. This leadership used death squads and committed massacres in Iraq throughout the 20th century, culminating in the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein.
The country has since become increasingly partitioned following the Iraq War into three zones: a Kurdish ethnic zone to the north, a Sunni center and the Shia ethnic zone to the south. The secular Arab socialist Baathist leadership were replaced with a provisional and later constitutional government that included leadership roles for the Shia (Prime Minister) and Kurdish (President of the Republic) peoples of the nation. This paralleled the development of ethnic militias by the Shia, Sunni, and the Kurdish (Peshmerga).
There were death squads formed by members of every ethnicity. In the national capital of Baghdad some members of the now-Shia police department and army (and militia members posing as members of police or armed forces) formed unofficial, unsanctioned, but long-tolerated death squads. They possibly had links to the Interior Ministry and were popularly known as the 'black crows'. These groups operated night or day. They usually arrested people, then either tortured or killed them.
The victims of these attacks were predominantly young males who had probably been suspected of being members of the Sunni insurgency. Agitators such as Abdul Razaq al-Na'as, Dr. Abdullateef al-Mayah, and Dr. Wissam Al-Hashimi have also been killed. These killings are not limited to men; women and children have also been arrested and/or killed. Some of these killings have also been part of simple robberies or other criminal activities.
A feature in a May 2005 issue of the magazine of the New York Times claimed that the U.S. military had modelled the "Wolf Brigade", the Iraqi interior ministry police commandos, on the death squads used in the 1980s to crush the left-wing insurgency in El Salvador.
Western news organizations such as Time and People disassembled this by focusing on aspects such as probable militia membership, religious ethnicity, as well as uniforms worn by these squads rather than stating the United States-backed Iraqi government had death squads active in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.
In a report from October 2015, Amnesty International documented incidents that "appear to have been extrajudicial executions" against Palestinian civilians. Several of those incidents occurred after Palestinians attempted to attack Israelis or Israeli soldiers. Even though the attackers did not pose a serious threat, they were shot without attempting to arrest the suspects before resorting to the use of lethal force. Medical attention for severely wounded Palestinians was in many cases delayed by Israeli forces.
The New York Times reported 13 November 2020 that Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah was assassinated 7 August 2020 on the streets of Tehran by Israeli operatives at the behest of the United States, according to four intelligence officials of the United States.
Iranian nuclear physicist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh was killed 27 November 2020 on a rural road in Absard, a city near Tehran. One American official — along with two other intelligence officials — said that Israel was behind the attack on the scientist.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Pakistan. A form of extrajudicial killing called encounter killings by police is common in Pakistan. Case in point is Naqeebullah Mehsud and Sahiwal Killings. The province of Balochistan has also seen a significant number of disappearances, many of which have been attributed to security forces by residents: anti-government Baloch nationalists claim thousands of cases and have stated a belief that most of these disappeared persons have been killed. Official numbers of disappeared persons have varied considerably, ranging between 55 and 1,100 victims. Human rights organizations have dubbed this practice as the "kill and dump policy".
Papua New GuineaEdit
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) has called the massacre the single deadliest event for journalists in history. Even prior to this, the CPJ had labeled the Philippines the second most dangerous country for journalists, second only to Iraq.
War on drugsEdit
Following the election of President Rodrigo Duterte in 2016, a campaign against illegal drugs has led to widespread extrajudicial killings. This follows the actions by then-Mayor Duterte to roam Davao in order to "encounter to kill".
The Philippine president has urged its citizens to kill suspected criminals and drug addicts, ordered the police to adopt a shoot-to-kill policy has offered bounties for dead suspects, and has even admitted to personally killing suspected criminals.
The move has sparked widespread condemnation from international publications  and magazines, prompting the Philippine government to issue statements denying the existence of state-sanctioned killings.
Though Duterte's controversial war on drugs was opposed by the United States under President Barack Obama, the European Union, and the United Nations, Duterte claims that he has received approving remarks from US President Donald Trump.
