Thaksin Shinawatra[note 2] (born 26 July 1949) is a Thai businessman and politician. He served in the Thai Police from 1973 to 1987, and was the Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001 to 2006.

Thaksin Shinawatra
ทักษิณ ชินวัตร
Thaksin in 2005
23rd Prime Minister of Thailand
In office
9 February 2001 – 19 September 2006
MonarchBhumibol Adulyadej
Preceded byChuan Leekpai
Succeeded bySonthi Boonyaratglin (provisional)
Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand
In office
13 July 1995 – 8 November 1997
Prime Minister
Minister of Education
In office
14 June 2001 – 9 October 2001
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byKasem Watanachai
Succeeded bySuwit Khunkitti
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
25 October 1994 – 10 February 1995
Prime MinisterChuan Leekpai
Preceded byPrasong Soonsiri
Succeeded byKrasae Chanawongse
Special Economic Adviser of Cambodia
In office
4 November 2009 – 23 August 2010
Prime MinisterHun Sen
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Leader of Thai Rak Thai Party
In office
14 July 1998 – 2 October 2006
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byChaturon Chaisang
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
6 February 2005 – 8 April 2005
In office
6 January 2001 – 11 March 2001
In office
2 July 1995 – 27 September 1996
ConstituencyBangkok 2nd
Member-elect of the House of Representatives[note 1]
In role
2 April 2006 – 8 May 2006
Personal details
Born (1949-07-26) 26 July 1949 (age 74)
San Kamphaeng, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Political partyPheu Thai (de facto)
Other political
Thai Rak Thai (1998–2006)[2]
Palang Dharma (1994–1998)
(m. 1976; div. 2008)
Alma mater
  • Businessperson
  • Police officer (1973–1987)
  • Politician
  • Visiting professor[4]
Net worthUS$2 billion (July 2022)[5]
Royal Thai Police
Allegiance Thailand
DepartmentMetropolitan Police Bureau
Service years1973–1987
RankLieutenant Colonel (revoked in 2015)
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese丘達新
Simplified Chinese丘达新

Thaksin founded the mobile phone operator Advanced Info Service and the IT and telecommunications conglomerate Shin Corporation in 1987, ultimately making him one of the richest people in Thailand. He founded the Thai Rak Thai Party (TRT) in 1998 and, after a landslide electoral victory, became prime minister in 2001. He was the first democratically elected prime minister of Thailand to serve a full term and was re-elected in 2005 by an overwhelming majority.[citation needed]

Thaksin declared a "war on drugs" in which more than 2,500 people were killed. Thaksin's government launched programs to reduce poverty, expand infrastructure, promote small and medium-sized enterprises, and extend universal healthcare coverage. Thaksin took a strong-arm approach against the separatist insurgency in the Muslim southern provinces.[citation needed]

His decision to sell shares in his corporation for more than a billion tax-free dollars generated controversy. A citizens' movement against Thaksin, called People's Alliance for Democracy or "Yellow Shirts", launched mass protests, accusing him of corruption, abuse of power, and autocratic tendencies. In 2006 Thaksin called snap elections that were boycotted by the opposition and invalidated by the Constitutional Court.

Thaksin was deposed in a military coup on 19 September 2006. His party was outlawed and he was barred from political activity.[6] Thaksin lived in self-imposed exile for 15 years—except for a brief visit to Thailand in 2008—before returning to Thailand in August 2023. During his exile he was sentenced in absentia to two years in jail for abuse of power,[7] and stripped of his Police Rank of Police Lieutenant Colonel.[8]

From abroad, he continued to influence Thai politics through the People's Power Party that ruled in 2008 and its successor organisation Pheu Thai Party, as well as the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or "Red Shirt" movement. His younger sister Yingluck Shinawatra was the prime minister of Thailand from 2011 to 2014.

Later in exile, Thaksin registered a Clubhouse account under the name Tony Woodsome, which became his moniker, and frequently held activities on the platform.[citation needed] He also made several announcements expressing his desire to return to Thailand on various social media platforms.[citation needed] Ultimately, Thaksin returned to Thailand on 22 August 2023, and was promptly taken into custody.[9]

Heritage and early life edit

Thaksin's great-grandfather, Seng Saekhu, was an immigrant from Meizhou, Guangdong, China, who arrived in Siam in the 1860s and settled in Chiang Mai in 1908. His eldest son, Chiang Saekhu, was born in Chanthaburi in 1890 and married a local named Saeng Samana. Chiang's eldest son, Sak, adopted the Thai surname Shinawatra in 1938 because of the country's pro-Central Thai movement, and the rest of the family also adopted it.[10]

Seng Saekhu had made his fortune through tax farming. Chiang Saekhu/Shinawatra later founded Shinawatra Silks and then moved into finance, construction, and property development. Thaksin's father, Loet, was born in Chiang Mai in 1919 and married Yindi Ramingwong. Yindi's father, Charoen Ramingwong (born: Wang Chuan Cheng), was a Hakka immigrant[11] who married Princess Chanthip na Chiangmai, a minor member of the Lanna (Chiang Mai) royalty.[citation needed]

In 1968, Loet Shinawatra entered politics and became an MP for Chiang Mai. Loet Shinawatra quit politics in 1976. He opened a coffee shop, grew oranges and flowers in Chiang Mai's San Kamphaeng District, and opened two cinemas, a gas station, and a car and motorcycle dealership. By the time Thaksin was born, the Shinawatra family was one of the richest and most influential families in Chiang Mai.[10]

Thaksin was born in San Kamphaeng, Chiang Mai Province. He is a Theravada Buddhist. He lived in the village of San Kamphaeng until he was 15, then moved to Chiang Mai to study at Montfort College. At 16, he helped run one of his father's cinemas.[12]

Thaksin married Potjaman Damapong in July 1976.[13]: 38  They have one son, Panthongtae and two daughters, Pinthongtha and Paethongtarn. They divorced in 2008.[14] Thaksin's youngest sister, Yingluck Shinawatra (Thai: ยิ่งลักษณ์ ชินวัตร; RTGSyinglak chinnawat), is said to have entered politics in 2011 at her brother's request as leader of the pro-Thaksin Pheu Thai Party. She was later elected prime minister on 3 July 2011.[15] Thaksin received a doctorate in criminology at Sam Houston State University.[16] Thaksin lectured at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities of Mahidol University in 1979.[citation needed]

Police career edit

Thaksin was a member of the 10th class of the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School,[17] and was then admitted to the Thai Police Cadet Academy. Graduating in 1973, he joined the Royal Thai Police. He received a master's degree in criminal justice from Eastern Kentucky University in the United States in 1975, and three years later was awarded a doctorate in criminal justice at Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas.[citation needed]

Returning to Thailand, he reached the position of Deputy Superintendent of the Policy and Planning Sub-division, General Staff Division, Metropolitan Police Bureau, before resigning his commission in 1987 as a Police Lieutenant Colonel and leaving the police. His former wife, Potjaman Damapong, is the sister of Police General Priewpan Damapong and now uses her mother's maiden name.[13]: 39 

He is a former university lecturer at Royal Police Cadet Academy in 1975–1976.[18][19]

Thaksin's police lieutenant colonel rank was revoked in September 2015.[20][21]

Business career edit

Early ventures edit

Thaksin and his wife began several businesses while he was still in the police, including a silk shop, a cinema, and an apartment building. All were failures which left him over 50 million baht in debt, which is equal to £1008318.11. In 1982, he established ICSI. Using his police contacts, he leased computers to government agencies with modest success. However, later ventures in security systems (SOS) and public bus radio services (Bus Sound) all failed.[22][23] In April 1986, he founded Advanced Info Service (AIS), which started as a computer rental business.[citation needed]

In 1987 Thaksin resigned from the police. He then marketed a romance drama called Baan Sai Thong, which became a popular success in theatres.[24][25] In 1988, he joined Pacific Telesis to operate and market the PacLink pager service, a modest success, though Thaksin later sold his shares to establish his own paging company.[12][22]

In 1989, he launched IBC, a cable television company. At that time, Thaksin had a good relationship with Chalerm Yoobumrung, the minister of the Prime Minister's Office, who was in charge of Thai press and media. It is a question whether Chalerm granted the right to Thaksin to establish IBC to benefit his close friend, seeing that the project had been denied by the previous administration.[26] However, it turned out to be a money loser and he eventually merged the company with the CP Group's UTV.[22][27]

In 1989, Thaksin established a data networking service, Shinawatra DataCom,[22] today known as Advanced Data Network and owned by AIS and TOT.[28] Many of Thaksin's businesses were later consolidated as Shin Corporation.

Advanced Info Service and later ventures edit

Advanced Info Service (AIS) was given a monopoly contract by Thaksin's military contacts in 1986 and used the GSM-900 frequency band. AIS grew rapidly and became the largest mobile phone operator in Thailand.[29]

The Shinawatra Computer and Communications Group was founded in 1987 and listed in 1990.

In 1990, Thaksin founded Shinawatra Satellite, which has developed and operated four Thaicom communications satellites.

In 1999, the Shinawatra family spent some one billion baht establishing Shinawatra University in Pathum Thani. It offers international programs in engineering, architecture, and business management, though it ranks quite low in international rankings.

In 2000, Thaksin acquired the ailing iTV television station from the Crown Property Bureau, Nation Multimedia Group, and Siam Commercial Bank.[30][31]

Entry into politics edit

Political career edit

Thaksin entered politics in late 1994 through Chamlong Srimuang, who had just reclaimed the position of Palang Dharma Party (PDP) leader from Boonchu Rojanastien. In a subsequent purge of Boonchu-affiliated PDP cabinet ministers, Thaksin was appointed Foreign Minister in December 1994, replacing Prasong Soonsiri.[32] Thaksin left Palang Dharma along with many of its MPs in 1996, and founded the populist Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party in 1998. After a historic election victory in 2001, he became prime minister, the country's first to serve a full term.[33]

Thaksin introduced a range of policies to alleviate rural poverty. Highly popular, they helped reduce poverty by half in four years.[34][35] He launched the country's first universal healthcare program,[36] the 30-baht scheme, as well as a notorious drug suppression campaign.[37] Thaksin embarked on a massive program of infrastructure investment, including roads, public transit, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. Nevertheless, public sector debt fell from 57 percent of GDP in January 2001 to 41 percent in September 2006.[38][39] Levels of corruption were perceived to have fallen, with Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index improving from 3.2 to 3.8 between 2001 and 2005.[40] The Thai Rak Thai party won in a landslide in the 2005 general election, which had the highest voter turnout in Thai history.[41][42][43]

Twelve years later, after Thaksin was removed from power, Chamlong Srimuang expressed regret at getting "such a corrupt person" into politics. The PDP soon withdrew from the government over the Sor Por Kor 4-01 land reform corruption scandal, causing the government of Chuan Leekpai to collapse.

PDP leader and Deputy Prime Minister under Banharn edit

Chamlong, strongly criticised for mishandling internal PDP politics in the last days of the Chuan-government, retired from politics and hand-picked Thaksin as new PDP leader. Thaksin ran for election for the first time for the constitutional tribunal and lost.

Thaksin joined the government of Banharn Silpa-Archa and was appointed Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Bangkok traffic. In May 1996, he and four other PDP ministers quit the Banharn Cabinet (while retaining their MP seats), prompting a Cabinet reshuffle. Many have claimed that Thaksin's move was designed to help give Chamlong Srimuang a boost in the June 1996 Bangkok Governor elections, which Chamlong returned from retirement to contest.[44] But Chamlong lost to Bhichit Rattakul, an independent.

Chamlong's failure to buttress the PDP's failing power base in Bangkok amplified divisions in the PDP, particularly between Chamlong's "temple" faction and Thaksin's. Soon afterwards, Chamlong announced he was retiring again from politics.[citation needed]

Thaksin and the PDP pulled out of the Banharn-government in August 1996. In a subsequent no-confidence debate, the PDP gave evidence against the Banharn government, and in September 1996 Banharn dissolved Parliament.[citation needed]

Thaksin announced he would not run in the subsequent November 1996 elections but would remain as leader of the PDP. It suffered a fatal defeat in the elections, winning only one seat, and soon imploded, with most members resigning.[citation needed]

Deputy Prime Minister under Chavalit edit

On 15 August 1997, Thaksin became Deputy Prime Minister in Chavalit Yongchaiyudh's government, after the Thai baht was floated and devalued on 2 July 1997, sparking the Asian financial crisis. He held the position for only three months, leaving on 14 November when Chavalit resigned.

During a censure debate on 27 September 1997, Democrat Suthep Thaugsuban accused Thaksin of profiting from insider information about the government's decision to float the baht,[45] but the next Democrat party-led government did not investigate the accusations.

