Colin Powell

Colin Luther Powell (/ˈklɪn/ KOHL-in;[1] April 5, 1937 – October 18, 2021) was an American politician, statesman,[2] diplomat, and United States Army officer who served as the 65th United States secretary of state from 2001 to 2005. He was the first African-American secretary of state.[3] He served as the 16th United States national security advisor from 1987 to 1989 and as the 12th chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1989 to 1993.

Colin Powell
Colin Powell official Secretary of State photo.jpg
Official portrait, 2001
65th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 26, 2005
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
DeputyRichard Armitage
Preceded byMadeleine Albright
Succeeded byCondoleezza Rice
12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
In office
October 1, 1989 – September 30, 1993
President
Deputy
Preceded byWilliam J. Crowe
Succeeded byJohn Shalikashvili
16th United States National Security Advisor
In office
November 23, 1987 – January 20, 1989
PresidentRonald Reagan
DeputyJohn Negroponte
Preceded byFrank Carlucci
Succeeded byBrent Scowcroft
United States Deputy National Security Advisor
In office
December 2, 1986 – November 23, 1987
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byPeter Rodman
Succeeded byJohn Negroponte
Personal details
Born
Colin Luther Powell

(1937-04-05)April 5, 1937
New York City, U.S.
DiedOctober 18, 2021(2021-10-18) (aged 84)
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
Political party
Spouse(s)
(m. 1962)
Children3, including Michael and Linda
Education
Signature
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1958–1993
RankGeneral
Unit
Commands
Battles/wars
AwardsFull list

Powell was born in New York City in 1937 to parents who had immigrated from Jamaica. He was raised in the South Bronx and educated in the New York City public schools, receiving a bachelor's degree in geology from the City College of New York (CCNY). He also participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. He was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held many command and staff positions and rose to the rank of four-star general. He was Commander of the US Army Forces Command in 1989.

Powell's last military assignment, from October 1989 to September 1993, was as Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman, the highest military position in the United States Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including the invasion of Panama in 1989 and Operation Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf War against Iraq in 1990–1991. He formulated the Powell Doctrine, which limits American military action unless it satisfies criteria regarding American national security interests, overwhelming force, and widespread public support.[4] He served as Secretary of State under Republican president George W. Bush. As secretary of state, Powell gave a speech before the United Nations regarding the rationale for the Iraq War, but he later admitted that the speech contained substantial inaccuracies. He was forced to resign after Bush was reelected in 2004.[5]

In 1995, Powell wrote his autobiography, My American Journey, and then in retirement another book, It Worked for Me, Lessons in Life and Leadership (2012). He pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Before his appointment as secretary of state, he chaired America's Promise. In the 2016 United States presidential election, Powell, who was not a candidate, received three electoral votes from Washington for the office of President of the United States.[6] He won numerous US and foreign military awards and decorations. His civilian awards included the Presidential Medal of Freedom (twice), the Congressional Gold Medal, the Presidential Citizens Medal, and the Secretary's Distinguished Service Award. Powell died from complications of COVID-19 in October 2021, while being treated for a form of blood cancer that affected his immune system.

Early life

Colin Luther Powell was born on April 5, 1937,[7][8] in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan,[9] to Jamaican immigrants, Maud Ariel (née McKoy) and Luther Theophilus Powell.[9][10] His parents were both of mixed African and Scottish ancestry.[11][12] Luther worked as a shipping clerk and Maud as a seamstress.[13] Powell was raised in the South Bronx and attended the now closed Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954.[14]

While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the Eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers.[15] He once spoke to a Jewish reporter in Yiddish, much to the man's surprise.[16] He also served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath.[17] He received a Bachelor of Science degree in geology from the City College of New York in 1958[18][19] and said that he was a "C average" student.[20] Powell also graduated from George Washington University with an MBA in 1971 and a Honorary Doctor of Public Service in 1990.[21]

Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as /ˈkɒlɪn/ (KOLL-in), Powell pronounced his name /ˈklɪn/ (KOHL-in) from childhood on after the World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr.[22]

Military career

Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of general.[23]

Training

While attending the City College of New York, Powell joined the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).[24] He described the experience as one of the happiest experiences of his life. According to Powell:

It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and that was ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military. And I not only liked it, but I was pretty good at it. That's what you really have to look for in life, something that you like, and something that you think you're pretty good at. And if you can put those two things together, then you're on the right track, and just drive on.[25]

As a cadet, Powell joined the Pershing Rifles,[26] the ROTC fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing.

Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant;[27] at this time, the Army was newly desegregated[9] (see: Executive Order 9981). He underwent training in the state of Georgia, where he was refused service in bars and restaurants because of the color of his skin.[28] After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader.[29]

Vietnam War

Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake.[30] The large infection made it difficult for him to walk, and caused his foot to swell for a short time, shortening his first tour.[31]

Powell returned to Vietnam as a major in 1968, serving as assistant chief of staff of operations for the 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division. During the second tour in Vietnam he was decorated with the Soldier's Medal for bravery after he survived a helicopter crash and single-handedly rescued three others, including division commander Major General Charles M. Gettys, from the burning wreckage.[29][32]

Mỹ Lai massacre inquiry

Soldiers actively hunted, herded, and killed elderly people, children, infants, and raped women while other Soldiers [sic] looked on and did nothing to stop the massacre. An estimated 350 to 500 unarmed civilians died in My Lai ... MAJ Colin Powell, a recently assigned Deputy G3, investigated the allegations described in the [Glen] letter. He proved unable to uncover either wide-spread unnecessary killings, war crimes, or any facts related to My Lai ...

— US Army Center for the Army Profession and Leadership, My Lai at 50: Written Case Study[33]

Powell was charged with investigating a detailed letter by 11th Light Infantry Brigade soldier Tom Glen, which backed up rumored allegations of the 1968 Mỹ Lai massacre.[33] Powell wrote: "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between American soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent." Later, Powell's assessment would be described as whitewashing the news of the massacre, and questions would continue to remain undisclosed to the public.[34] In May 2004, Powell said to television and radio host Larry King, "I was in a unit that was responsible for My Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored."[35]

After the Vietnam War

 
Richard Nixon and Powell, 1973

When he returned to the US from Vietnam in 1971, Powell earned a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University in Washington, D.C.[18][28] He later served a White House Fellowship under President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1973. During 1975–1976 he attended the National War College, Washington, D.C.[36]

In his autobiography, My American Journey, Powell named several officers he served under who inspired and mentored him. As a lieutenant colonel serving in South Korea, Powell was very close to General Henry "Gunfighter" Emerson. Powell said he regarded Emerson as one of the most caring officers he ever met. Emerson insisted his troops train at night to fight a possible North Korean attack, and made them repeatedly watch the television film Brian's Song to promote racial harmony. Powell always professed that what set Emerson apart was his great love of his soldiers and concern for their welfare. After a race riot occurred, in which African-American soldiers almost killed a white officer, Powell was charged by Emerson to crack down on black militants; Powell's efforts led to the discharge of one soldier, and other efforts to reduce racial tensions.[29] During 1976–1977 he commanded the 2nd Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division.[13]

Powell subsequently served as the junior military assistant to deputy secretaries of defense Charles Duncan and Graham Claytor, receiving a promotion to brigadier general on June 1, 1979.[37] At the ceremony, he received from Secretary Harold Brown's protocol officer, Stuart Purviance a framed quotation by President Abraham Lincoln. The quote was "I can make a brigadier general in five minutes. But it's not so easy to replace one hundred ten horses." Taped to the back of the frame was an envelope with instructions that it not be opened for ten years. When Powell opened the note in 1989, after he had become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he read Purviance's prediction that Powell would become Chief of Staff of the United States Army. Powell wrote that he kept the Lincoln quote as a reminder to remain humble despite his rank and position.[38]

National Security Advisor and other advisory roles

Powell retained his role as the now-senior military assistant into the presidency of Ronald Reagan, serving under Claytor's successor as deputy secretary of defense, Frank Carlucci. Powell and Carlucci formed a close friendship,[39] referring to each by first names in private, as Powell refused any sort of first-name basis in an official capacity.[40] It was on Powell's advice that Roy Benavidez received the Medal of Honor, after the presentation had been ignored by the Carter administration.[41][42] Powell also declined an offer from Secretary of the Army John O. Marsh Jr. to be his under secretary due to his reluctance to assume a political appointment; James R. Ambrose was selected instead.[43] Intent on attaining a division command, Powell petitioned Carlucci and Army chief of staff Edward C. Meyer for reassignment away from the Pentagon, with Meyer appointing Powell as assistant division commander for operations and training of the 4th Infantry Division at Fort Carson, Colorado under Major General John W. Hudachek.[44]

