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Internal Security Operations Command

The Internal Security Operations Command (Thai: กองอำนวยการรักษาความมั่นคงภายในราชอาณาจักร; RTGSkong am nuai kan raksa khwam man khong phai nai ) or ISOC (Thai: กอ.รมน.; RTGSkooromono) is the political arm of the Thai military.[3] It was responsible for suppression of leftist groups from the 1960s to the 1980s during period it was implicated in atrocities against activists and civilians. ISOC was implicated in a plot to assassinate Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.[citation needed] After Thaksin was deposed in a military coup, the junta transformed the ISOC into a "government within a government", giving it wide-reaching authority over the National Anti-Corruption Commission, the Department of Special Investigation, and the Anti-Money Laundering Office (AMLO). The junta also authorized it to help provincial authorities in marketing OTOP products.[4] In June 2007, the junta approved a draft national security bill which gave ISOC sweeping powers to handle "new forms of threats" to the country. The ISOC revamp modelled it after the US Department of Homeland Security, and gave ISOC sweeping new powers to allow the ISOC chief to implement security measures such as searches without seeking approval from the prime minister.[5]

Internal Security Operations Command
กองอำนวยการรักษาความมั่นคงภายในราชอาณาจักร
นายกรัฐมนตรี เป็นประธานการประชุมและกล่าวมอบนโยบายในการ - Flickr - Abhisit Vejjajiva (8).jpg
ISOC Office
Agency overview
Formed1965[1]
Preceding agencies
  • Central Security Command (CSC)
  • Communist Suppression Operations Command (CSOC)
TypeGovernment agency
JurisdictionNationwide
HeadquartersRuen Ruedi Palace, Nakhon Ratchasima Road, Dusit, Bangkok, Thailand
Motto"Asādhuṃ Sādhunā Jine" (Pāḷi)
("Conquer evil by the power of good")[2]
Annual budget10,240.1 million baht (FY2019)
Ministers responsible
Parent agencyOffice of the Prime Minister
Key document
Websitewww.isocthai.go.th

Mission and organizationEdit

ISOC's mission it to suppress threats to national security, defend the monarchy, promote unity, and protect the public from harm.[6]

ISOC, nominally a civilian agency, operates under the aegis of the Office of the Prime Minister.[7] Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha is director of ISOC. Deputy director is army chief General Apirat Kongsompong.[6][8]

ISOC's FY2019 budget is 10,240.1 million baht.[9]:84 ISOC has about 5,000-6,000 staff nationwide, excluding those working in the south, and there are 500,000-600,000 internal security volunteers, as well as tens of thousands of people in its information network.[10]

Communist Suppression Operations CommandEdit

The Communist Suppression Operations Command (CSOC) was established in 1965[1] with the assistance of the United States to coordinate nationwide anti-communist operations.[11][12]

Following the 17 November 1971 coup by military dictators Thanom Kittikachorn and Praphas Charusathien, Praphas appointed himself interior minister, chief of police, and head of CSOC.

The CSOC was implicated in several atrocities in its 1970s war against leftist groups. This included the Red Drum Massacre, the mass murder of southern Thai activists by burning them alive in gasoline drums.[citation needed]

Student leader Thirayuth Boonmee showed evidence that the destruction of Ban Na Sai village, Bueng Kan District, Nong Khai Province (As of 2011, Bueng Kan Province) in northeast Thailand[13] was the handiwork of the CSOC.[14] The military had earlier claimed that the Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) was responsible for the village's destruction.[citation needed]

CSOC's name was changed to ISOC in 1974.[1]

Operations during the 1970sEdit

ISOC conducted operations in cities and the Thai countryside to subvert leftist groups through propaganda and violence.[15] In 1973, the ISOC commenced a bombing campaign against hill tribe villages in northern Thailand.[citation needed]

Prime Minister to-be Prem Tinsulanonda was a senior officer of the ISOC.[citation needed]

ISOC's role declined starting in the early-1980s after the downfall of the CPT. However, it still had great influence. On 1 April 1987, after Prime Minister Kukrit Pramoj claimed that ISOC had been brainwashed by communists, over 200 Thai Army Rangers attacked the prime minister's residence.[16]

Plot to assassinate Thaksin ShinawatraEdit

ISOC Deputy Director Pallop Pinmanee was sacked[17] after Lieutenant Thawatchai Klinchana,[18] his driver, was found driving a car containing 67 kilograms of explosives near the residence of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Pallop denied all involvement, noting that "If I was behind it, I would not have missed."[19] Metropolitan Police Bureau commissioner Lt General Wiroj Jantharangsee noted that the explosives in the car were completely assembled, equipped with a remote sensor ready to be detonated, and would have had a blast radius of around one kilometre.[citation needed]

Post-2006 coup ISOCEdit

ISOC received a boost when the 2006 coup installed the government of General Surayud Chulanont. His government passed the Internal Security Act, 2008, granting ISOC the status of a state organization reporting to the Office of the Prime Minister.[20]

Thaksin planned a major restructuring of the ISOC prior to the coup which overthrew him in September 2006. Soon after the coup, the junta released three army suspects in the car bomb plot.[21] Junta leader and Army Commander-in-Chief General Sonthi Boonyaratglin appointed himself head of ISOC (its previous head had been the prime minister) and transformed ISOC into a "government within a government". The new ISOC was criticized as being a shadowy puppet master pulling the strings of existing agencies, answerable to no one but its leader.[22]