During this period, Thaksin also served on the Asia Advisory Board of the Washington, D.C. based Carlyle Group until he resigned upon becoming Prime Minister in 2001.[46]

The Thai Rak Thai Party and the 2001 elections edit

Thaksin founded the Thai Rak Thai (TRT) ('Thais Love Thais') party in 1998 along with Somkid Jatusripitak, PDP ally Sudarat Keyuraphan, Purachai Piumsomboon,[47] and 19 others.

With a populist platform often attributed to Somkid, TRT promised universal access to healthcare, a three-year debt moratorium for farmers, and one million baht locally managed development funds for all Thai villages.

After Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai dissolved parliament in November 2000, TRT won a sweeping victory in the January 2001 elections, the first held under the Constitution of 1997. At the time, some academics called it the most open, corruption-free election in Thai history.[48] Thai Rak Thai won 248 parliamentary seats (more than any other party previously) and needed only three more seats to form a government. Nonetheless, Thaksin opted for a broad coalition to gain total control and avoid a vote of no confidence, with the Chart Thai Party (41 seats) and the New Aspiration Party (36 seats), while absorbing the smaller Seritham Party (14 seats).[49] Thaksin became Prime Minister of Thailand on 9 February 2001.

Indictment of Thaksin for hiding his wealth edit

Thailand's National Counter Corruption Commission (NCCC) submitted an indictment to the Constitutional Court accusing Thaksin Shinawatra, the prime minister-in-waiting at the time, for failing to disclose assets worth about 2.37 billion baht ($56 million) while he was deputy prime minister in 1997 and a year afterward.[50] If found guilty, Thaksin could be banned from political office for five years. This case is known as the "stock hiding case" because the Constitution prohibits politicians and their spouses from holding shares in private companies as per the law. However, Thaksin transferred the shares he owned to his domestic staff and other nominees in order to conceal his ownership.[51]

According to his own testament in the constitutional court, his reasons for failing to reveal his complete asset include: (1) the constitution does not define the term "personal property", (2) the accounting explanation is not clear, (3) not showing the property using another person's name as a substitute, which was not previously required to be shown, is not considered a violation, (4) not intentionally not showing the list of property using another person's name, (5) it is not his responsibility to submit the accounting before the announcement of the use of the organic law on the Prevention and Suppression of Corruption Act, B.E. 2542 (A.D. 1999), which was just announced on November 18, B.E. 2542 (A.D. 1999) and (6) in the confidential letter dated November 14, 24, and 30th, B.E. 2543 (A.D. 2000) to the Chairman of the Audit Committee, the accused (Thaksin Shinawatra) had already explained the list of assets and debts and the reasons why they were not shown in the accounting, considering the notification of additional asset lists as part of the three times submitted accounting.[52]

While Klanarong Jantik, the Secretary-General of the National Anti-Corruption Commission-NACC, argued in the court that (1) although the constitution does not define the term "personal property", but it is a common sense understanding, (2) the accounting explanation may have minor changes but the important information remains unchanged and has been edited to make it clearer, (3) It is not shown that there have been any instances where a minister or individual who submitted the accounting has stated that they did not show the asset list because they used another person's name as a substitute, citing that they did not understand the accounting explanation and (4) although the organic law on the Prevention and Suppression of Corruption Act, B.E. 2542 (A.D. 1999) was announced on November 18, B.E. 2542 (A.D. 1999), the accused has the responsibility to submit the accounting according to the current constitution from the day it is mandated, which is October 11, B.E. 2540 (A.D. 1997).[52]

Later, the Constitutional Court ruled 8 to 7 that Thaksin Shinawatra did not have any intention in the matter. This ruling may have been influenced by public pressure against the Constitutional Court because at the time, Thaksin was very popular and some believed he should have been given the opportunity to govern the country.[53] However, there is still a part of society that is skeptical of the court's decision and sees Thaksin as disrupting the justice process,[54] leading to the complaint and removal of four Constitutional Court judges.

In 2011, the Truth for Reconciliation Commission of Thailand released a final report after two years of work, stating that all political crises were caused by the "Thaksin stock hiding case" in which the Constitutional Court acted unlawfully. Seven judges of the Constitutional Court ruled that Thaksin Shinawatra was guilty of the charges, while six other judges ruled that he was not guilty. However, the Constitutional Court then included the votes of the two judges who had ruled that the case was not within their jurisdiction, but had not ruled on the substance of the case, and added them to the votes of the six judges who had ruled that Thaksin was not guilty. This resulted in a ruling of 8 to 7 in favor of Thaksin, which was perceived as a violation of the law and led to public mistrust of the judicial process in Thailand.[55]

Prime Minister of Thailand, 2001–2006 edit

Thaksin meeting Donald Evans in December 2001
U.S. President George W. Bush meets with Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra of Thailand in the Oval Office Tuesday, June 10, 2003
Thaksin in a meeting with the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, in October 2003
Thaksin in a meeting with the President of Brazil, Lula da Silva, 2004

Thaksin Shinawatra was the first prime minister of Thailand to complete a full term in office, and his rule is generally agreed to have been one of the most distinctive in the country's modern history.[56] He initiated many eye-catching policies that distinguished him from his predecessors.[57] They affected the economy, public health, education, energy, social order, drug suppression and international relations. He gained one re-election victory.[58]

Thaksin's most effective policies were reducing rural poverty[34] and the introduction of universal healthcare, allowing him to gather the hitherto-neglected support of the rural poor, especially in the populous northeast.[58]

His cabinet consisted of a broad coalition of academics, former student leaders, and former leaders of the Palang Dharma Party, including Prommin Lertsuridej, Chaturon Chaisang, Prapat Panyachatraksa, Surapong Suebwonglee, Somkid Jatusripitak, Surakiart Sathirathai, and Sudarat Keyuraphan. Traditional regional power brokers also flocked to his government.

However, his government was increasingly accused of dictatorship, demagogy, corruption, conflicts of interest, human rights offences, acting undiplomatically, using legal loopholes and displaying hostility towards a free press. A highly controversial leader, he has also been the target of numerous allegations of lèse majesté, treason, usurping religious and royal authority, selling assets to international investors, and religious desecration.[59][60]

Economic policies edit

Thaksin's government designed its policies to appeal to the rural majority, initiating programs like village-managed microcredit development funds, low-interest agricultural loans, direct injections of cash into village development funds (the SML scheme), infrastructure development, and the One Tambon One Product (OTOP) rural, small, and medium enterprise development program.[citation needed]

Thaksin's economic policies helped Thailand recover from the 1997 Asian financial crisis and substantially reduce poverty. GDP grew from 4.9 trillion baht in 2001 to 7.1 trillion baht in 2006. Thailand repaid its debts to the International Monetary Fund two years ahead of schedule.[citation needed]

Income in the northeast, the poorest part of the country, rose by 46 percent from 2001 to 2006.[61] Nationwide poverty fell from 21.3 to 11.3 percent.[34] Thailand's Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, fell from .525 in 2000 to .499 in 2004 (it had risen from 1996 to 2000).[62] The Stock Exchange of Thailand outperformed other markets in the region. After facing fiscal deficits in 2001 and 2002, Thaksin balanced the national budget, producing comfortable fiscal surpluses for 2003 to 2005. Despite a massive program of infrastructure investments, a balanced budget was projected for 2007.[63] Public sector debt fell from 57 percent of GDP in January 2001 to 41 percent in September 2006.[38][39] Foreign exchange reserves doubled from US$30 billion in 2001 to US$64 billion in 2006.[64]

Critics say Thaksinomics is little more than a Keynesian-style economic stimulus policy re-branded. Others claimed that the policies got the rural poor "hooked on Thaksin's hand-outs."[65]

Thaksin helped legalise Thailand's massive underground lottery system numbers game (Thai: หวย) to be run by the Government Lottery Office. Lottery sales of approximately 70 billion baht (US$2 billion) were used for social projects, including the "One District, One Scholarship" program. The Thaksin government also privatised MCOT, a large television and radio broadcaster.[66]

After the 2006 coup, many of Thaksin's economic policies were ended, the OTOP program was rebranded, the Government Lottery Office's program was deemed illegal, and the government nationalised several media outlets and energy companies. However, economists from the Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) published a report indicating that many of the populist policies had not boosted the economy and some were by coincidence.[67]

Educational policies edit

According to World Bank Thailand has recentralized rather than decentralized during his administration.[68]

One of Thaksin's educational reforms was school decentralisation, as mandated by the 1997 Constitution.[69] [citation needed]It was to delegate school management from the over-centralized and bureaucratised Ministry of Education to Tambon Administrative Organizations (TAOs), but met with massive widespread opposition from Thailand's 700,000 teachers, who would be deprived of their status as civil servants. Teachers also feared that TAOs lacked the ability to manage schools. In the face of massive teacher protests and several threats of school closure, Thaksin compromised and gave teachers whose schools were transferred to TAO management two years to transfer to other schools.[70][citation needed]

Other intended policy changes included learning reform and related curricular decentralisation, mostly through greater use of holistic education and less use of rote learning.[71]

To increase access to universities by lower income people, Thaksin initiated the Student Loan Fund (SLF) and Income Contingency Loan (ICL) programs. He initiated the ICL program to increase access to higher education, whereby needy students could secure a loan to support their studies from vocational to university levels. Thai banks had traditionally not given educational loans. The ICL, however, required recipients to start repayments when their salaries reached 16,000 baht a month, with interest equivalent to inflation from the day the loan was granted. The SLF had an eligibility limit on family income, but interest was 1 per cent starting a year after graduation. The programs were merged and the income limit modified after Thaksin's government was overthrown.[72]

Thaksin was one of the first supporters of Nicholas Negroponte's One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project, with the Thai Ministry of Education committing to purchase 600,000 units.[73] The junta later cancelled the project.

Thaksin also initiated the controversial "One District, One Dream School" project, aimed at developing the quality of schools to ensure that every district had at least one high-quality school. It was criticised, with claims that the only beneficiaries were Thaksin and companies selling computers and educational equipment. Many schools fell deeply into debt in implementing the project, receiving inadequate financial support from the central government.[74][75]

In addition, he altered the state university entrance system, which had relied exclusively on nationally standardised exams. Thaksin pushed for greater weighting of senior high-school grades in the hope of focusing students on classroom learning rather than private entrance exam tutoring.

Healthcare policies edit

Thaksin initiated two key healthcare policies: subsidised universal health care (UHC) in 2002 and low-cost universal access to anti-retroviral HIV medication (ARVs). Thaksin's 30 baht per visit UHC program won the praise of the general public, but was criticised by many physicians and officials.[76][77] Prior to the program's introduction, a large portion of the population had no health insurance and only limited access to healthcare. The program helped increase healthcare access from 76% of the population to 96%.[78] At its outset, UHC was reviled as a "populist" policy. Post-coup public health minister Mongkol Na Songkhla called the 30 baht program a "marketing gimmick".[79] Nearly half of UHC patients were dissatisfied with the treatment they received.[76] The program has downsides: excessive workloads for health care providers, crowded waiting rooms, and insufficient time spent diagnosing each patient, and costs have tripled from 56 million baht in 2006 to 166 million baht in 2019, but still remain below one percent of GDP.