After he left Fort Carson, Powell became senior military assistant to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, whom he assisted during the 1983 invasion of Grenada[45] and the 1986 airstrike on Libya.[46] Under Weinberger, Powell was also involved in the unlawful transfer of US-made TOW anti-tank missiles and Hawk anti-aircraft missiles from Israel to Iran as part of the criminal conspiracy that would later become known as the Iran–Contra affair.[47]: 342–349 [48] In November 1985, Powell solicited and delivered to Weinberger a legal assessment that the transfer of Hawk missiles to Israel or Iran, without Congressional notification, would be "a clear violation" of the law.[47]: 345 [48] Despite this, thousands of TOW missiles and hundreds of Hawk missiles and spare parts were transferred from Israel to Iran until the venture was exposed in a Lebanese magazine, Ash-Shiraa, in November 1986.[49][50][51] According to Iran-Contra Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh, when questioned by Congress, Powell "had given incomplete answers" concerning notes withheld by Weinberger and that the activities of Powell and others in concealing the notes "seemed corrupt enough to meet the new, poorly defined test of obstruction."[47]: 403  Following his resignation as Secretary of Defense, Weinberger was indicted on five felony charges, including one count Obstruction of Congress for concealing the notes.[52][53]: 456  Powell was never indicted by the Independent Counsel in connection with the Iran-Contra affair.[53]

 
President Ronald Reagan and National Security Advisor Powell in 1988

In 1986, Powell took over the command of V Corps in Frankfurt, Germany, from Robert Lewis "Sam" Wetzel. The next year, he served as United States Deputy National Security Advisor, under Frank Carlucci.[54]

Following the Iran–Contra scandal, Powell became, at the age of 49, Ronald Reagan's National Security Advisor, serving from 1987 to 1989 while retaining his Army commission as a lieutenant general.[55] He helped negotiate a number of arms treaties with Mikhail Gorbachev, the leader of the Soviet Union.[9]

In April 1989, after his tenure with the National Security Council, Powell was promoted to four-star general under President George H. W. Bush and briefly served as the Commander in Chief, Forces Command (FORSCOM), headquartered at Fort McPherson, Georgia, overseeing all Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard units in the Continental US, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. He became the third general since World War II to reach four-star rank without ever serving as a division commander,[46] joining Dwight D. Eisenhower and Alexander Haig.

Later that year, President George H. W. Bush selected him as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[56]

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

 
Powell in November 1989, in his official portrait as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Powell's last military assignment, from October 1, 1989, to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. At age 52, he became the youngest officer, and first Afro-Caribbean American, to serve in this position. Powell was also the first JCS chair who received his commission through ROTC.[57]

During this time, Powell oversaw responses to 28 crises, including the invasion of Panama in 1989 to remove General Manuel Noriega from power and Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. During these events, Powell earned the nickname "the reluctant warrior"—although Powell himself disputed this label, and spoke in favor of the first Bush administration's Gulf War policies.[58]

As a military strategist, Powell advocated an approach to military conflicts that maximizes the potential for success and minimizes casualties. A component of this approach is the use of overwhelming force, which he applied to Operation Desert Storm in 1991. His approach has been dubbed the Powell Doctrine.[59] Powell continued as chairman of the JCS into the Clinton presidency. However, as a realist, he considered himself a bad fit for an administration largely made up of liberal internationalists.[60] He clashed with then-US ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright over the Bosnian crisis, as he opposed any military intervention that did not involve US interests.[61]

Powell also regularly clashed with Secretary of Defense Leslie Aspin, whom he was initially hesitant to support after Aspin was nominated by President Clinton.[62] During a lunch meeting between Powell and Aspin in preparation of Operation Gothic Serpent, Aspin was more focused on eating salad instead of listening and paying attention to Powell's presentation on military operations.[62] The incident caused Powell to grow more irritated towards Aspin and led to his early resignation on September 30, 1993. Powell was succeeded temporarily by Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral David E. Jeremiah, who took the position as Acting Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Soon after Powell's resignation, on October 3–4, 1993, the Battle of Mogadishu, the aim of which was to capture Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid, was initiated and ended in disaster. Powell later defended Aspin, saying in part that he could not fault Aspin for Aspin's decision to remove a Lockheed AC-130 from the list of armaments requested for the operation.[63]