To protect people in south Thailand from insurgency-related violence, ISOC produced Jatukham Rammathep amulets for distribution to the Buddhist minority. The renowned animist amulets were believed to have magical powers to protect their wearers from violence and large sums are paid for them. The plan was developed by Colonel Manas Khongpan, deputy director of ISOC in Yala Province.[23]

The cabinet of General Surayud Chulanont gave 732 ISOC staff members an 84.3 million baht "reward" in mid-2007. ISOC explained that police and soldiers were temporarily transferred to support ISOC's operation. ISOC wanted to reward them for their hard work and sacrifice. ISOC had originally requested the reward in 2003, but was turned down by the Thaksin government.[24]

Post-2014 coup ISOCEdit

Following the 2014 coup, junta leader Prayut Chan-o-cha used ISOC to handle not just military matters, but also political and social issues. In 2017, Prayut issued NCPO Order 51/2017 to bolster ISOC's powers. A key provision was the inclusion of public prosecutors under ISOC's ageis, marking ISOC's first involvement in the Thai justice system. The order also gave ISOC the power to summon citizens to provide "information", a function formerly seen as a police responsibility. ISOC, under the order, is also responsible for "social order", a task previously shared by the police and ministries.[20]

In October 2019, ISOC filed sedition charges against 12 opposition politicians and academics, including leaders of Future Forward and Pheu Thai parties. They are accused of inciting insurrection against the state for discussing amendments to the junta-drafted 2017 constitution on 28 September in Pattani Province. Their choice of venue is unfortunate as Pattani operates under a "state of emergency" enacted by the army to combat local separatists. This means that the defendants may be tried in a military tribunal. A leading Thai political scientist warns that giving a militarized surveillance agency free rein in internal security issues risks turning Thailand into a totalitarian state.[6]

BasesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Pawakapan, Puangthong R. (November 2017). "The Central Role of Thailand's Internal Security Operations Command in the Post-Counterinsurgency Period" (PDF). Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Yusof Ishak Institute (17). ISBN 978-981-4786-81-2. ISSN 0219-3213. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  2. ^ ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง กำหนดภาพเครื่องหมายราชการ ตามพระราชบัญญัติเครื่องหมายราชการ พุทธศักราช ๒๔๘๒ (ฉบับที่ ๒๖๘) ลงวันที่ 9 กรกฎาคม 2555 [Announcement of the Office of the Prime Minister on Determination of Official Symbol under the Official Symbols Act, Buddhist Era 2482 (1939), (No. 268) dated 9 July 2012] (pdf). Government Gazette (in Thai). Cabinet Secretariat. 129 (Special 130 D): 19. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  3. ^ "Thailand's Deep State—The Military". Asia Sentinel. 2017-11-14. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  4. ^ Bangkok Post, CNS advises extended term for AEC, 14 February 2007[failed verification]
  5. ^ "Cabinet approves security bill". Bangkok Post. 2007-06-20. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Rojanaphruk, Pravit; Buabmee, Sunantha; Charuvastra, Teeranai (11 October 2019). "INTERVIEW: MILITARY SURVEILLANCE TURNING THAILAND INTO '1984'". Khaosod English. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Agencies under OPM". Office of the Prime Minister. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  8. ^ Boonbandit, Tappanai (11 October 2019). "APIRAT REVIVES RED SCARE IN EPIC RANT AGAINST OPPOSITION". Khaosod English. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  9. ^ Thailand's Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2019. Bureau of the Budget (Thailand). December 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  10. ^ Raksaseri, Kornchanok (8 January 2018). "Isoc power boost 'not political'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  11. ^ Lee, Terence C (28 February 2005). "The Causes of Military Insubordination: Explaining Military Organizational Behavior in Thailand" (PDF). Presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association Honolulu, Hawaii, March 2005. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  12. ^ Murray, Charles (November 1984). "The Domino That Didn't Fall; Why in a Country Riven by Coups Did an Apparently Robust and Growing Insurgency Collapse?". Atlantic Monthly. Contemporary Thinkers: 34. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  13. ^ "THE BAN NA SAI AFFAIR BECOMES A CAUSE CELEBRE". Public Library of US Diplomacy. Wikileaks. 1974-02-15. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  14. ^ Anderson, Benedict, "Murder and Progress in Modern Siam"[dead link]
  15. ^ Handley, Paul M (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. p. 222. ISBN 0300106823. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  16. ^ "THAILAND -". Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2017.[failed verification]
  17. ^ "'Fake bomb' at Thai leader's home". BBC News. 28 August 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  18. ^ "'Bomb' found near Thai PM's home". BBC News. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  19. ^ "'If I was behind it, PM would be dead'". The Nation. 2006-08-25. Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Isoc a proxy for army rule" (Opinion). Bangkok Post. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Car-bomb suspects get bail". The Nation. 2006-09-30. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  22. ^ The Nation, Thailand's Dept of Homeland Security Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine, 12 December 2006[failed verification]
  23. ^ The Nation, Amulets to 'help protect' Buddhists in South Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, 14 March 2007[failed verification]
  24. ^ "Cabinet backs B84.3m in Isoc 'rewards'". Bangkok Post. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  25. ^ "Outgoing and new Army chiefs visit Pattani". The Nation. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.