The War on Drugs edit

On 14 January 2003, Thaksin launched a campaign to rid "every square inch of the country" of drugs in three months.[80] It consisted of changing the punishment policy for drug addicts, setting provincial arrest and seizure targets including "blacklists", awarding government officials for achieving targets and threatening punishment for those who failed to make the quota, targeting dealers, and "ruthless" implementation. In the first three months, Human Rights Watch reports that 2,275 people were extrajudicially executed.[81][82] The government claimed that only around 50 of the deaths were at the hands of the police, the rest being drug traffickers who were being silenced by their dealers and their dealers' dealers. Human rights critics claimed a large number were extrajudicially executed.[83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] The majority of these individuals were listed on the government's blacklist, but there is no evidence to suggest that they were actually involved in the drug trade. The blacklist was unreliable, with some drug dealers not being listed and many individuals who were listed having no involvement in the drug trade. The government encouraged community members to report drug users and dealers to authorities, who would then put the names in a box for the government to review. This led to confusion and mistakes, including the inclusion of innocent individuals on the blacklist. There were also instances of people using the blacklist for revenge against rivals.[98]

King Bhumibol, in a 2003 birthday speech attempted to criticize the Prime Minister in a subtle manner by assuming some accountability for the casualties of the war on drug:[99]

"แต่เข้าใจว่า เป็นซูเปอร์ซีอีโอ เราก็ลงท้าย เราก็รับผิดชอบทั้งหมด ประชาชนทั้งประเทศ โยนให้พระเจ้าอยู่หัวรับผิดชอบหมด ซึ่งผิดรัฐธรรมนูญนะ รัฐธรรมนูญบอกว่า พระเจ้าอยู่หัวไม่รับผิดชอบอะไรเลย นี่ท่านแถวนี้ ก็เป็นนักกฎหมาย แล้วกฎหมายก็บอกพระเจ้าอยู่หัว ไม่รับผิดชอบอะไรเลย ตกลงเราไม่รับผิดชอบประเทศชาติ เมืองไทยไม่มีใครรับผิดชอบเลย ใครจะรับผิดชอบ ลำบากอย่างนี้ แต่ว่าเชื่อว่าท่านพูดเล่น ท่านรับผิดชอบ ในที่สุดท่านก็ต้องรับผิดชอบอีก ๒,๕๐๐ คน แล้วก็ ๒,๕๐๐ คน ท่านก็ต้อง ตอนนี้จะต้องไปถามท่านผู้บัญชาการตำรวจแห่งชาติว่า จำแนกออกเป็นอย่างไร ไอ้ ๒,๕๐๐ คน แล้วจำแนกไปจำแนกมา ประกาศให้ประชาชนทราบ "But understand that as you are super CEO, but we are responsible for everything. The public, the entire country, places the responsibility on the king. However, this is against the law. The law states that the king is not responsible for anything. You in the front row, as a lawyer, also know that the law states that the king is not responsible for anything. In summary, the king is not responsible for the country, and no one in Thailand is responsible. Who will take responsibility for such a difficult situation? But we believe you (in the front row) are joking, and you are responsible. In the end, you will also have to take responsibility for 2,500 people. And then 2,500 people, you will also have to... now you will have to go ask the national police chief if they can distinguish between those who were killed by the state and those who were killed by civilians. Is it possible for the police to distinguish between those who were killed by the state and those who were killed by civilians?"

Bhumibol also asked the commander of the police to investigate the killings.[100] Police Commander Sant Sarutanond reopened investigations into the deaths, and again claimed that few of the deaths were at the hands of the police.[citation needed]

The war on drugs was widely criticised by the international community. Thaksin requested that the UN Commission on Human Rights send a special envoy to evaluate the situation, but said in an interview, "The United Nations is not my father. I am not worried about any UN visit to Thailand on this issue."[101]

After the 2006 coup, the military junta appointed a committee to investigate the anti-drug campaign.[102] Former Attorney General Kanit Na Nakorn led the committee. Concerning the committee's results The Economist reported in January 2008: "Over half of those killed in 2003 had no links to the drugs trade. The panel blamed the violence on a government 'shoot-to-kill' policy based on flawed blacklists. But far from leading to the prosecutions of those involved, its findings have been buried. The outgoing interim prime minister, Surayud Chulanont, took office vowing to right Mr Thaksin's wrongs. Yet this week he said there was insufficient evidence to take legal action over the killings. It is easy to see why the tide has turned. Sunai Phasuk, a researcher for Human Rights Watch, a lobbying group, says that the panel's original report named the politicians who egged on the gunmen. But after the PPP won last month's elections, those names were omitted."[103]

While he was opposition leader, Abhisit Vejjajiva accused Thaksin of crimes against humanity for his alleged role in the campaign. After being appointed Prime Minister, Abhisit opened an investigation into the killings, claiming that a successful probe could lead to prosecution by the International Criminal Court. Former attorney-general Kampee Kaewcharoen led the investigation and the investigation committee was approved by Abhisit's Cabinet. Abhisit denied that the probe was politically motivated. Witnesses and victims were urged to report to the Department of Special Investigation, which operated directly under Abhisit's control.[81][104][105]

Energy policies edit

In energy policy, the Thaksin government continued the Chuan Leekpai government's privatisation agenda, but with important changes. Whereas the Chuan government's post-Asian financial crisis policies sought economic efficiency through industry fragmentation and wholesale power pool competition,[106] Thaksin's policies aimed to create national champions that could reliably support stronger economic growth and become important players in regional energy markets.[107] Thaksin also initiated a policy to encourage renewable energy and energy conservation. Many Thaksin-era energy policies were reversed following the 2006 coup.

South Thailand insurgency edit

A resurgence in violence began in 2001 in the three southernmost provinces of Thailand with their Muslim, ethnic Malay majority. There is much controversy about the causes of this escalation. Attacks after 2001 concentrated on police, the military, and schools, but civilians (including Buddhist monks) are also regular targets. Thaksin was widely criticised for his management of the situation.

Of three key controversial incidents, the first was the Army's storming of the Krue Se Mosque, where protesters had holed up and were killed.[108]

The second, in October 2004, was the killing of 84 Muslim demonstrators at Tak Bai, when the Army broke up a peaceful protest.[109] Hundreds of detainees were forced at gunpoint to lie shackled and prone in Army trucks, stacked like cordwood. The trucks were delayed from moving to the detainment area for hours. The 84 victims were reported to have been asphyxiated, crushed or died of overheating. The precise nature and cause of death have been subject to controversy and doubt because of lack of transparency and absence of depth in investigations made. There are other reports of many more deaths but these have not been substantiated.

In a third incident, Muslim lawyer Somchai Neelapaijit disappeared, allegedly abducted and killed by police for his role in defending alleged insurgents who claimed to have been tortured. Despite witness testimony and forensic evidence during the court of police investigations and court trials, all allegations against police said to be involved were dropped and the enforced disappearance case closed.

Thaksin announced an escalation of military and police activity in the region.[110] In July 2005, Thaksin enacted an Emergency Decree to manage the three troubled provinces. Several human rights organisations expressed their concerns that the decree might be used to violate civil liberties.[111]

In March 2005, Thaksin established the National Reconciliation Commission, chaired by former Prime Minister Anand Panyarachun to oversee efforts to bring peace to the troubled South. In its final report in June 2006, the commission proposed introducing elements of Islamic law and making Pattani-Malay (Yawi) an official language in the region along with Thai. The Thaksin administration assigned a government committee to study the report, but nothing came of it.[112]

Thaksin blamed Malaysia's jungle that has occasionally been used to train Islamic militants to cause violence in the south and Indonesia for being an inspiration to the militants.[113]

Administrative reform edit

One of the most visible of Thaksin's administrative reforms was the restructuring of government department and ministries, labelled the "big bang." It was hailed as a "historic breakthrough" and "the first major reorganization of ministries since King Chulalongkorn set up Thailand's modern system of departmental government in 1897." Plans had been studied for years to loosen perceived rigidities and inertia of the old system but were not implemented until the Thaksin government.[114]

The restructuring was designed to streamline the bureaucracy and focus it on performance and results. New ministries were carved out in Social and Human Security Development, Tourism and Sports, Natural Resources and Environment, Information and Communication Technology, and Culture.

Thaksin transformed the role of provincial governors to that of active policy managers. Historically, central government ministries operated in the provinces through field offices headed by senior officials who reported back to Bangkok, while the Interior Ministry appointed provincial governors whose role was largely ceremonial.

A key component of Thaksin's administrative reform policy, the "CEO-governors" epitomised what was called his "transformation of the operating style of the traditional bureaucracy into a more results-oriented instrument that would be responsive." Piloted in 2001 and introduced in all provinces in October 2003, CEO-governors were put in charge of planning and co-ordinating provincial development and became accountable for overall provincial affairs. The "CEO governors" were assisted by "provincial CFOs" from the Ministry of Finance who reported directly to each governor. Governors were authorised to raise funds by issuing bonds and were given an intensive training course.[115]

The CEO-governors of all 75 provinces at that time came from the appointment of the Minister of Interior Affairs and had greater authority in managing people and money. There was even a special budget allocated, called the "CEO-governor budget," which amounted to tens of million baht. In reality, it was found that this budget was managed and shared among the local members of parliament and aimed at achieving political goals, leading to criticism that it was a budget used to gain support for Thaksin government. It was even accused by academics of being a "hired vision writer" for the government.[116]

After the coup, Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont, drafted the royal decree on the management and preparation of budget plans for the development of provincial and district groups starting in 2008. The "CEO-governor budget" was eliminated and thereby preventing the local members of the parliament from spending the budget to gain votes.[116]

The Thaksin era also saw the opening of a number of government one-stop service centres to reduce red tape for anything from investment to utilities and ID-card processing.

Foreign policies edit

Thaksin initiated negotiations for several free trade agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US. The latter especially was criticised, with claims that high-cost Thai industries could be wiped out.[117]

Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a 423-strong humanitarian contingent. It withdrew its troops on 10 September 2004. Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack.

Thaksin announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.[118]

Thaksin was repeatedly attacked for acting undiplomatically with foreign leaders and the international community. Besides his famous swipe at the UN (see The 'war on drugs' above), there were also allegations of gaffes at international meetings.[119]

Thaksin was keen to position Thailand as a regional leader, initiating various development projects in poorer neighbouring countries like Laos. More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship, including extending the impoverished country a 4 billion baht credit line so it could conclude a satellite telecom deal with his family business.[120]

U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell and Thailand Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra at Government House

Thaksin energetically supported his former foreign minister Surakiart Sathirathai's somewhat improbable campaign to become UN Secretary General.

Suvarnabhumi Airport edit

Despite debate and long abandonment of the plan due to the stability of the ground for the location of the airport, the Thaksin government pushed to complete the construction of the new Suvarnabhumi International Airport. The airport was opened a week after Thaksin's government was overthrown.

Members of Thaksin's government were accused of corruption in the Suvarnabhumi Airport project. These allegations were used by the military junta to justify the 2006 coup.[121][failed verification] The junta initiated several investigations into the airport. Nevertheless, investigative panels found that damage to the airport was "minute" and "common." The cost of repairing the damage was estimated at less than one percent of the total airport cost. The junta was accused by its opponents of delaying airport repairs and intensifying the airport's problems to pin further blame on the Thaksin government.[citation needed]

Criticism edit

Corruption edit

Thaksin was accused of "policy corruption", such as infrastructure and liberalisation policies that, while legal "...abuse the public's interest,..."[122] Supannee Chai-amporn and Sirinthip Arun-rue of the National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) claimed that policy corruption caused the state to spend 5 to 30 percent more than it otherwise should have spent, costing the state an additional 400 billion baht. Thaksin critics point to more examples of corruption: the Thailand Board of Investment's (BOI) granting tax breaks worth a total of 16.4 billion baht to Shin Satellite for its iPSTAR project in 2003, and the Transport Ministry's decision the same year to abolish the minimum air fare of 3.8 baht per kilometre when Shin Corporation was about to consummate a joint venture with low-cost carrier AirAsia.[123]

After the 2006 coup, the military junta-appointed Assets Examination Committee froze Thaksin's assets based on charges of policy corruption.[124]

Thaksin denied the allegations. "They just made up a beautiful term to use against me. There's no such thing in this government. Our policies only serve the interests of the majority of the people", he said.[124] From 2002 to 2006, the stock price of Shin Corporation increased from 38 to 104 baht, up 173 percent, while the stock price of Shin Satellite fell. In the same period, the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index rose 161 per cent, and the price of other major SET blue chip companies increased vastly more. Industry deregulation caused the market share of AIS to fall from 68 percent to 53 percent.[124]

Transparency International reported that Thailand's reputation for transparency among business executives improved somewhat during the years of the Thaksin government. In 2001, Thailand's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score was 3.2 (ranked 61), whilst in 2005, the CPI was 3.8 (ranked 59).[125][126][127]

A study of governance indicators worldwide by the World Bank gave Thailand a lower score on "control of corruption" from 2002 to 2005 under Thaksin when compared to the Democrat-led government of 1998–2000.[128]

In 2008 Thaksin was sentenced to two years' imprisonment in absentia over a corrupt land deal. In a ruling that made him the first Thai politician ever to be convicted of corruption committed while prime minister, Thaksin was found to have violated conflict of interest rules in helping his wife buy land from a state agency at a seemingly low price.[7]

Other charges edit

Immediately after the events of March 2010, Abhisit Vejjajiva stated that he would talk to the red shirt leadership, but not to Thaksin. He criticised Thaksin's wealth and extravagance, contrasting the alleged opulence of the premier's house and the humbler, agrarian roots of many of his supporters. Shortly after, he condemned his opponent's self-proclaimed affinity with ordinary people, the "phrai" (Thai: ไพร่), arguing that Thaksin was far closer to the "ammart", or the traditional elites in Thailand's army, bureaucracy, and political parties.[129]

Thaksin's government was accused of exerting political influence in its crackdown on unlicensed community radio stations, and Thaksin brought defamation lawsuits against critical journalists.[130][131]

Political crisis of 2005–2006 edit

Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and Deputy Prime Minister Surakiart Sathirathai, 19 September 2005

2005 re-election edit

Under the slogans "Four Years of Repair – Four years of Reconstruction" and "Building Opportunities", Thaksin and the TRT won landslide victories in February 2005 elections, winning 374 of 500 seats in parliament. The election had the highest voter turnout in Thai history. But his second term was soon beset by protests, with claims that he presided over a "parliamentary dictatorship".[132]

The political crisis was catalysed by accusations published by media mogul and popular talk show host Sondhi Limthongkul, a former Thaksin supporter who had broken with him. These included accusations that Thaksin:

  • Restricted press freedom by suing Sondhi after he printed a sermon by a Luang Ta Maha Bua, a controversial monk.
  • Masterminded the desecration of the famous Erawan Shrine

Sale of Shin Corporation edit

On 23 January 2006, the Shinawatra family sold their entire stake in Shin Corporation to Temasek Holdings. The Shinawatra and Damapong families netted about 73 billion baht (about US$1.88 billion) tax-free from the sale, using a regulation that made individuals who sell shares on the stock exchange exempt from capital gains tax.[133] Thaksin was the target of accusations of corruption for selling forbidden national assets such as national utility company to a foreign entity in exchange for personal profits and kickbacks. Thai laws at the time disallowed the sale of integral assets of national importance to the public or to any foreign entity, but Thaksin amended the laws to allow such sale.[citation needed]

Protests followed the Shin Corporation sale, led by the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD), whose leaders included Chamlong and Sondhi. Numbers soon swelled to tens of thousands occupying the area around Government House in Bangkok.[citation needed]

House dissolution and election edit

Thaksin announced the dissolution of parliament on 24 February 2006. General elections were scheduled for 2 April.