Powell took an early resignation from his tenure as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on September 30, 1993. During his chairmanship of the JCS, there was discussion of awarding Powell a fifth star, granting him the rank of General of the Army.[64] But even in the wake of public and Congressional pressure[65][66] to do so, Clinton-Gore presidential transition team staffers decided against it.[67][68][69]

Dates of rank

Promotions
Rank Date
  General April 4, 1989
  Lieutenant general March 26, 1986
  Major general August 1, 1983
  Brigadier general June 1, 1979
  Colonel February 1, 1976
  Lieutenant colonel July 9, 1970
  Major May 24, 1966
  Captain June 2, 1962
  First lieutenant December 30, 1959
  Second lieutenant June 9, 1958

Awards and decorations

Badges

Medals and ribbons

Defense Distinguished Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters[71]
Army Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster[71]
  Navy Distinguished Service Medal[71]
  Air Force Distinguished Service Medal[71]
  Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal[71]
  Defense Superior Service Medal[71]
Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster[71]
  Soldier's Medal[71]
  Bronze Star Medal[72]
  Purple Heart[72]
  Air Medal[70]
  Joint Service Commendation Medal[70]
Army Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters[70]
  Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction (1993)[73]
  Presidential Medal of Freedom (1991)[74]
  Presidential Citizens Medal[75]
  Secretary's Distinguished Service Award[75]
National Defense Service Medal with bronze service star
Vietnam Service Medal with silver service star
  Army Service Ribbon[70]
   Army Overseas Service Ribbon with award numeral 4

Foreign decorations

  Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) (United Kingdom)
  Légion d'honneur, Grand Cross (France)
  Meritorious Service Cross (M.S.C.) (Canada)
  Skanderbeg's Order (Albania)
  Order of Stara Planina in the First Order (Bulgaria)[76][77]
  Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation
  Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal

Potential presidential candidate

 
Powell, as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, waves from his motorcade during the Persian Gulf War Welcome Home Parade in New York City.

Powell's experience in military matters made him a very popular figure with both American political parties. Many Democrats admired his moderate stance on military matters, while many Republicans saw him as a great asset associated with the successes of past Republican administrations. Put forth as a potential Democratic vice presidential nominee in the 1992 US presidential election[78] or even potentially replacing Vice President Dan Quayle as the Republican vice presidential nominee,[79] Powell eventually declared himself a Republican and began to campaign for Republican candidates in 1995.[80][81] He was touted as a possible opponent of Bill Clinton in the 1996 US presidential election, possibly capitalizing on a split conservative vote in Iowa[82] and even leading New Hampshire polls for the GOP nomination,[83] but Powell declined, citing a lack of passion for politics.[84] Powell defeated Clinton 50–38 in a hypothetical match-up proposed to voters in the exit polls conducted on Election Day.[85] Despite not standing in the race, Powell won the Republican New Hampshire Vice-Presidential primary on write-in votes.[86]

In 1997, Powell founded America's Promise with the objective of helping children from all socioeconomic sectors. That same year saw the establishment of The Colin L. Powell Center for Leadership and Service. The mission of the center is to "prepare new generations of publicly engaged leaders from populations previously underrepresented in public service and policy circles, to build a strong culture of civic engagement at City College, and to mobilize campus resources to meet pressing community needs and serve the public good."[87]

Powell was mentioned as a potential candidate in the 2000 US presidential election, but again decided against running.[88] Once Texas Governor George W. Bush secured the Republican nomination, Powell endorsed him for president and spoke at the 2000 Republican National Convention.[89][90] Bush won the general election and appointed Powell as secretary of state in 2001.[91]

In the electoral college vote count of 2016, Powell received three votes for president from faithless electors from Washington.[92]

Secretary of State (2001–2005)

 
Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. Bush speak.