On a news report of ABS-CBN dated September 26, 4:17 PM, Duterte issued guidelines that would enable the United Nations Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Killings to probe the rising death toll. On a news report of GMA News dated December 14, 10:24 PM, Duterte cancelled the planned visit of the Rapporteur for failure of the latter to accept the conditions for the probe.
The Saudi dissident Jamal Khashoggi was assassinated at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October 2, 2018.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Thailand. Reportedly thousands of extrajudicial killings occurred during the 2003 anti-drug effort of Thailand's prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Turkey. In 1990 Amnesty International published its first report on extrajudicial executions in Turkey. In the following years the problem became more serious. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey determined the following figures on extrajudicial executions in Turkey for the years 1991 to 2001:
In 2001 the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Ms. Asma Jahangir, presented a report on a visit to Turkey. The report presented details of killings of prisoners (26 September 1999, 10 prisoners killed in a prison in Ankara; 19 December 2000, an operation in 20 prisons launched throughout Turkey resulted in the death of 30 inmates and two gendarmes).
In 2008 the human rights organization Mazlum Der counted 25 extrajudicial killings in Turkey.
Nguyễn Văn Lém (referred to as Captain Bay Lop) (died 1 February 1968 in Saigon) was a member of the Viet Cong who was summarily shot in Saigon during the Tet Offensive. The photograph of his death would become one of many anti-Vietnam War icons in the Western World.
In 1999 Belarusian opposition leaders Yury Zacharanka and Viktar Hanchar together with his business associate Anatol Krasouski disappeared. Hanchar and Krasouski disappeared the same day of a broadcast on state television in which President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the chiefs of his security services to crack down on “opposition scum”. Although the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (KGB) had them under constant surveillance, the official investigation announced that the case could not be solved. The disappearance of journalist Dzmitry Zavadski in 2000 has also yielded no results. Copies of a report by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which linked senior Belarusian officials to the cases of disappearances, were confiscated. Human Rights Watch claims that Zacharanka, Hanchar, Krasouski and Zavadski likely became victims of extrajudicial executions.
Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Russia. In the Russian Federation, a number of journalist murders were attributed to public administration figures, usually where the publications would reveal their involvement in large corruption scandals. It has been regarded that the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko was linked to Russian special forces. USA and UK intelligence agents reportedly claim that Russian assassins, some possibly at orders of the government, are behind at least fourteen targeted killings on British soil that police called non-suspicious. The United Kingdom attributes the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in March 2018 to the Russian military-intelligence agency GRU. The German foreign minister Heiko Maas said there were "several indications" that Russia was behind the poisoning of Alexei Navalny.
In Soviet Russia since 1918 Cheka was authorized to execute counter-revolutionaries without trial. Hostages were also executed by Cheka during the Red Terror in 1918–1920. The successors of Cheka also had the authority for extrajudicial executions. In 1937–38 hundreds of thousands were executed extrajudicially during the Great Purge under the lists approved by NKVD troikas. In some cases, the Soviet special services did not arrest and then execute their victims but just secretly killed them without any arrest. For example, Solomon Mikhoels was murdered in 1948 and his body was run over to create the impression of a traffic accident. The Soviet special services also conducted extrajudicial killings abroad, most notably of Leon Trotsky in 1940 in Mexico, Stepan Bandera in 1959 in Germany, Georgi Markov in 1978 in London.
From 1983 until 1987, the Spanish government supported paramilitary squads, denominated GAL, to fight ETA, a Basque terrorist organization. A relevant example was the Lasa and Zabala case, in which José Antonio Lasa and José Ignacio Zabala were kidnapped, tortured and executed by police forces in 1983.
Operation Kratos referred to tactics developed by London's Metropolitan Police Service for dealing with suspected suicide bombers, most notably firing shots to the head without warning. Little was revealed about these tactics until after the mistaken shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes on 22 July 2005.