Thaksin was attacked for calling for snap elections, which in effect prevented any member of parliament from changing parties. In an editorial, The Nation noted it that, "It fails to take into consideration a major fallacy of the concept [of democracy], particularly in a less-developed democracy like ours, in which the impoverished, poorly informed masses are easily manipulated by people of his ilk. And Thaksin's manipulation has been well documented."[134]

Thaksin's TRT Party won the widely boycotted elections, gaining 462 seats in parliament, with a ratio of yes-voters to no-voters of 16:10, not counting non-voters.[135]

However, by-elections were needed for 40 TRT candidates who failed to win the minimum 20 percent required by the 1997 Constitution in uncontested races.[136][137] The Democrat Party refused to contest them[136] and, along with the PAD, petitioned the Central Administrative Court to cancel them.[138] Chamlong Srimuang declared that the PAD would ignore the elections and "go on rallying until Thaksin resigns and Thailand gets a royally appointed prime minister".[139]

Thaksin had announced on 4 April 2006 that he would not accept the post of prime minister after parliament reconvened, but would continue as caretaker prime minister until then.[140] He then delegated his functions to caretaker Deputy Prime Minister Chidchai Wannasathit, moved out of Government House, and went on vacation.[citation needed]

Elections were held on 25 April and resulted in the TRT winning 25 of the constituencies and losing two. Yet another round of by-elections on 29 April was scheduled for 13 constituencies. The Thai Rak Thai Party was later accused and found guilty of paying smaller parties to contest the election to fulfill the 20 percent rule, while the Democrat Party was accused of paying smaller parties not to. The by-elections were suspended by the Constitutional Court while it deliberated whether or not to annul the main elections. In press interviews in exile, Thaksin was to insist on his technical majority.[141]

Invalidation of the elections edit

On 8 May 2006, the Constitutional Court ruled 8–6 to invalidate the April elections based on the awkward positioning of voting booths. The ruling was called a landmark case in "judicial activism".[142] The Democrat Party, which had boycotted the April elections, said they were now ready to contest an October election.[143]

A new election was ordered and later set for 15 October 2006. The court found the Election Commissioners guilty of malfeasance and jailed them. But the election was cancelled when the military seized power on 19 September.

The ouster edit

The Thaksin government faced allegations of corruption, authoritarianism, treason, conflicts of interest, acting non-diplomatically, and muzzling of the press.[144] Thaksin was accused of tax evasion, lèse majesté (insulting King Bhumibol), and selling assets of Thai companies to international investors.[59][60] Independent bodies, including Amnesty International, criticised Thaksin's human rights record. Thaksin was also charged for concealing his wealth during his premiership.[145]

Protests by the People's Alliance for Democracy massed in 2006, and on 19 September 2006 a military junta which later called itself the Council for National Security (CNS) replaced Thaksin's caretaker government in a coup while he was abroad. The Constitutional Tribunal dissolved the Thai Rak Thai party for electoral fraud ex post facto, banning him and TRT executives from politics for five years.[146] The CNS-appointed Assets Examination Committee froze Thaksin and his family's assets in Thailand, totalling 76 billion baht (US$2.2 billion), claiming he had become unusually wealthy while in office.[147][148] Thaksin and his wife had declared assets totalling 15.1 billion baht when he took office in 2001, although he had transferred many of his assets to his children and associates before taking office.[149]

Thaksin returned to Thailand on 28 February 2008, after the People's Power Party, which he supported, won the post-coup elections.[150] But after visiting Beijing for the 2008 Summer Olympics, he did not return to hear the final supreme court sentence and applied for asylum in the United Kingdom. This was refused, after which he had to move about from one country to another. In October 2008, the Thai Supreme Court found him guilty of a conflict of interest and sentenced him in absentia to two years imprisonment.[151]

The People's Power Party was later dissolved by the Supreme Court, but party members regrouped to form the Pheu Thai Party, which Thaksin also supported. Thaksin is a supporter, and alleged bankroller, of the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (aka "Red Shirts").[152][153] The government revoked Thaksin's passport for his role in the UDD's protests during Songkran 2009.[154][155][156] On 26 February 2010, the Supreme Court seized 46 billion baht of his frozen assets, after finding him guilty of abnormal wealth. In 2009 it was announced that Thaksin had obtained Montenegrin citizenship through that country's economic citizenship program.[1][157][158][159]

September 2006 coup edit

On the evening of 19 September 2006, while Thaksin was visiting New York City to attend a UN summit and speak at the Council on Foreign Relations, the army took control of Bangkok. At Government House, some 50 soldiers ordered approximately 220 policemen in the complex to lay down their weapons. Troops also surrounded the Thaicom satellite receiving station and state-run television station Channel 11. By the morning of 20 September, tanks and military vehicles armed with machine guns were stationed at Government House, the Royal Plaza, and Ratchadamnoen Avenue.[160]

Troops participating in the coup were from the 1st and 3rd Army Regions, the Internal Security Operations Command, the Special Warfare Centre, army units from Nakhon Ratchasima and Prachinburi, and navy sailors.[161] According to coup leader Army General Sonthi Boonyaratglin, coup leaders had arrested Deputy Prime Minister Chitchai Wannasathit and Defense Minister Thammarak Isaragura na Ayuthaya.[162]

The military, originally calling itself the Council for Democratic Reform under the Constitutional Monarch (CDRM), issued a statement citing the government's alleged lèse majesté, corruption, interference with state agencies, and creation of social divisions as reasons for the coup.[163] It declared the King of Thailand the head of state, and said elections would be held soon to return democracy to the country. Thaksin departed New York for Great Britain, where he had family.

Thai Rak Thai Party edit

Many Thai Rak Thai party members were reported to have resigned from the party in the aftermath of the coup for fear that the party would be dissolved by the junta and its members banned from politics. These included Somsak Thepsuthin and 100 members of the Wang Nam Yen faction. It was not clear whether Suriya Jungrungreangkit, another influential member of the faction, would also resign. Sontaya Kunplome was reported to have led 20 members of the Chonburi faction in resigning from the party.[164][165]

On 2 October 2006 Thaksin and his former deputy Somkid Jatusipitak resigned from the TRT.[166][167] Chaturon Chaisang took over as party head.

The TRT was dissolved on 30 May 2007 by the Constitutional Tribunal, which banned over 100 of its executives, including Thaksin, from politics for five years, based on charges that two party executives (Defense Minister Thammarak and Pongsak Raktapongpaisarn) bribed a smaller party to stand in the April 2006 election. The Democrat party was cleared on a similar charge.

2006 Bangkok New Year's Eve bombings edit

On 31 December 2006 and 1 January 2007, several bombs exploded in Bangkok, killing three and wounding a number of bystanders. Prime Minister General Surayud Chulanont accused "those who lost power as a result of the military takeover" of masterminding the bombings, but did not directly identify Thaksin. Thaksin went on CNN to publicly deny any involvement in the bombings. The government did not make any arrests in the case.[168]

Legal charges edit

Thaksin's diplomatic passport was revoked on 31 December 2006 after the junta accused him of engaging in political activities while in exile. Thai embassies were ordered not to aid him in his travels.

A junta-appointed Assets Examination Committee (AEC) froze Thaksin's assets and attempted to bring charges against him. The AEC was criticised for being stacked with anti-Thaksin appointees. At one point, AEC Secretary Kaewsan Atibodhi claimed that "evidence and witnesses are useless", when an AEC panel recommended legal action without hearing 300 witnesses or considering 100 additional pieces of evidence.[169] The AEC froze Thaksin's assets.

In January 2007, the Financial Institutions Development Fund (FIDF) complied with an AEC request to file a charge against Thaksin and his wife for their purchase of four 772 million baht plots of land from the FIDF in 2003. The charge was based on an alleged violation of Article 100 of the National Counter Corruption Act, which prohibits government officials and their spouses from entering into or having interests in contracts made with state agencies under their authority.

The AEC also accused Thaksin of issuing an unlawful cabinet resolution approving the spending of state funds to buy rubber saplings.

In March 2007, the Office of the Attorney-General charged Thaksin's wife and brother-in-law with conspiring to evade taxes of 546 million baht (US$15.6 million) in a 1997 transfer of Shin Corporation shares.

The AEC found Thaksin guilty of malfeasance for obstructing competition by imposing an excise tax on telecom operators. Thaksin's Cabinet had approved the relevant executive decree in 2003.

Purchase of Manchester City Football Club edit

As prime minister, Thaksin had unsuccessfully sought to buy the English Premier League football clubs Fulham and later Liverpool, in what critics claimed was a publicity stunt in response to his political problems.[170]

On 21 June 2007, now out of office, Thaksin bought Premier League club Manchester City for £81.6 million.[171] He became briefly popular with fans (who nicknamed him "Frank"),[172] especially after appointing Sven-Göran Eriksson manager of the club and bringing in prominent players.[173] Eriksson was later critical of Thaksin's running of the club, saying "he [Thaksin] didn't understand football – he hadn't a clue."[174] He sold the club to investors from Abu Dhabi United Group in September 2008 for a reported £200 million.[175]

After selling Manchester City, Thaksin was nominated as "honorary president" but did not have any administrative responsibilities.[176] However, he was later dismissed as honorary club president after the club took a position against him following his conviction and was "on the run" from Thai authorities.[177]

Convictions and exile edit

In May 2007, Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont said Thaksin was free to return to Thailand, and he would personally guarantee Thaksin's safety. In January 2008 Thaksin's wife Potjaman was arrested on arrival in Bangkok but released on bail after appearing at the Supreme Court, with orders not to leave the country.[178] She was set to be tried for alleged violation of stock-trading and land sale laws.[179]

On 28 February 2008, Thaksin arrived in Bangkok after 17 months in exile. Thaksin stated that he would not re-enter politics and wished to focus on his football interests.[180] In March Thaksin pleaded not guilty before the Supreme Court in one of his two criminal corruption cases. He was ordered to report back on 11 April after the court granted a month-long trip to England.[181]

In June the Supreme Court denied Thaksin's request to travel to China and Britain, since his corruption case was set for trial and was ordered to surrender his passport after arraignment.[182][183] In July the court assumed jurisdiction over the fourth corruption charge against Thaksin concerning soft loans to Burma. The court also agreed to hear allegations that Thaksin, his former cabinet, and three members of the current government broke anti-gambling laws by setting up the new state lottery in 2003.[184][185]

Potjaman was found guilty on 31 July and sentenced to three years imprisonment, then released on bail. The Bangkok Criminal Court also convicted her adopted brother Bhanapot Damapong and her secretary, who allegedly held assets for Thaksin by proxy, of tax evasion.[186][187]

Request for asylum in the United Kingdom edit

Wanted poster for Thaksin Shinawatra, issued by the Royal Thai Police on 13 August 2008, after his flight to London and failure to appear in court on 11 August 2008

On 10 August 2008, Thaksin and Potjaman violated their bail terms by attending the 2008 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony in Beijing.[188] Stating that he wished to return to Thailand but claimed it was not currently safe for him and his family.[189][190] Thaksin sought political asylum in the United Kingdom,[191] claiming his political enemies were interfering with the judiciary. There is no evidence that he proceeded with his request and his asylum case was neither approved nor declined.