President-elect George W. Bush named Powell as his nominee to be secretary of state in a ceremony at his ranch in Crawford, Texas on December 16, 2000.[93] This made Powell the first person to formally accept a Cabinet post in the Bush administration,[93][94] as well the first black United States secretary of state.[9] As secretary of state, Powell was perceived as moderate. Powell was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate by voice vote on January 20, 2001,[95] and ceremonially sworn in on January 26.[96][97] Over the course of his tenure he traveled less than any other US Secretary of State in thirty years.[98]

On September 11, 2001, Powell was in Lima, Peru, meeting with President Alejandro Toledo and attending a meeting of foreign ministers of the Organization of American States.[99][100] After the September 11 attacks, Powell's job became of critical importance in managing the United States of America's relationships with foreign countries in order to secure a stable coalition in the War on Terrorism.[citation needed]

2003 US invasion of Iraq

My second purpose today is ... to share with you what the United States knows about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction ... Iraq's behavior demonstrate that Saddam Hussein and his regime have made no effort ... to disarm as required by the international community. Indeed, the facts and Iraq's behavior show that Saddam Hussein and his regime are concealing their efforts to produce more weapons of mass destruction ... every statement I make today is backed up by sources, solid sources. These are not assertions. What we're giving you are facts and conclusions based on solid intelligence.

— Colin Powell, Address to the United Nations Security Council[101]

Powell came under fire for his role in building the case for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A 2004 report by the Iraq Survey Group concluded that the evidence that Powell offered to support the allegation that the Iraqi government possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) was inaccurate.[102]

In a press statement on February 24, 2001, Powell had said that sanctions against Iraq had prevented the development of any weapons of mass destruction by Saddam Hussein.[103] Powell favored involving the international community in the invasion, as opposed to a unilateral approach.[104]

 
Computer-generated image of an alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons, presented by Powell at the UN Security Council. On May 27, 2003, US and UK experts examined the trailers and declared they had nothing to do with biological weapons.[105]
 
Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council in February 2003

Powell's chief role was to garner international support for a multi-national coalition to mount the invasion. To this end, Powell addressed a plenary session of the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003, to argue in favor of military action.[106] Citing numerous anonymous Iraqi defectors, Powell asserted that "there can be no doubt that Saddam Hussein has biological weapons and the capability to rapidly produce more, many more." Powell also stated that there was "no doubt in my mind" that Saddam was working to obtain key components to produce nuclear weapons.[101] Powell stated that he gave his speech to the UN on "four days' notice".[107][108]

 
Secretary Powell with Indonesian Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare, Alwi Shihab during a visit to Banda Aceh following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. December 26, 2004, Tsunami that struck South East Asia

Britain's Channel 4 News reported soon afterwards that a UK intelligence dossier that Powell had referred to as a "fine paper" during his presentation had been based on old material and plagiarized an essay by American graduate student Ibrahim al-Marashi.[109][110]

A Senate report on intelligence failures would later detail the intense debate that went on behind the scenes on what to include in Powell's speech. State Department analysts had found dozens of factual problems in drafts of the speech. Some of the claims were taken out, but others were left in, such as claims based on the yellowcake forgery.[111] The administration came under fire for having acted on faulty intelligence, particularly that which was single-sourced to the informant known as Curveball. Powell later recounted how Vice President Dick Cheney had joked with him before he gave the speech, telling him, "You've got high poll ratings; you can afford to lose a few points." Powell's longtime aide-de-camp and Chief of Staff from 1989 to 2003, Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, later characterized Cheney's view of Powell's mission as to "go up there and sell it, and we'll have moved forward a peg or two. Fall on your damn sword and kill yourself, and I'll be happy, too."[112]

In September 2005, Powell was asked about the speech during an interview with Barbara Walters and responded that it was a "blot" on his record. He went on to say, "It will always be a part of my record. It was painful. It's painful now."[113]

Wilkerson later said that he inadvertently participated in a hoax on the American people in preparing Powell's erroneous testimony before the United Nations Security Council.[114]

As recounted in Soldier: The Life of Colin Powell, in 2001 before 9/11, Richard A. Clarke, a National Security Council holdover from the Clinton administration, pushed the new Bush administration for action against al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, a move opposed by Paul Wolfowitz who advocated for the creation of a "U.S.-protected, opposition-run 'liberated' enclave around the southern Iraqi city of Basra".[115] Powell referred to Wolfowitz and other top members of Donald Rumsfeld's staff "as the 'JINSA crowd,' " in reference to the pro-Israel Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs.[116] Again invoking "the JINSA crowd" Powell also attributed the decision to go to war in Iraq in 2003 to the neoconservative belief that regime change in Baghdad "was a first and necessary stop on the road to peace in Jerusalem."[117]