In Northern Ireland, members of the British armed forces, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, and British agents, on occasion killed without lawful excuse during The Troubles. Brian Nelson, an Ulster Defence Association member and British Army agent was convicted of sectarian murders.
- Arbitrary arrest and detention
- Deadly force
- Death squad
- Encounter killing
- Extraordinary rendition
- Extrajudicial punishment
- Human rights
- Israeli targeted killings
- Jungle justice
- List of killings by law enforcement officers
- Manhunt (law enforcement)
- Manhunt (military)
- Posse comitatus (common law)
- Summary execution
- Targeted killing
- The Troubles
- The legal exclusion in the sentence that starts "Such term, however ... " covers the killing of enemy combatants and others who are not protected under international law from extrajudicial killing.
- VERA Files (14 November 2017). "VERA FILES FACT SHEET: 'Extra-legal' and 'extrajudicial' killings, explained". VERA Files. VERA Files. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
- Special Rapporteur on executions OHCHR
- "El Salvador: The spectre of death squads". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
- "The Project on Extrajudicial Executions home". www.extrajudicialexecutions.org.
- Section, United Nations News Service (28 March 2007). "UN News - UN independent expert on extrajudicial killings urges action on reported incidents".
- "Dickey: Iraq, Salvador and Death-Squad Democracy – Newsweek The War in Iraq – MSNBC.com". Archived from the original on November 1, 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- "Special Forces May Train Assassins, Kidnappers in Iraq – Newsweek The War in Iraq – MSNBC.com". Archived from the original on August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
- AfricaNews (30 December 2016). "Burundi: 348 'extrajudicial' killings in 12 months - UN".
- "Burundi: Extrajudicial executions and systematic killings must be investigated".
- Section, United Nations News Service (8 December 2015). "UN News - DR Congo: UN report accuses security forces of summary executions and death threats ahead of elections".
- "Egyptian soldiers accused of killing unarmed Sinai men in leaked video". BBC News. 21 April 2017.
- "2,978 cases of extra-judicial killings in 3 years - EgyptWatch". 8 September 2016.
- "Egypt rights group says 754 extrajudicial killings in 2016". 8 June 2016.
- "March Horrific Harvest: Hundreds of 'Disappeared', Tortured and 177 Extrajudicial Killings - Egyptian Coordination for rights and freedoms". ecrfeg.org. Archived from the original on 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- Arab, The New. "Egypt police carry out 'extrajudicial execution' in North Sinai".
- "Ethiopia – extrajudicial killing/torture/arbitrary arrests". World Organisation Against Torture. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- Arubi, Emma (20 August 2012). "Nigeria: Delta Community Alleges Extrajudicial Killing by Soldiers". AllAfrica.
- "Uganda: Torture, Extortion, Killings by Police Unit". 23 March 2011.
- "Cote d'Ivoire: UN demands inquiry into 13 torture deaths". IRIN Africa. 16 March 2005. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- "Missing Voices – A group of organisations who have the mission to shine light upon extrajudicial killings". Retrieved 2019-08-28.
- "Kenya: Killings, Disappearances by Anti-Terror Police". Human Rights Watch. 2014-08-18. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
- "Libya - in-year update July 2015 - gov.uk".
- "Página/12 :: El país :: Veinticinco años del informe de la Conadep". www.pagina12.com.ar.
- Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert; Jacobs, Steven (2008). Dictionary of Genocide, Volume 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 114. ISBN 9780313329678.
- Horvitz, Leslie Alan; Catherwood, Christopher (2014). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 9781438110295.
- Combs, Cindy; Slann, Martin (2009). Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Revised Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 978-0816062775.
- "Brazil: Surge in killings by police sparks fear in favelas ahead of Rio Olympics". Amnesty International. 27 April 2016.
- "Good Cops Are Afraid". Human Rights Watch. 7 July 2016.
- "Brazil: 'Trigger happy' military police kill hundreds as Rio prepares for Olympic countdown". Amnesty International. 3 August 2015.