The Thailand Supreme Court's Criminal Division for Holders of Political Positions issued a second arrest warrant on 16 September 2008 against Thaksin over another of the four pending corruption cases and ordered suspension of the trial.[192][193] Several more arrest warrants were issued over his subsequent non-appearance at various corruption trials.[194][195][196][197] [198]

Ratchadaphisek land verdict edit

On 21 October 2008, the Supreme Court's Criminal Division for Holders of Political Positions ruled that Thaksin, while prime minister, abused his power to help his wife buy public land at auction, and sentenced him to two years in jail.[199]

Soon after, Thaksin told Reuters, "I have been informed of the result. I had long anticipated that it would turn out this way", and added that the case was politically motivated.[200]

Chief prosecutor Seksan Bangsombun called on Britain to extradite him.[201] Thaksin now denied he was seeking political asylum in Britain.[202]

Self-imposed exile edit

On 10 November 2008, a Philippine spokesman said his government would "politely" turn down any request for political refuge from Thaksin due to Manila's "friendly" relations with Bangkok.[203][204][205]

The British Government Home Office, meanwhile, revoked Potjaman and Thaksin's visas due to their convictions, while the Bangkok British Embassy e-mailed airlines asking them to disallow either of them to board flights to Britain.[206] In late 2008, Arabian Business reported that the UK froze US$4.2 billion of his assets in the UK. The UK government did not confirm or deny this claim.[207]

Thaksin had reportedly considered sanctuaries such as China, the Bahamas, Nicaragua, and several other countries in South America and Africa. Reports said the Shinawatras were granted honorary citizenship by the Bahamas and Nicaragua, and were building a £5.5 million home in China. As of late-May 2009, he reportedly remained in Dubai.[208][209][210] A spokesman claimed Thaksin was travelling on six passports, none of them Thai.[211] In December 2008 Thaksin obtained a residency permit for Germany[212] which was subsequently withdrawn on 28 May 2009 when the German government became aware of the arrangement. Thaksin then obtained status as a diplomat of Nicaragua.[212][213] Guido Westerwelle, German foreign minister, lifted the travel restriction banning Thaksin from entering Germany on 15 July 2011 after the election victory of Thaksin's proxy party.[212]

In a November 2009 interview, Thaksin told The Times that he was living in Dubai, still had access to about US$100 million of his money outside of Thailand, and was investing in gold mines, diamond polishing, and lottery licenses in various countries.[214]

Songkran unrest edit

In mid-April 2009, violent protests of mostly Thaksin supporters calling themselves the National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) led to the cancellation of the ASEAN summit in Pattaya and a declaration of a state of emergency in Bangkok. Thaksin had given encouragement at UDD rallies via satellite and phone-in link, at one point calling for a "people's revolution". Following suppression of the protests he claimed to have merely been offering "moral support".[152][215]

Thaksin supported protests by the UDD against the Abhisit Vejjajiva government, demanding Thaksin be allowed to return free from all the earlier corruption charges.[153][154][155][156] Thaksin denied leading the UDD, claiming he only gave them "moral support".[152]

Money laundering allegations edit

In April 2009, Privy Councilor General Pichitr Kullavanijaya reported he had been informed by former US ambassador to Thailand Ralph L. Boyce that Thaksin had laundered 100 billion baht (US$2.8 billion) through Cayman Island bank accounts to organise the anti-government protests. Boyce himself said that he had " idea why he was cited as a knowledgeable source about where Thaksin may or may not have made deposits, and that he has no such information."[216]

Economic advisor to Cambodia edit

On 4 November 2009, it was announced that Thaksin had been appointed as special advisor to the Cambodian government and Hun Sen and stated that Cambodia would refuse to extradite Thaksin because it considered him a victim of political persecution. On 5 November 2009, both countries recalled their ambassadors.[217]

Thai Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva stated this was "the first diplomatic retaliation measure".[217] Stating Cambodia was interfering in Thailand's internal affairs and as a result all bilateral agreements would be reviewed.[217][218][219] Sok An, a member of the Council of Ministers and Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia, said Thaksin's appointment is a decision internal to Cambodia and "conforms to international practice".[219] The mutual withdrawal of ambassadors is the most severe diplomatic action to have occurred between the two countries.[219]

Spy controversy edit

On 11 November 2009, Sivarak Chutipong was arrested by Cambodian police for passing the confidential flight plans of Thaksin and Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen to Kamrob Palawatwichai, First Secretary of the Royal Thai Embassy in Cambodia. Sivarak was a Thai engineer working in Cambodia for Cambodia Air Traffic Service, the private firm which managed air traffic control in Cambodia.[220] Sivarak denied that he was a spy, and the Thai government claimed that he was innocent and that the incident was a Thaksin/Cambodian plot to further damage relations between the two countries. The Thai First Secretary was expelled from Cambodia. Sivarak demanded that former First Secretary Kamrob speak out and restore his damaged reputation by confirming he was not involved in a spy ring. Kamrob refused to provide comment to the press throughout the controversy, and Kasit's secretary, Chavanond Intarakomalyasut, insisted that although that there was no misconduct on the part of the First Secretary or Sivarak, there would be no statement from Kamrob.[221]

Sivarak was later sentenced to jail for seven years. Thaksin requested the Cambodian government to pardon Sivarak, and he was soon pardoned by King Norodom Sihamoni and expelled. Deputy Prime Minister Suthep Thaugsuban later accused Sivarak of staging his own arrest in order to discredit the Abhisit government.[222] Former Thai spy chief and Foreign Minister Prasong Soonsiri concurred, claiming, "It has been a set-up from the beginning.[223]

Frozen asset seizure edit

Prior to the verdict edit

On 26 February 2010, the Thai Supreme Court was scheduled to render its verdict on whether to seize Thaksin's Thai assets, worth 76 billion baht frozen by the AEC after the coup. The AEC froze the assets under the authority of Announcement No. 30 of the military junta.[147] Tensions ran high throughout Thailand. Tens of thousands of government security forces were deployed, particularly in routes leading to Bangkok. However, the UDD denied that it would rally on the date of the verdict.[224][225] The nine Supreme Court judges had to make a judgment on accusations of abnormal wealth through policy corruption. Policy corruption, was defined by the court as the abuse of powers by implementing economic policies that, while in themselves legal and of potential benefit to society and the economy, also aided companies that were owned in part by the policy maker.[122] The prosecution claimed that Thaksin abused his powers five times while premier.

The first and last pages of the verdict with the signatures of the nine supreme court judges

The verdict edit

The court first ruled that Thaksin and Potjaman were the real owners of the assets, rather than his children and relatives. The court also ruled that it had the authority to seize assets, based on the announcements of the junta. The court found Thaksin guilty of four out of five policy corruption, and ordered that 46 billion baht be seized. The remaining 30 billion was to remain frozen.

  • Count 1: Conversion of telecom concession fees into excise charges. Previously, telecom operators had to pay TOT/CAT a percentage of their revenue as a concession fee (TOT/CAT are state-owned enterprises, although they were going through the process of privatisation). The Thaksin government modified this into a system wherein all operators would instead directly pay the government an equivalent excise tax. The imposition of excise tax here would eventually be passed on to consumers.[226] Thaksin claimed that all operators continued to pay the same total costs. The judges ruled that this benefited AIS while harming TOT, and thus was an abuse of power.
  • Count 2: Modification of a revenue sharing agreement on pre-paid mobile services. Previously, telecom operators had to pay TOT a percentage of their revenues for post-paid mobile services. To offer pre-paid services, which generally cost the consumer less, AIS negotiated with TOT to design a revenue sharing agreement for pre-paid services that offered less revenue to TOT, an estimated loss of 14.2 billion baht (revenue reduced from 25 to 20 percent) from 2001 to 2006 and another estimated loss of 56 billion baht (revenue reduced from 30 to 20 percent) from 2006 to 2015.[227] The judges ruled that the terms of the pre-paid agreement harmed TOT while benefiting AIS. The judges did not dispute the fact that TOT's total revenue actually increased substantially as a result of the agreement, but noted that the rise in pre-paid revenue came about while harming TOT's post-paid revenue. The massive growth in Thai mobile penetration from 13 percent in 2001 to 80 percent in 2007, due almost completely to pre-paid services, and the reduction in AIS market share from 68 to 53 percent in the same period were not taken into account by the court.
  • Count 3: Modification of mobile roaming agreement. Previously, there were no roaming agreements between mobile operators – subscribers from one operator were not allowed to use services on another operator's network, thus limiting the growth of the mobile industry. Under the Thaksin government, roaming was allowed, with roaming fees deducted from the revenue that AIS and other operators had to share with TOT and other state enterprises. Essentially, TOT helped AIS shoulder the costs of its subscribers roaming on the mobile networks of other operators. This reduced TOT and CAT's income while benefiting the operators. However, the judges ruled that it while benefited AIS, it did so to the benefit of AIS's new owners (Temasek Holdings) rather than Thaksin, and hence was not an abuse of power.
  • Count 4: Replacement of ThaiCom 4 with iPSTAR. A previous government had originally contracted with ShinSat to launch and operate ThaiCom 4 as a backup satellite for ThaiCom 3. Instead, ShinSat negotiated with the Thaksin government to launch iPSTAR, at the time the largest commercial satellite in history, which it claimed could offer commercial internet services while also providing backup for ThaiCom 3. However, the claim is not technically possible since iPSTAR does not have C-band transponders as Thaicom 3. Shin Corp's ownership in ShinSat was subsequently reduced from 51% to 40%. The judges found that the changes in ownership and satellite specification change reduced Thailand's communications security by not having the backup satellite for ThaiCom 3 on the one-to-one basis. It also noted that the negotiations allowed ShinSat to launch a satellite with much greater commercial potential than ThaiCom 4 without having to bid for a separate concession agreement.
  • Count 5: EXIM Bank loan to Myanmar to pay for ThaiCom services. Thaksin was scheduled to meet with Burmese leaders to negotiate trade deals between the two countries. One of the deals negotiated gave Myanmar a Thai EXIM Bank loan to purchase 376 million baht in satellite services from ShinSat. Thaksin noted that many deals were struck in the negotiations, and that 16 other companies also benefited from the EXIM Bank's loans. The judges ruled that the loans gave preferential treatment to Thaksin, and hence were an abuse of power.[228][229]

The judges decided to seize 46 billion differences in value of Shin Corp. shares from the date when he came to office and the value when the shares were sold to Singapore's Temasek Holdings in early 2006. Note that, Thaksin had declared around 500 million baht in assets and Pojaman had 8 billion to 9 billion baht while Thaksin served as prime minister.[227] Nevertheless, during that period, Shin shares gained 121%, compared with a 128% gain in the benchmark SET index, while Siam Cement, one of Thailand's premier blue chip companies, gained 717%.[230] The judges did not find that Thaksin was guilty of malfeasance. They also noted that any benefit to the government from Thaksin's policies was irrelevant to the ruling. The government reaped approximately 100 billion baht in increased revenue from changes in the concession agreements alone.[231]

Aftermath edit

In an email to his supporters, Thaksin claimed that the court was used as a tool. He also noted how the Thai stock market rose to the benefit of many companies, not just his, and claimed that all charges against him were politically motivated. He thanked his supporters for not protesting while the verdict was being read, and implored them to use non-violent means in the future. Pojaman na Pombejra insisted that tens of billions of baht of her wealth had been given to her children and relatives well before Thaksin took office in 2001 and denied that her children and relatives were nominees of her and her husband. She also denied having any control over Ample Rich and Win Mark, two firms that the AEC had accused of being her nominees.[232] In spite of Pojaman's claim, Thaksin was the authorised signature for Ample Rich through 2005, making him the only individual authorised to withdraw funds from the company's account until he transferred the authority to his children, four years after he took office in 2001.[233] Some UDD members held a small protest in front of the court, but did not disrupt the ruling as the government had predicted they would. The UDD leaders announced that a large-scale protest was scheduled to be held on 14 March 2010.

On the evening of 27 February, M67 grenades were thrown from a motorcycle outside three branches of Bangkok Bank. Nobody was hurt or injured in the attacks. The perpetrators were not caught, and no organisation claimed responsibility for the attacks. Thaksin and the UDD were quick to deny any involvement.[234][235][236] An arrest warrant was issued based on sketches of a motorcycle driver.[237]

Transfer of Shin Corp. Shares edit

The law does not allow the prime minister to run a side business while holding office. Charges were pressed against Thaksin on wealth concealment while in office.[238][239] Prior to the wealth declaration of Thaksin and his family when he took office, there had been an appeal to The National Anti-Corruption Commission that there were some suspicions about the numbers in the report.