A review of Soldier by Tim Rutten criticized Powell's remarks as a "blot on his record", accusing Powell of slandering "neoconservatives in the Defense Department -- nearly all of them Jews" with "old and wholly unmeritorious allegations of dual loyalty".[118] A 2007 article about fears that Jewish groups "will be accused of driving America into a war with the regime in Tehran" cited the DeYoung biography and quoted JINSA's then-executive director, Thomas Neumann, as "surprised" Powell "would single out a Jewish group when naming those who supported the war." Neumann said, "I am not accusing Powell of anything, but these are words that the antisemites will use in the future".[119]

 
Secretary Powell with NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer

Once Saddam Hussein had been deposed, Powell's renewed role was to once again establish a working international coalition, this time to assist in the rebuilding of post-war Iraq. On September 13, 2004, Powell testified before the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee,[120] acknowledging that the sources who provided much of the information in his February 2003 UN presentation were "wrong" and that it was "unlikely" that any stockpiles of WMDs would be found. Claiming that he was unaware that some intelligence officials questioned the information prior to his presentation, Powell pushed for reform in the intelligence community, including the creation of a national intelligence director who would assure that "what one person knew, everyone else knew".[121]

Other foreign policy issues

Additionally, Powell was critical of other aspects of US foreign policy in the past, such as its support for the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. From two separate interviews in 2003, Powell stated in one about the 1973 event "I can't justify or explain the actions and decisions that were made at that time. It was a different time. There was a great deal of concern about communism in this part of the world. Communism was a threat to the democracies in this part of the world. It was a threat to the United States."[122] In another interview, however, he also simply stated, "With respect to your earlier comment about Chile in the 1970s and what happened with Mr. Allende, it is not a part of American history that we're proud of."[123]

In September 2004, Powell described the Darfur genocide as "genocide", thus becoming the first cabinet member to apply the term "genocide" to events in an ongoing conflict.[124]

In November the president "forced Powell to resign", according to Walter LaFeber.[5] Powell announced his resignation as Secretary of State on November 15, 2004, shortly after Bush was reelected. Bush's desire for Powell to resign was communicated to Powell via a phone call by Bush's chief of staff, Andrew Card.[112] The following day, Bush nominated National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice as Powell's successor.[125]

In mid-November, Powell stated that he had seen new evidence suggesting that Iran was adapting missiles for a nuclear delivery system. The accusation came at the same time as the settlement of an agreement between Iran, the IAEA, and the European Union.[126]

Although biographer Jeffrey J. Matthews is highly critical of how Powell misled the United Nations Security Council regarding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, he credits Powell with a series of achievements at the State Department. These include restoration of morale to a psychologically demoralized professional diplomats, leadership of the international HIV/AIDS initiative, resolving a crisis with China, and blocking efforts to tie Saddam Hussein to the 9/11 attacks on the United States.[127]

Life after diplomatic service

After retiring from the role of Secretary of State, Powell returned to private life. In April 2005, he was privately telephoned by Republican senators Lincoln Chafee and Chuck Hagel,[128] at which time Powell expressed reservations and mixed reviews about the nomination of John Bolton as ambassador to the United Nations, but refrained from advising the senators to oppose Bolton (Powell had clashed with Bolton during Bush's first term).[129] The decision was viewed as potentially dealing significant damage to Bolton's chances of confirmation. Bolton was put into the position via a recess appointment because of the strong opposition in the Senate.[130]

 
Powell with Ban Ki-moon, 2004

On April 28, 2005, an opinion piece in The Guardian by Sidney Blumenthal (a former top aide to President Bill Clinton) claimed that Powell was in fact "conducting a campaign" against Bolton because of the acrimonious battles they had had while working together, which among other things had resulted in Powell cutting Bolton out of talks with Iran and Libya after complaints about Bolton's involvement from the British. Blumenthal added that "The foreign relations committee has discovered that Bolton made a highly unusual request and gained access to 10 intercepts by the National Security Agency. Staff members on the committee believe that Bolton was probably spying on Powell, his senior advisors and other officials reporting to him on diplomatic initiatives that Bolton opposed."[131]

In September 2005, Powell criticized the response to Hurricane Katrina, and said thousands of people were not properly protected because they were poor, rather than because they were black.[132]

 
Powell walks with newly crowned King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Vice President Dick Cheney, and former President George H. W. Bush, Saudi Arabia, August 2005

On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials. In September 2006, Powell sided with more moderate Senate Republicans in supporting more rights for detainees and opposing President Bush's terrorism bill. He backed Senators John Warner, John McCain, and Lindsey Graham in their statement that US military and intelligence personnel in future wars will suffer for abuses committed in 2006 by the US in the name of fighting terrorism. Powell stated that "The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of our fight against terrorism."[133]

In 2007, he joined the board of directors of Steve Case's new company Revolution Health. Powell also served on the Council on Foreign Relations Board of directors.[134]

In 2008, Powell served as a spokesperson for National Mentoring Month, a campaign held each January to recruit volunteer mentors for at-risk youth.[135]

Soon after Barack Obama's 2008 election, Powell began being mentioned as a possible cabinet member.[136] He was not nominated.