- Fantz, Ashley; Castillo, Mariano (6 August 2015). "Amnesty International report slams killings by police in Rio de Janeiro". CNN.
- Janowitz, Nathaniel (7 July 2016). "Cops in Rio keep killing people ahead of Brazil's Olympics, report says". VICE News.
- "Video: As Brazil's Jair Bolsonaro Prepares to Meet Donald Trump, His Family's Close Ties to Notorious Paramilitary Gangs Draw Scrutiny and Outrage". The Intercept. 18 March 2019.
- Ball, Howard (2002). War Crimes and Justice: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 33. ISBN 157607899X.
- Geraghty, Tony (2012). Black Ops: The Rise of Special Forces in the CIA, the SAS, and Mossad. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781605987613.
- McSherry, Patrice (2005). Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. pp. 71. ISBN 9780742536876.
- Cosoy, Natalio (24 June 2015). "Colombia's top army officers 'knew of extrajudicial killings'" – via www.bbc.com.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
- "El Salvador: War, Peace, and Human Rights, 1980–1994". Gwu.edu. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- wola. "Amid Rising Violence, El Salvador Fails to Address Reports of Extrajudicial Killings". WOLA. Retrieved 2019-07-05.
- Thompson, Gary Cohn and Ginger. "When a wave of torture and murder staggered a small U.S. ally, truth was a casualty".
- "Louis-Jodel Chamblain – Convicted assassin and leader of death squads". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-04.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Younge, Gary (December 6, 2005). "Jamaican gay activist shot dead after being abducted". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Eisner, Peter (March 16, 2004). "Aristide Back in Caribbean Heat". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010. Note: first page of this article is missing from The Washington Post website, but can be found here  Archived 2014-04-19 at the Wayback Machine
- ""Extrajudicial killings and impunity persist in Mexico" – UN rights expert's follow-up report".
- Congressional Record, V. 147, Pt. 6, May 9, 2001 to May 21 2001, United States Government Printing Office, October 2005, p. 7897, ISBN 9780160729669, GGKEY:2126SDPKSFJ
- Lewis, Aiden (May 12, 2011). "Osama Bin Laden: Legality of Killing questioned". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Serle, Jack. "Almost 2,500 now killed by cover US drone strikes". The Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric; Worth, Robert F. (September 30, 2011). "Two-Year Manhunt Led to Killing of Awlaki in Yemen". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-05-04.
- Leonard, Tom (April 7, 2010). "Barack Obama orders killing of US cleric Anwar al-Awlaki". The Telegraph. London.
- Mark Mazzetti; Charlie Savage; Scott Shane (March 9, 2013). "How a U.S. Citizen Came to Be in America's Cross Hairs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-04-22. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- Scahill, Jeremy; Kebriaei, Pardiss; Shiban, Baraa (February 3, 2017). "Yemen: Jeremy Scahill & Advocates Question "Success" of Trump Raid That Killed 24 Civilians". Democracy Now! (Interview). Interviewed by Amy Goodman. Pacifica Foundation. Archived from the original on 2018-11-17. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- "Yemeni civilians killed in first US raid under Trump: At least 10 women and children killed in operation targeting al-Qaeda in southern province of al-Bayda, medics say". www.aljazeera.com. 2017-01-30. Archived from the original on 2019-12-15. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Osborne, Samuel (2 March 2017). "Raid authorised by Trump that killed 31 people produced no valuable intelligence, officials say". Archived from the original on 2020-01-21. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Ackerman, Spencer; Burke, Jason; Borger, Julian (2017-02-01). "Eight-year-old American girl 'killed in Yemen raid approved by Trump'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
- "Al Qaeda's No. 2, Accused in U.S. Embassy Attacks, Was Killed in Iran". The New York Times.