Transferring to maid and driver edit

Thaksin was charged with illegally concealing billions of baht of his wealth by transferring ownership of Shin Corp. shares to his drivers and maids without their knowledge. Thaksin tearfully told the Constitutional Court that it was an honest mistake before the Court acquitted him on the charges.[240]

Transferring shares to children who reached maturity edit

There was also a controversy over whether there was any hidden tax evasion when Thaksin and Potjaman transferred their Shin Corporation shares to their children. Panthongtae and Pinthongta Shinawatra were accused of being nominees of their parents.

The transfer of shares from Thaksin and Potjaman to Parnthongtae was claimed to have been a sham, since there was no actual transfer of money. Panthongtae said the shares were sold to him at cost. Thaksin stated he had a written agreement proving the transfer to his son. Prior to the transfer, Panthongtae had signed an agreement with his father to settle a 4.5 billion baht debt from buying 300 million shares of the Thai Military Bank (TMB). However, the actual market value of the TMB shares at that time was only 1.5 billion baht. This showed a "fake debt" of 3 billion baht had been created.[241] The Assets Examination Committee (AEC) discovered that the account of Panthongtae's which had received Shin Corporation's dividend had also been used to transfer money to Potjaman's account, to the amount of 1.1 billion baht.

Pintongtha was also accused of being a nominee for her parents. She said that the money from her mother was a "birthday present". This birthday present was used to buy 367 million shares of Shin Corporation, which left her brother with the same amount. The AEC found the account had been receiving dividends from Shin Corp. There were no transactions between Pintongtha's account and her mother's account. However, the dividend money was used to buy SC Asset shares from WinMark to the amount of 71 million baht and shares from 5 real-estate firms from 2 funds in 2004 worth 485 million baht.

DSI, AEC, and Securities and Exchange Commission discovered that both WinMark and the two funds are owned by Thaksin and his former wife.[242]

Return to Thailand edit

During the run-up to the 2023 general election, Thaksin announced his intent to return to Thailand,[243] after 15 years of self-imposed exile. He said that he was willing to serve his prison sentences in order to finally return home and be with his family.[244] Following several postponements as the government formation process dragged on, he arrived on 22 August, the same day that Pheu Thai candidate Srettha Thavisin would be voted in as prime minister, and was promptly taken to the Supreme Court and then Bangkok Remand Prison to serve a sentence of eight years. Political observers believed that he would be unlikely to serve the entire sentence, and that his return was negotiated as part of a political deal that also brought military-oriented parties into the coalition government.[9][245]

His sentence was commuted from eight years to one year by King Vajralongkorn on 1 September after he submitted a formal royal pardon request.[246][247] On 13 February 2024, Thai justice minister Tawee Sodsong announced that Thaksin was among 930 prisoners who had been granted parole on account of age and health.[248] He was released on parole on 18 February, after spending six months in a Bangkok hospital.[249] Shinawatra, wearing a neck brace and sitting beside his daughters Paetongtarn Shinawatra and Pintongta was driven away from the police hospital and arrived at his Bangkok mansion after his release.[250] On 14 March, he made his first public appearance since his release at the City Pillar Shrine in Bangkok wearing a neck brace and accompanied by Paetongtarn, before going to Chiang Mai Province.[251]

Ancestry edit

Honours, decorations and awards edit

National honours edit

The list of national honours received by Thaksin Shinawatra has been arranged as per the Thai honours order of precedence.[252]

All royal decorations were recalled by King Rama X per the Royal Gazette published on 29 March 2019[252]

Foreign honours edit

Academic rank edit

Awards edit

  • Asean Business Man of the Year, from ASEAN Institute for Peace and Reconciliation (AIPR), in 1992[261]
  • Telecommunication Development for Social Welfare Award of 1993 from Telecommunication Society of Thailand[262]
  • The 1993 Outstanding Telecom Man of the Year Award, honored by the Singapore Business Times as 1 of 12 Leading Asian Businessmen[263]
  • Asian CEO of the Year[264]
  • Honorary Doctor of Arts (Communication Arts) (Thammasart University, Thailand)[264]
  • First Thai to be granted "Lee Kuan Yew Exchange Fellowship" (Singapore)[264]
  • 1 of 50 Influential people in The World from Time magazine[265]
  • 1 of 3 Thai-Filipino Relations Goodwill from Ambassadors Philippines Embassy in Thailand[264]
  • Outstanding Criminal Justice Alumnus Awards from Sam Houston State University[264]
  • Distinguished Alumni Award from Sam Houston State University[264]
  • The honorary award from the Mass Media Photographer Association of Thailand[263]
  • International Forgiveness Award 2004[266]
  • Honorary doctorate degree from Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics[4]
  • The ABLF Statesman Award 2012[267]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ On 8 May 2006 the Constitutional Court ruled that the April general election was invalid.
  2. ^
    • Thai: ทักษิณ ชินวัตร; RTGSThaksin Chinnawat; pronounced [tʰák.sǐn tɕʰīn.nā.wát]
    • Chinese: 丘達新; pinyin: Qiū Dáxīn
    • Montenegrin: Taksin Šinavatra