In September 2009, Powell advised President Obama against surging US forces in Afghanistan.[137] The president announced the surge the following December.

On March 14, 2014, Salesforce.com announced that Powell had joined its board of directors.[138]

Political positions

Powell was a moderate Republican from 1995 until 2021, when he became an independent following the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[139] He was pro-choice regarding abortion,[140] and expressed some support for an assault weapons ban.[141] He stated in his autobiography that he supported affirmative action that levels the playing field, without giving a leg up to undeserving persons because of racial issues. Powell originally suggested the don't ask, don't tell policy to President Clinton,[142] though he later supported its repeal as proposed by Robert Gates and Admiral Mike Mullen in January 2010, saying "circumstances had changed".[143] According to Mark Perry, however, Powell actually disagreed with the policy from the beginning.[62][page needed]

External video
  Booknotes interview with Powell on My American Journey, January 7, 1996, C-SPAN

Powell gained attention in 2004 when, in a conversation with British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, he reportedly referred to neoconservatives within the Bush administration as "fucking crazies".[144]

In a September 2006 letter to John McCain, Powell expressed opposition to President Bush's push for military tribunals of those formerly and currently classified as enemy combatants. Specifically, he objected to the effort in Congress to "redefine Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention." He also asserted: "The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of our fight against terrorism."[145]

Justifying the Iraq War

At the 2007 Aspen Ideas Festival in Colorado,[146] Powell stated that he had spent two and a half hours explaining to President Bush "the consequences of going into an Arab country and becoming the occupiers". During this discussion, he insisted that the US appeal to the United Nations first, but if diplomacy failed, he would support the invasion: "I also had to say to him that you are the President, you will have to make the ultimate judgment, and if the judgment is this isn't working and we don't think it is going to solve the problem, then if military action is undertaken I'm with you, I support you."[147]

In a 2008 interview on CNN, Powell reiterated his support for the 2003 decision to invade Iraq in the context of his endorsement of Barack Obama, stating: "My role has been very, very straightforward. I wanted to avoid a war. The president [Bush] agreed with me. We tried to do that. We couldn't get it through the U.N. and when the president made the decision, I supported that decision. And I've never blinked from that. I've never said I didn't support a decision to go to war."[148]

Powell's position on the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 was less consistent. In December 2006, he expressed skepticism that the strategy would work and whether the US military had enough troops to carry it out successfully. He stated: "I am not persuaded that another surge of troops into Baghdad for the purposes of suppressing this communitarian violence, this civil war, will work."[149] Following his endorsement of Barack Obama in October 2008, however, Powell praised General David Petraeus and US troops, as well as the Iraqi government, concluding that "it's starting to turn around".[148] By mid-2009, he had concluded a surge of US forces in Iraq should have come sooner, perhaps in late 2003.[150]

Role in presidential election of 2008

Powell donated the maximum allowable amount to John McCain's campaign in the summer of 2007[151] and in early 2008, his name was listed as a possible running mate for Republican nominee McCain's bid during the 2008 US presidential election.[152]