- Pirro, Jeanine (September 12, 2020). "Justice With Judge Jeanine: (Donald Trump interviewed; transcript) President Trump on COVID Response, Bob Woodward's Book, Push for Coronavirus Vaccine, Mail-in Voting ConcernsJustice With Judge Jeanine: President Trump on COVID Response, Bob Woodward's Book, Push for Coronavirus Vaccine, Mail-in Voting Concerns". Fox News (online). Retrieved September 14, 2020. (transcript of a TV broadcast) (video via YouTube)
- Dickinson, Tim (2020-10-15). "Trump Claims — and Celebrates — Extrajudicial Killing of Antifa Activist: Crowd cheers Trump at a North Carolina rally as he describes Michael Reinoehl's killing at the hands of U.S. Marshals". Rolling Stone. ISSN 0035-791X. Archived from the original on 2020-10-20.
- "U.S. Marshals Statement on the Officer-Involved Shooting in Olympia, Washington, Sept. 3" (Press release). United States Marshals Service. 2020-09-04. Archived from the original on 2020-09-05.
The fugitive task force located Reinoehl in Olympia and attempted to peacefully arrest him. Initial reports indicate the suspect produced a firearm, threatening the lives of law enforcement officers. Task force members responded to the threat and struck the suspect who was pronounced dead at the scene.
- "World Report 2002: Venezuela". Human Rights Watch.
- "World Report 2003: Venezuela". Human Rights Watch.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (3 March 2015). "Afghanistan officials sanctioned murder, torture and rape, says report" – via The Guardian.
- "Today We Shall All Die". Human Rights Watch. 3 March 2015.
- "Bangladesh: Release Journalist and Rights Activist - All American Patriots". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
- "Calls for end to torture, extrajudicial killings". Irinnews.org. 2016-03-07. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- "Bangladesh Police Accused of Extrajudicial Killings in Protest Crackdown - VICE News".
- "Crossfire". Human Rights Watch. 10 May 2011.
- Karim, Fariha; Cobain, Ian (21 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: Bangladeshi 'death squad' trained by UK government". The Guardian.
- "35 indicted in Narayanganj 7-murder cases". 8 February 2016.
- "Court indicts 35 including Nur Hossain, three ex-RAB officials for Narayanganj seven-murder".
- "Ex-AL men, Ex-RAB officials among 26 handed death penalty". Prothom Alo. Archived from the original on 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- "7-murder: Nur Hossain, Rab commander Tareque, 24 others get death". The Daily Star. 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- "Crossfire killings". The Daily Star. 26 August 2015.
- Baldwin, Clare (2018-08-13). "Arrested and killed: inside the Bangladesh prime minister's war on drugs". U.S. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
- Safi, Michael; Rahman, Shaikh Azizur (2018-05-25). "Bangladesh's Philippines-style drugs war creating 'atmosphere of terror'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
- Swati Gupta; Sugam Pokharel (2018-06-08). "Bangladesh defends war on drugs as body count mounts". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
- "Amnesty International Highlights Extrajudicial Killings in Kashmir - KashmirWatch". 9 July 2015.
- "US rights report slams India for 'extra judicial killings' and 'arbitrary arrests' - Times of India".
- Jha, Prem Shankar. "Police Encounters are the Dirty Side of Indian Democracy - The Wire".
- Zee News (2018-03-25), List of UP encounters in Yogi Adityanath regime, retrieved 2019-04-06
- "INDONESIA: Extrajudicial and summary executions remain a serious problem despite legal guarantees to the right to life – Asian Legal Resource Centre". alrc.asia.
- Sahim, Muhammad (December 14, 2009). "The Chain Murders". Tehran Bureau. PBS. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
- Torture and Extrajudicial Killings in Iraq Archived July 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "ei: Extrajudicial Killings". Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved 2008-01-04.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2019-07-05.
- "Proof of US orchestration of Death Squads Killings in Iraq".
- "Soccer Dad: Extrajudicial killings, hamas style". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
- "History of Iraq: 1933 - 1939".
- "U.S. cracks down on Iraq death squads". CNN. 2006-07-24.