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Montenegro says has given Thaksin citizenship". Reuters. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Deposed Thai PM quits party role". CNN. 3 October 2006.
  3. ^ "Thailand's deposed PM divorces wife". Channel NewsAsia. 15 November 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
  4. ^ a b "From Bangkok to Manchester". 25 May 2007.
  5. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra". Forbes. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  6. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra: from billionaire to fugitive ex-prime minister". The Guardian. 26 February 2010.
  7. ^ a b MacKinnon, Ian (21 October 2008). "Former Thai PM Thaksin found guilty of corruption". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b Ratcliffe, Rebecca; Siradapuvadol, Navaon (22 August 2023). "Thaksin Shinawatra jailed on return to Thailand as his party regains power". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  10. ^ a b Siam Intelligence Unit (8 August 2011). "The Shinawatra family tree". New Mandala.
  11. ^ Tan, Kenneth (5 May 2018). "Former Thai leaders Yingluck, Thaksin visit ancestral village in Meizhou, Guangdong". Shanghaiist. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  12. ^ a b Wilson, Bill (18 May 2004). "Billionaire hopes to score Liverpool deal". BBC News. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  13. ^ a b Phongpaichit, Pasuk; Baker, Chris (2009). Thaksin (2nd, revised ed.). Silkworm Books. ISBN 9789749511794. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Thailand's deposed PM Thaksin divorces wife: spokesman". Agence France-Presse. 16 November 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  15. ^ "Turmoil in Thailand: Key Players". The Wall Street Journal. 11 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  16. ^ "Sam Houston State Grad Is Prime Minister of Thailand". Sam Houston State University (SHSU). Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  17. ^ Bangkok Post. Thaksin's classmates closed ranks behind him on his 58th birthday, 27 July 1999.
  18. ^ "Teaching-glossary – ทักษิณ ชินวัตร".
  19. ^ "เปิดประวัติ ทักษิณ ชินวัตร อดีตนายกฯ คนที่ 23 ของไทย". K@pook. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  20. ^ Profile, ratchakitcha.soc.go. Accessed 2 November 2022.
  21. ^ Nanuam, Wassana (3 September 2015). "Prayut signs order revoking Thaksin police rank". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d "Transcript of an interview between Thaksin Shinawatra and Cheeptham Khamwisit (Thai: ชีพธรรม คำวิเศษณ์) on the program on FM 102 radio station". Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  23. ^ Personal background from personal website Archived 19 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra-a biography". Bangkok Post. August 2001. Archived from the original on 15 November 2001. Retrieved 11 June 2006.
  25. ^ "Thai govt pins border hopes on soaps". The Nation. 25 May 2002. Archived from the original on 11 November 2005. Retrieved 5 October 2006.
  26. ^ "วาทะเด่น ของทรชาช "ทักษิณ ชินวัตร"".
  27. ^ UBC 2004 Annual Report, page 8
  28. ^ "Business Operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries" (PDF). Advanced Info Service PCL. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  29. ^ "Key Milestone". Advanced Info Service PLC. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  30. ^ Taming The Media: Allegations of political interference cast a cloud over Thaksin's incoming administration Asia Week Vol.27, No.6 16 February 2001 Archived 18 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Lewis, Glen (December 1998). "The Television Business, Democracy and The Army". ASEAN Focus. Archived from the original on 2 July 2003. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  32. ^ Asia Times, Grumbles, revelations of a Thai coup maker, 22 December 2006
  33. ^ Jan McGirk (7 February 2005). "Thaksin Shinawatra: The man who turned disaster into victory". BBC.
  34. ^ a b c "Thailand Economic Monitor, November 2005" (PDF). World Bank Bangkok Office. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  35. ^ Elegant, Simon (13 March 2006). "Should Thaksin Stay?". Time. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008.
  36. ^ NaRanong, Viroj, Na Ranong, Anchana, Universal Health Care Coverage: Impacts of the 30-Baht Health Care Scheme on the Rural Poor in Thailand, TDRI Quarterly Review, September 2006
  37. ^ Alex Spilius (8 September 2001). "Red light district reels as Thais embrace family values". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  38. ^ a b "Bangkok's Independent Newspaper". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
  39. ^ a b World Bank, Thailand Economic Monitor, October 2003
  40. ^ "Research – CPI – Overview". Transparency International e.V. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008.
  41. ^ Thitinan, Pongsudhirak. "Victory places Thaksin at crossroads". Bangkok Post.
  42. ^ "Unprecedented 72% turnout for latest poll". The Nation. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010.
  43. ^ Aurel Croissant and Daniel J. Pojar, Jr., Quo Vadis Thailand? Thai Politics after the 2005 Parliamentary Election Archived 19 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 6 (June 2005)
  44. ^ Thailand: Double Trouble For the PM: A parliamentary vote splits the government coalition 24 May 1996
  45. ^ Pressure from below: Supporters of the new, improved Constitution now have to help turn words into action Archived 13 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine 10 October 1997
  46. ^ "Rate Connection – Thaksin Shinawatra connected to Carlyle Group". Political Friendster. 7 May 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2010.[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ MSU alumni, friends, honored for outstanding achievements: Purachai Piumsombun of Bangkok, Thailand Archived 12 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine 14 October 2004
  48. ^ Robert B. Albritton and Thawilwadee Bureekul, Developing Democracy under a New Constitution in Thailand Archived 8 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica Asian Barometer Project Office Working Paper Series No. 28, 2004
  49. ^ Aurel Croissant and Jörn Dosch, Old Wine in New Bottlenecks? Elections in Thailand under the 1997 Constitution. Leeds East Asia Papers, no. 63 (Leeds: University of Leeds, 2001), page 16
  50. ^ "Thai antigraft body indicts Thaksin for hiding wealth. – Free Online Library".
  51. ^ "คดีซุกหุ้น จาก"ทักษิณ" ถึง"ศักดิ์สยาม"". 24 July 2022.
  52. ^ a b คำวินิจฉัยส่วนตัวของนายประเสริฐ นาสกุล ประธานตุลาการศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ คดีซุกหุ้น พ.ต.ท.ทักษิณ ชินวัตร หัวหน้าพรรคไทยรักไทย, "ประเด็นที่สาม ผู้ถูกร้องไม่เข้าใจคำอธิบายบัญชีแสดงรายการ ทรัพย์สินและหนี้สินของตนจริงหรือไม่" Archived 10 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine, สืบค้นเมื่อ 29-10-2558.
  53. ^ ท่ามกระแสกดดันจากสังคมมายังศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10-12-2556.
  54. ^ พ.ต.ท.ทักษิณถูกมองว่าแทรกแทรงกระบวนการยุติธรรม Archived 30 December 2022 at the Wayback Machine. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10-12-2556.
  55. ^ page 210
  56. ^ "Profile: Thaksin Shinawatra". BBC News. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  57. ^ Hewison, Kevin (June 2010). "Thaksin Shinawatra and the reshaping of Thai politics". Contemporary Politics. 16 (2): 119–133. doi:10.1080/13569771003783810. S2CID 54854153. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  58. ^ a b Fuller, Thomas (6 March 2006). "Protesters Jam Bangkok, but Rural Thais Love the Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  59. ^ a b The Star, Dreaded day dawns – despite lies and dark forces, 2 April 2006
  60. ^ a b "Vandal's dad distraught". The Nation. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012.
  61. ^ NESDB, Economic Data, 1995–2006 Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ "Thailand Economic Monitor November 2005" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  63. ^ "Asian Development Outlook 2006: II. Economic trends and prospects in developing Asia; Southeast Asia; Thailand". Asian Development Bank. 2006. Archived from the original on 5 September 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  64. ^ Khanthong, Thanong (25 December 2006). "Black Tuesday: Did the BOT overreact?". The Nation. Archived from the original on 8 January 2007.
  65. ^ Yoon, Suthichai (5 October 2006). "Forget the apologies, let the PM rebuild democracy". The Nation. Archived from the original (Opinion) on 14 October 2006.
  66. ^ "Activists call for MCOT delisting". The Nation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  67. ^ Chaitrong, Wichit (30 March 2006). "Thaksinomics 'not a driver of growth'". The Nation. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007.
  68. ^ "Welcome to World Bank Intranet".
  69. ^ "54th Thai Government Policy". 26 May 2001. Archived from the original on 26 May 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  70. ^ Crisis in the 'Land of the Smile' Archived 17 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine International Viewpoint, Online magazine: IV376 – March 2006
  71. ^ "Thai News Agency, Rote learning to be eliminated from schools, says PM, 21 January 2006". Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  72. ^ "New student loan scheme to have higher family-income limit". The Nation. Thailand. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007.
  73. ^ "Bangkok's Independent Newspaper". The Nation. Thailand. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.
  74. ^ "Suicide puts spotlight on model schools' money woes". The Nation. Thailand. 15 September 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  75. ^ "THAI TALK: Nightmares haunt dream-school project". The Nation. Thailand. 13 October 2005. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006.
  76. ^ a b Kittikanya, Charoen (26 August 2004). "Dual-track system". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006.
  77. ^ Khwankhom, Arthit (14 July 2006). "Bt30 health scheme still lacks funds, says official". The Nation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007.
  78. ^ "Thaksin lauds his own achievements". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007.
  79. ^ "Bt30 health fee may be scrapped". The Nation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2006.
  80. ^ Anucha Yuwadee, Bangkok Post, 15 January 2003
  81. ^ a b National News Bureau of Thailand, Academics call for law to prosecute Thaksin in World Court, 28 June 2010
  82. ^ "The War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Violations of Human Rights in Thailand". Human Rights Watch. Beginning in February 2003, the Thaksin government instructed police and local officials that persons charged with drug offenses should be considered "security threats" and dealt with in a "ruthless" and "severe" manner. The result of the initial three-month phase of this campaign was some 2,275 extrajudicial killings
  83. ^ Mydans, Seth (8 April 2003). "A Wave of Drug Killings Is Linked to Thai Police". The New York Times.
  84. ^ "New York Times: A Wave of Drug Killings Is Linked to Thai Police Seth Mydans".
  85. ^ "Thailand: Not Enough Graves: IV. HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN THE WAR ON DRUGS". Human Rights Watch.
  86. ^ "Thailand War on Drugs... Turns Murderous, 600 Killed This Month – Human Rights Groups Denounce Death Squads, Executions".
  87. ^ "to article". Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
  88. ^ "Institute of Current World Affairs – long-term fellowships in countries throughout the world" (PDF).
  89. ^ "Thailand's Drug War 12 pages".
  90. ^ "Institute of Current World Affairs – long-term fellowships in countries throughout the world". Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
  91. ^ "Timeline of Thailand's "War on Drugs" (Human Rights Watch, 7-7-2004)". Human Rights Watch. 7 July 2004. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  92. ^ "Institutionalised torture, extrajudicial killings & uneven application of law in Thailand" (PDF). April 2005.. See Annex 5 for a "Partial list of persons reported killed during the 'war on drugs' (revised)" Asian Legal Resource Centre From Vol. 04 – No. 02
  93. ^ "Special Report: Rule of Law vs. Rule of Lords in Thailand". Archived from the original on 15 September 2007.
  94. ^ "Thailand: Not Smiling on Rights" (PDF). Asian Centre for Human Rights. 18 July 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2008. See page 24, the section called "Killings in the war against drugs"
  95. ^ Perlez, Jane (7 July 2004). "Letter from Asia; She Tilts Against Power, but Don't Call Her Quixotic". The New York Times.
  96. ^ "US-Thailand's 'License To Kill'. 2274 Extra-Judicial Killings in 90 Days", The Akha Journal of the Golden Triangle By Matthew McDaniel, Vol. 1, No. 2, October 2003. Relevant section of journal 2: 2p6.pdf – Cover and first part of journal 2: 2p1.pdfLink list for all parts of the journals
  97. ^ "Marihemp Network Gallery :: Thailand. 2500 extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent people". Archived from the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
  98. ^ "คอลัมน์การเมือง – ฆ่าตัดตอนที่เมืองน้ำดำ รอยเลือดจากระบอบทักษิณ". 7 September 2018.
  99. ^ "พระราชดำรัส พระราชทานแก่คณะบุคคลต่างๆ ที่เข้าเฝ้าฯ ถวายชัยมงคล ในโอกาสวันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษา ณ ศาลาดุสิดาลัย สวนจิตรลดา พระราชวังดุสิตฯ วันพฤหัสบดีที่ ๔ ธันวาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๖ (ฉบับไม่เป็นทางการ)". The Golden Jubilee Network. แต่เข้าใจว่า เป็นซูเปอร์ซีอีโอ เราก็ลงท้าย เราก็รับผิดชอบทั้งหมด ประชาชนทั้งประเทศ โยนให้พระเจ้าอยู่หัวรับผิดชอบหมด ซึ่งผิดรัฐธรรมนูญนะ รัฐธรรมนูญบอกว่า พระเจ้าอยู่หัวไม่รับผิดชอบอะไรเลย นี่ท่านแถวนี้ ก็เป็นนักกฎหมาย แล้วกฎหมายก็บอกพระเจ้าอยู่หัว ไม่รับผิดชอบอะไรเลย ตกลงเราไม่รับผิดชอบประเทศชาติ เมืองไทยไม่มีใครรับผิดชอบเลย ใครจะรับผิดชอบ ลำบากอย่างนี้ แต่ว่าเชื่อว่าท่านพูดเล่น ท่านรับผิดชอบ ในที่สุดท่านก็ต้องรับผิดชอบอีก ๒,๕๐๐ คน แล้วก็ ๒,๕๐๐ คน ท่านก็ต้อง ตอนนี้จะต้องไปถามท่านผู้บัญชาการตำรวจแห่งชาติว่า จำแนกออกเป็นอย่างไร ไอ้ ๒,๕๐๐ คน แล้วจำแนกไปจำแนกมา ประกาศให้ประชาชนทราบ
  100. ^ (in Thai) Royal Jubilee Network, 2003 Birthday Speech of King Bhumibol Adulyadej
  101. ^ "DRUG-RELATED KILLINGS: Verify the toll, say diplomats". The Nation. Thailand. 4 March 2003.[permanent dead link]
  102. ^ "Kanit to chair extrajudicial killings probe" Bangkok Post, 3 August 2007 Archived 6 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  103. ^ "Thailand's drug wars. Back on the offensive" 24 January 2008 The Economist
  104. ^ Thailand Times, Thaksin’s ‘Drug Murders’ investigated Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 10 June 2010
  105. ^ "Extra-juridical killing cases by Thaksin government investigated again in Thailand". Personal Thailand – Travel and Live in Thailand.
  106. ^ "Far Eastern Economic Review, "Power Politics Trump Reform", 27 September 2001". 27 September 2001. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  107. ^ "Raising sector efficiency 'crucial': Utility's B140bn debt strains public purse". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008.
  108. ^ Hoge, Warren (22 July 2005). "U.N. Criticizes Emergency Powers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  109. ^ "THAILAND: At least 84 people killed in Southern Thailand". Asian Human Rights Commission. 25 October 2004. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  110. ^ Somchai Phatharathananunth "Civil Society and Democratization" p.222
  111. ^ "Emergency Decree Violates Thai Constitution and Laws". Human Rights Watch. 4 August 2005. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
  112. ^ "Government shrugs off NRC final report". The Nation. 7 June 2006. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006.
  113. ^ Ganjanakhundee, Supalak (23 December 2004). "ANALYSIS: Thaksin's blame game backfires". The Nation. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  114. ^ Martin Painter, Managerial Reform and Political Control, Department of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong, the Case of Thaksin and the Thai Bureaucracy* Archived 12 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  115. ^ "CEO governors mini-premiers, says PM: Can issue bonds, use management methods". Kellogg School of Management. 17 August 2003. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2006.
  116. ^ a b "ฟื้น"ผู้ว่าฯซีอีโอ รอบ 3"เพื่อใคร ? งบจังหวัด 4 หมื่นล.ในอดีตถึง1 แสนล.ปัจจุบัน". 17 December 2016.
  117. ^ กลุ่มศึกษาข้อตกลงเขตการค้าเสรีภาคประชาชน. "FTA Watch Group website". Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  118. ^ "Thaksin's Chance for Leading Role in the Region". The Straits Times. 10 March 2004. Archived from the original on 6 September 2004.
  119. ^ "Ex-envoys tell of 'multi-tasking' premier". The Nation. Thailand. 17 March 2006. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006.
  120. ^ 'Thaksin to face charges over Burma telecom deal Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ICT News, 2 August 2007
  121. ^ "Thailand's airport imbroglio grows". International Herald Tribune. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  122. ^ a b "Thaksin-era corruption'cost state Bt400 bn'". The Nation. 2 October 2006. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  123. ^ Limsamarnphun, Nophakhun (5 November 2006). "Tackling the 'policy corruption' of the Thaksin regime". The Nation. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008.
  124. ^ a b c "Thailand's Thaksin Freeze Out". Asia Sentinel. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  125. ^ Thai Public Relations Department, "Thailand's Image on Transparency", 26 October 2004
  126. ^ Transparency International TI 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index Archived 12 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  127. ^ Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index 2001 Archived 29 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ "Governance Matters 2009; Worldwide Governance Indicators, 1996–2008; Country Data Report for THAILAND, 1996–2008" (PDF). World Bank Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  129. ^ Roughneen, Simon (21 March 2010). "Thailand's Blood Red Protest". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  130. ^ "Community-radio crackdown panned". The Nation. 1 June 2005. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.[not specific enough to verify]