- Beaumont, Peter (September 11, 2006). "US patrols to weed out militias posing as Iraqi police". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Iraq's Death Squads". The Washington Post. December 4, 2005. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Buncombe, Andrew; Cockburn, Patrick (February 26, 2006). "Iraq's death squads: On the brink of civil war". The Independent. London, UK. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29.
- "'25,000 civilians' killed in Iraq". BBC. 2005-07-19.
- Maass, Peter (2005-05-01). "The Way of the Commandos". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Iraq 'death squad caught in act'". BBC News. February 16, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Israeli forces in Occupied Palestinian Territories must end pattern of unlawful killings". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- "Israel/OPT: Investigate apparent extrajudicial execution at Hebron hospital". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- "Bringing into question Israel's extrajudicial killings".
- "Gunmen Assassinate Iran's Top Nuclear Scientist in Ambush, Provoking New Crisis". New York Times. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
- "Pakistan army accused of extrajudicial killings in Swat". BBC News. July 16, 2010. Retrieved Jul 17, 2010.
- "Rao Anwar and the killing fields of Karachi". DAWN. February 16, 2018. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- ""We Can Torture, Kill, or Keep You for Years": Enforced Disappearances by Pakistan Security Forces in Balochistan". Human Rights Watch, Press Release. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- "HRW; For years
- "Balochistan: Pakistan's "Kill and Dump" Policy". unpo.org. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- Davidson, Helen (23 October 2015). "Papua New Guinea students share video appearing to show women tortured for 'witchcraft'" – via The Guardian.
- "World Report 2014: Papua New Guinea". 21 January 2014.
- Iyengar, Rishi. "Philippines: Rodrigo Duterte's Drug War Claims 2,400 Lives".
- Arroyo fails to take steps to end extrajudicial killings Archived April 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- Huggler, Justin (February 22, 2007). "Philippines army accused of killing political activists". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "STOP Extra-Judicial Killings in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
- "Scared Silent: Impunity for Extrajudicial Killings in the Philippines". Hrw.org. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "U.N. Rapporteur: Philippines Military Implicated in Extra-Judicial Murders and Political Killings (Radio Pinoy USA)". Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
- "PC(USA) News: 'Graft and corruption'". Archived from the original on August 10, 2009. Retrieved 2013-08-24.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Papa, Alcuin (2009-11-26). "Maguindanao massacre worst-ever for journalists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2009-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- Rauhala, Emily (14 December 2016). "Duterte keeps admitting to killing people. His supporters keep shrugging it off". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
Westcott, Ben; Quiano, Kathy (14 December 2016). "Philippines President Duterte admits killing suspects". CNN.
- Gomez, Jim. "Duterte urges public to kill drug dealers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- Press, AJ. "Duterte issues "shoot-to-kill" order vs drug criminals who resist arrest". Asian Journal. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- Times, Straits. "Duterte offers big bounties for suspected criminals". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- News, BBC. "Duterte admits personally killing suspects". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- Times, New York. "They are slaughtering us like animals". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- Jazeera, Al. "Philippines: Inside Duterte's killer drug war". Al Jazeera News. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
- Morning Herald, The Sydney. "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte admits to killing people and abusing drugs". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
- Guerra, Kristine. "Duterte's war on drugs has killed hundreds in the Philippines. This could be a huge problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
- "The human toll of the Philippines' war on drugs". The Economist Magazine. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
- Magazine, Times. "The Killing Time: Inside Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's War on Drugs". Times Magazine. Retrieved 2016-08-25.