  131. ^ "Acting prime minister files more criminal and defamation lawsuits". Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). 15 June 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  132. ^ "Thailand Election Triumph: Re-packaging old politics?". ASEAN Focus Group, The Australian National University. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  133. ^ "Complex transaction a model for avoiding tax, ownership law". The Nation. Thailand. 27 January 2006. Archived from the original on 12 July 2007.
  134. ^ "Democracy put to the ultimate test". The Nation. 21 March 2006. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011.
  135. ^ "Thai Rak Thai win 16 million votes: Thaksin". The Nation. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.
  136. ^ a b "38 one-horse candidates fail". The Nation. 4 April 2006. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012.
  137. ^ "Second round of elections be held on 23 April". The Nation. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 8 September 2006.
  138. ^ "Democrat asks court to cancel 2nd round of election". The Nation. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  139. ^ "PAD ignores vote results". The Nation. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 November 2006.
  140. ^ "Thai PM Thaksin says he'll stop down". Channel NewsAsia. 4 April 2006. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2006.
  141. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra Talkasia Transcript". CNN. 12 February 2007.
  142. ^ "End of the beginning in Thailand's crisis 19 May 2006". Bangkok Post.
  143. ^ "Constitution Court invalidate the April election and order new election". The Nation. 8 April 2006. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006.
  144. ^ Austin, Simon (31 July 2007). "A fit and proper Premiership?". BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  145. ^ "The Hindu: Thaksin swiftly working on Govt. formation". Archived from the original on 25 January 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  146. ^ BBC News, Thai party's disbandment solves little, 1 June 2007
  147. ^ a b "Thaksin's assets frozen". The Nation. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007.
  148. ^ "Slighted Sawat resigns from AEC". The Nation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  149. ^ "Reports: Thailand's former PM Thaksin divorces". China Daily.[permanent dead link]
  150. ^ CNN, (note CNN did not state he actually returned and no one in Thailand knows of his return then.Lawyer: Thaksin 'poised' to return, 25 February 2008
  151. ^ New York Times, Thai Court Convicts Ex-Premier for Conflict in Land Deal, 21 October 2008
  152. ^ a b c BBC, Thaksin on protests in Thailand, 13 April 2009
  153. ^ a b Charoenpo, Anucha (30 March 2009). "Thaksin pitches 'all-out' fight". Bangkok Post.
  154. ^ a b "Thaksin's passport revoked, retains citizenship". Bangkok Post. 15 April 2009.
  155. ^ a b "Thai FM revoked Thaksin's diplomatic passport -". Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
  156. ^ a b MCOT, Bt10 million BMA property damage from protest; religious rites to be held Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 16 April 2009
  157. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra Leverages Montenegrin Citizenship". Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  158. ^ "Roćen brani Tajland od Šinavatre" [Roćen defends Thailand from Shinawatra]. RTS, Radio Televizija Srbije, Radio Television of Serbia. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  159. ^ Džankić, Jelena (September 2010), Country Report: Montenegro (PDF), EUDO Citizenship Observatory, Florence: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, p. 17, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2011, retrieved 14 May 2011
  160. ^ "Thai armed forces seize Bangkok". Reuters. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007.
  161. ^ "Caretaker PM tries to fight back". The Nation. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 2 November 2006.
  162. ^ "One night in Bangkok". The Independent. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006.
  163. ^ "Statement from the military reformist". The Nation. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  164. ^ "Sonthaya leads 20 members out of Thai Rak Thai". The Nation. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006.
  165. ^ "Somsak leads 100 members to resign from Thai Rak Thai". The Nation. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010.
  166. ^ "Thaksin resigns from Thai Rak Thai". The Nation. 2 October 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  167. ^ "Somkid resigns from Thai Rak Thai Party". The Nation. 2 October 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2006.
  168. ^ "Surayud suspects 'power losers' as finger—pointing begins". The Nation. 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007.
  169. ^ Bangkok Post, 9 April 2008
  170. ^ Petty, Martin (6 July 2007). "City takeover keeps Thaksin in the political limelight". Reuters. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  171. ^ PLUS Markets Group Manchester City PLC – Offer unconditional in all respects, 7 July 2007
  172. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (10 July 2007). "Why Thaksin's billions are a fan's living nightmare". The Guardian.
  173. ^ Official Manchester City website, Sven-Goran Eriksson appointed Manchester City Manager 6 July 2007
  174. ^ Winter, Henry (4 August 2011). "England need a winter break, says Sven-Goran Eriksson". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  175. ^ "Manchester City Owner Agrees to Sell to Abu Dhabi". Bloomberg. 2 September 2008.
  176. ^ "Thaksin sells Manchester City club to Emirates group". The New York Times. 1 September 2008.
  177. ^ Daniel Taylor. "Football: Manchester City dump Thaksin Shinawatra from president's role". The Guardian.
  178. ^ "Thaksin's wife back in Thailand". BBC News. 8 January 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  179. ^, Ex-PM's wife set for Thai trial BBC News
  180. ^ "Former Thai PM Thaksin back home". BBC News. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  181. ^ "Thaksin Pleads Not Guilty in Thai Court" By Ambika Ahuja, 12 March 2008, Associated Press (published by USA Today)
  182. ^ "Thai court blocks Thaksin trip to China, Britain". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  183. ^ "'And don't leave town'". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  184. ^ "Thailand Court Agrees to Hear Case Against Thaksin". VOA News. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  185. ^ "Burmese loan case is fourth supreme court charge against Thaksin". Crain's Manchester Business. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  186. ^ ", Thaksin's wife found guilty of tax evasion".
  187. ^ "Ex-Thai PM's wife guilty of tax fraud". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  188. ^ Hookway, James (12 August 2008). "Thaksin to Live in U.K. Amid Court Case in Thailand". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  189. ^ "Ex-Thai PM 'will remain in UK'". BBC News. 11 August 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  190. ^ "Ex-Thai PM Thaksin skips bail, stocks jump". Reuters. 11 August 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  191. ^ "Former Thai premier seeks asylum in Britain". 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  192. ^ "Second arrest warrant against fugitive ex-premier issued". The Nation. 21 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  193. ^ ", Thai court issues arrest warrant for Thaksin". Archived from the original on 19 September 2008.
  194. ^ "Thai court issues fresh warrant for ex-PM Thaksin". Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  195. ^ "Thai Court Postpones Verdict Against Ousted Premier Thaksin, Wife on Land Case". Retrieved 19 February 2010.[permanent dead link]
  196. ^ (AFP) – 14 October 2008 (14 October 2008). "Thai court issues fifth arrest warrant for ousted PM Thaksin". Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  197. ^ The Earthtimes. "Thai court issues a sixth arrest warrant for former premier". Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  198. ^ "Thai court issues fifth arrest warrant for Thaksin". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  199. ^ [Online]. Available: Thai ex-PM guilty of corruption BBC (21 October 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2008)
  200. ^ Thaksin guilty of corruption Bangkok Post (21 October 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2008)[dead link]
  201. ^ "Ex-Thai PM Guilty of Corruption". Sky News. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  202. ^ "Thai court sentences Thaksin to jail in graft case". Reuters. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  203. ^ "RP closes door on Thaksin". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  204. ^ (AFP) – 8 November 2008 (8 November 2008). "Philippine asylum for Thaksin unlikely: foreign dept official". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  205. ^ "Philippine foreign dept official says asylum for Thaksin unlikely". Channel NewsAsia. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  206. ^ UK visa revoked, Thaksin looks for new home International Herald Tribune
  207. ^ Straits Times, Down to his last US$500m Archived 9 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 26 December 2008
  208. ^ "Thailand to push Thaksin extradition wherever he goes". Channel NewsAsia. 10 November 2008. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  209. ^ (AFP) – 9 November 2008 (9 November 2008). "Thailand to push Thaksin extradition wherever he goes: officials". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  210. ^ "Police: Thaksin still in UAE". Bangkok Post. 21 May 2009.
  211. ^ "Thaksin no Cambodian passport". Bangkok Post. 22 May 2009.
  212. ^ a b c "Germany lifts travel ban on fugitive Thaksin". The Nation. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
  213. ^ Ein Milliardär auf dem Amt, Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 4 June 2009 (in German)
  214. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (9 November 2009). "Thaksin Shinawatra: the full transcript of his interview with The Times" (PDF). The Times. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  215. ^ Brian McCartan. "Opposition raises specter of civil war in Thailand". World Politics Review.
  216. ^ Crispin, Shawn W (17 April 2009). "Smoke, mirrors and lies". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  217. ^ a b c "Thai envoy recalled from Cambodia". BBC News. 5 November 2009.
  218. ^ "Recall of envoys escalates Thai-Cambodian tensions". Etaiwan News. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  219. ^ a b c "Cambodia recalls ambassador to Thailand over Thaksin issue". Xinhua News Agency. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009.
  220. ^ "Search". Phnom Penh Post.
  221. ^ "Irate Sivarak demands answers". Bangkok Post.
  222. ^ Bangkok Post, Sivarak's mum threatens to sue Suthep, 17 December 2009
  223. ^ "Mother justifies seeking royal pardon for her son". The Nation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  224. ^ Bangkok Post, Security forces ready for action, 16 February 2010
  225. ^ Bangkok Post, UDD won't rally on 26 February, 16 February 2010
  226. ^ "Telecom laws were manipulated to benefit Shin Corp subsidiary AIS, says court". The Nation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  227. ^ a b "Minefield of criminal cases awaits Thaksin". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010.
  228. ^ "Thaksin guilty, Bt46 bn seized, Bt30 bn returned". The Nation. Thailand. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010.
  229. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra". Archived from the original on 25 February 2010.
  230. ^ Wall Street Journal, Thai Court Rules to Seize $1.4 Billion From Thaksin, 26 February 2010
  231. ^ "COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE FRANÇAISE DE TRAMWAYS – CGFT" (in French). 1996. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  232. ^ "It's my money: Pojaman". The Nation. Thailand. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010.
  233. ^ Thaithon (6 March 2010). "How evidence trapped Thaksin". The Nation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  234. ^ "PM pleads for public calm following several Bangkok bomb attacks". The Nation. n.d. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  235. ^ Bangkok Post, Stringent security measures invoked, 28 February 2010[dead link]
  236. ^ Bangkok Post, UDD denies link in bomb attacks, 28 February 2010[dead link]
  237. ^ "Warrant issued for bomb suspect". Bangkok Post. 1 March 2010.[dead link]
  238. ^ "Thaksin assets case verdict due in January". AsiaOne. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  239. ^ Trickey, Erick. "Thaksin Shinawatra". Encyclopedia of World Biography.
  240. ^ "Thaksin court drama grips Bangkok". CNNGo. 26 February 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  241. ^ "Door now open for more agencies to reclaim their money". The Nation. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010.
  242. ^ "Potjaman insists family assets of B76bn were legally earned". Bangkok Post. 16 September 2009.[dead link]
  243. ^ "Former Thai PM Thaksin Shinawatra Plans Return To Thailand Amid Ongoing Political Crisis". THE ASEAN DAILY. 26 July 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  244. ^ Wongcha-um, Panu (9 May 2023). "Thailand's influential ex-PM Thaksin eyes July return from exile". Reuters. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  245. ^ Head, Jonathan (22 August 2023). "Thaksin Shinawatra: Former Thailand PM jailed after return from exile". BBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  246. ^ Olarn, Helen Regan, Kocha (13 February 2024). "Thailand's jailed former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra to be freed". CNN. Retrieved 13 February 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  247. ^ Thepgumpanat, Panarat; Wongcha-um, Panu (1 September 2023). "Thai king commutes former PM Thaksin's prison sentence to one year". Reuters. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  248. ^ "Thailand's former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra to be freed: Reports". Al Jazeera. 13 February 2024. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  249. ^ "Thailand's former Prime Minister Thaksin released on parole". Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  250. ^ "Thaksin Shinawatra: Former Thai prime minister released on parole". BBC News. 18 February 2024. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  251. ^ "Former Thai leader Thaksin makes first public appearances after release from detention". Associated Press. 14 March 2024. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  252. ^ a b ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชโองการ ประกาศ เรื่อง เรียกคืนเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์, เล่ม ๑๓๖ ตอนที่ ๘ ข หน้า ๑, ๓๐ มีนาคม ๒๕๖๒
  253. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette, Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office – Royal assent of decorating foreign decorations. Vol. 118. 30 November 2001
  254. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette, Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office – Royal assent of decorating foreign decorations. Vol. 119. 30 August 2002
  255. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette, Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office – Royal assent of decorating foreign decorations. Vol. 119. 26 August 2002
  256. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette, Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office – Royal assent of decorating foreign decorations. Vol. 120. 7 March 2003
  257. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette, Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office – Royal assent of decorating foreign decorations. Vol. 121. 25 March 2004
  258. ^ "Deposed Thai Prime Minister Teaches at Takushoku University". October 2018.
  259. ^ "Thaksin says will go home when Thai democracy returns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023.
  260. ^ "Deposed Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra delivers a lecture as". 5 July 2007.
  261. ^ "Dr. Thaksin Shinawatra '78". Sam Houston State University. 26 October 1996. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  262. ^ "The secretariat of the Cabinet". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  263. ^ a b "SHINAWATRA, THAKSIN-Speakers-Boao Forum for Asia". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  264. ^ a b c d e f "The secretariat of the Cabinet". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  265. ^ "มีเป็นเข่ง! เพจดังขุดกรุโชว์รางวัล'ทักษิณ' หลังโดนถอดพ้นศิษย์เก่าดีเด่นตท". 28 March 2019.
  266. ^ "Thailand: Anti-Drug Campaign Reaches New Low". Human Rights Watch. 4 October 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  267. ^ "พ.ต.ท.ทักษิณ ชินวัตร รับรางวัลรัฐบุรุษเอบีแอลเอฟ (The ABLF Statesman Award 2555)". Voice TV. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.

Further reading edit

  • Bidhya Bowornwathana (2004). "Thaksin's model of government reform: Prime Ministerialisation through "a country is my company" approach". Asian Journal of Political Science. 12 (1): 135–153. doi:10.1080/02185370408434237. S2CID 153481914.
  • Pavin Chachavalpongpun (2010). Reinventing Thailand: Thaksin and His Foreign Policy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-616-215-000-5.
  • John Funston, ed. (2009), Divided over Thaksin: Thailand's Coup and Problematic Transition, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-230-961-7
  • McCargo, Duncan; Pathmanand, Ukrist (2005). The Thaksinization of Thailand (PDF) (Hardcopy ed.). Copenhagen: NIAS Press. ISBN 87-91114-45-4. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  • Pasuk Phongpaichit; Chris Baker (2008). "Thaksin's populism". Journal of Contemporary Asia. 38 (1): 62–83. doi:10.1080/00472330701651960. S2CID 143550663.

External links edit

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Thailand
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Thailand
Succeeded by
Sonthi Boonyaratglin
President of the Administrative Reform Council
New office Special Economic Adviser of Cambodia
Position abolished
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by Chairperson of APEC
Succeeded by