- Fair, Vanity. "The Mass Murder in the Philippines is Far Worse Than Most Media Report". Vanity Fair Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
- Lucas, Daxim. "Cabinet members scramble to interpret Duterte's words". Global Inquirer.Net. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- Sara Fabunan, John Paolo Bencito and. "PH-US 'war games' end in Oct.—Du30". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- and Sara Fabunan, John Paolo Bencito. "UN slams Hitler gaffe". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- Placido, Dharel. "Obama to Duterte: Do war on drugs 'the right way'". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
- Torres, Estrella. "EU urges PH to stop extrajudicial killings on drug suspects". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
- Politi, Daniel. "Philippines President Says Trump Congratulated Him on Violent Anti-Drug Crackdown". The Slatest. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
- Placido, Dharel. "Duterte sets conditions for UN drug killings probe". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- News, GMA. "Duterte admin cancels visit of UN Rapporteur on extrajudicial killings". GMA News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- "AI estimates up to 13,000 civilians executed in Syrian military prison over four years - News - DW - 07.02.2017". DW.COM.
- "UN Experts: Widespread Abuses and Killings of Detainees in Syria". 17 February 2016.
- "Syria: Extrajudicial Executions". 9 April 2012.
- "Tajikistan: Severe Crackdown on Political Opposition". 17 February 2016.
- "U.S. Department of State: Tajikistan Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998". 1 March 1999.
- "Thailand: Extrajudicial killing, impunity". Ahrchk.net. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Brayton, Colin (23 December 2007). "Thailand: "The Corrupt Media Mogul v. The Crusading Journalist"".
- "Commit". Correct.go.th. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Death Squad links. Drug war and more. Worldwide. Mostly U.S.-run or U.S.-aided terrorism. Millions killed over decades. Torture on an industrial scale. "Dirty wars," murder, corruption, destabilization, disinformation, subversion of democracy, etc.. Above". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Thailand's anti-drug death squads | Cannabis Culture Magazine". Cannabisculture.com. 2003-08-15. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Thailand. 2500 extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent people". Archived from the original on December 6, 2009. Retrieved 2008-02-07.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Thailand War on Drugs Turns Murderous, 600 Killed This Month -- Human Rights Groups Denounce Death Squads, Executions".
- "Southeast Asia: Probe into Thai Drug War Killings Getting Underway". StoptheDrugWar.org. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Thailand: Death Squads and Roadside Bombs". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Buddhists suspected in Thai raids". The Washington Times. Washington, DC. September 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
- "Turkey: State Blocks Probes of Southeast Killings". 11 July 2016.
- "ZAMAN". Archived from the original on 2014-09-22.
- The report Turkey: Extrajudicial Executions (AI Index: EUR 44/45/90) was accessed on 10 September 2009
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2014-09-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Turkish military officer confirms Kurd killings | The National". Thenational.ae. 2010-08-25. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Source: Report for 2001, published on 10 March 2003, Ankara, ISBN 975-7217-38-7, page 49 (Turkish)
- The full report as pdf-file Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine; accessed on 10 September 2009
- The comparative balance sheet of the HRA is available in English; accessed on 10 September 2009
- The full report in Turkish as word-file Archived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine; accessed on 10 September 2009
- "Nguyen Ngoc Loan, 67, Dies; Executed Viet Cong Prisoner". The New York Times. 16 July 1998. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
- "16 Years of Silence: Enforced Disappearances in Belarus Must Be Investigated". Amnesty International. 18 September 2015.
- "World Report: Belarus: Events of 2005". Human Rights Watch.
- "Report on Human Rights Violations in Kosovo". ECOSOC.
- "Court rules against Russia in Chechen killing - Europe, World - The Independent". 6 August 2011. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Obituary: Alexander Litvinenko". BBC News. November 24, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "UK authorities 'overlooked' evidence linking Russia to deaths on British soil". The Independent. 16 June 2017.
- "Opinion: A grim lesson from Ulster".
- O'Duffy, Brendan; O'Leary, Brendan. "Violence in Northern Ireland, 1969-June 1989". CAIN Web Service - Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland.
- "N.Ireland police arrest 2 suspected of sectarian killing". BBC News. April 25, 1998. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Tit-for-tat murders in N Ireland". BBC News. January 20, 1998. Retrieved May 2, 2010.