McCain won the Republican presidential nomination, but the Democrats nominated the first black candidate, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. On October 19, 2008, Powell announced his endorsement of Obama during a Meet the Press interview, citing "his ability to inspire, because of the inclusive nature of his campaign, because he is reaching out all across America, because of who he is and his rhetorical abilities", in addition to his "style and substance." He additionally referred to Obama as a "transformational figure".[153][154] Powell further questioned McCain's judgment in appointing Sarah Palin as the vice presidential candidate, stating that despite the fact that she is admired, "now that we have had a chance to watch her for some seven weeks, I don't believe she's ready to be president of the United States, which is the job of the vice president." He said that Obama's choice for vice-president, Joe Biden, was ready to be president. He also added that he was "troubled" by the "false intimations that Obama was Muslim." Powell stated that "[Obama] is a Christian – he's always been a Christian... But the really right answer is, what if he is? Is there something wrong with being a Muslim in this country? The answer's no, that's not America." Powell then mentioned Kareem Rashad Sultan Khan, a Muslim American soldier in the US Army who served and died in the Iraq War. He later stated, "Over the last seven weeks, the approach of the Republican Party has become narrower and narrower [...] I look at these kind of approaches to the campaign, and they trouble me."[153][154] Powell concluded his Sunday morning talk show comments, "It isn't easy for me to disappoint Sen. McCain in the way that I have this morning, and I regret that [...] I think we need a transformational figure. I think we need a president who is a generational change and that's why I'm supporting Barack Obama, not out of any lack of respect or admiration for Sen. John McCain."[155] Later in a December 12, 2008, CNN interview with Fareed Zakaria, Powell reiterated his belief that during the last few months of the campaign, Palin pushed the Republican party further to the right and had a polarizing impact on it.[156]

When asked why he was still a Republican on Meet the Press he said, "I'm still a Republican. And I think the Republican Party needs me more than the Democratic Party needs me. And you can be a Republican and still feel strongly about issues such as immigration, and improving our education system, and doing something about some of the social problems that exist in our society and our country. I don't think there's anything inconsistent with this."[157]

Views on the Obama administration

In a July 2009 CNN interview with John King, Powell expressed concern over President Obama increasing the size of the federal government and the size of the federal budget deficit.[158] In September 2010, he criticized the Obama administration for not focusing "like a razor blade" on the economy and job creation. Powell reiterated that Obama was a "transformational figure."[159] In a video that aired on CNN.com in November 2011, Colin Powell said in reference to Barack Obama, "many of his decisions have been quite sound. The financial system was put back on a stable basis."[160]

On October 25, 2012, 12 days before the presidential election, he gave his endorsement to President Obama for re-election during a broadcast of CBS This Morning. He considered the administration to have had success and achieved progress in foreign and domestic policy arenas. As additional reasons for his endorsement, Powell cited the changing positions and perceived lack of thoughtfulness of Mitt Romney on foreign affairs, and a concern for the validity of Romney's economic plans.[161]

In an interview with ABC's Diane Sawyer and George Stephanopoulos during ABC's coverage of President Obama's second inauguration, Powell criticized members of the Republican Party who spread "things that demonize the president". He called on GOP leaders to publicly denounce such talk.[162]

2016 presidential election

Powell was very vocal on the state of the Republican Party. Speaking at a Washington Ideas forum in early October 2015, he warned the audience that the Republican Party had begun a move to the fringe right, lessening the chances of a Republican White House in the future. He also remarked on Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump's statements regarding immigrants, noting that there were many immigrants working in Trump hotels.[163]

In March 2016, Powell denounced the "nastiness" of the 2016 Republican primaries during an interview on CBS This Morning. He compared the race to reality television, and stated that the campaign had gone "into the mud."[164]

In August 2016, Powell accused the Hillary Clinton campaign of trying to pin her email controversy on him. Speaking to People magazine, Powell said, "The truth is, she was using [the private email server] for a year before I sent her a memo telling her what I did."[165]

On September 13, 2016, emails were obtained that revealed Powell's private communications regarding both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Powell privately reiterated his comments regarding Clinton's email scandal, writing, "I have told Hillary's minions repeatedly that they are making a mistake trying to drag me in, yet they still try," and complaining that "Hillary's mafia keeps trying to suck me into it" in another email.[166] In another email discussing Clinton's controversy, Powell said she should have told everyone what she did "two years ago", and said that she has not "been covering herself with glory." Writing on the 2012 Benghazi attack controversy surrounding Clinton, Powell said to then US Ambassador Susan Rice, "Benghazi is a stupid witch hunt." Commenting on Clinton in a general sense, he mused that "Everything HRC touches she kind of screws up with hubris", and in another email stated "I would rather not have to vote for her, although she is a friend I respect."[167]

Powell called Donald Trump a "national disgrace", with "no sense of shame". He wrote of Trump's role in the birther movement, which he called "racist". He suggested the media ignore Trump: "To go on and call him an idiot just emboldens him." The emails were obtained by the media as the result of a hack.[168]

Powell endorsed Clinton on October 25, 2016, stating it was "because I think she's qualified, and the other gentleman is not qualified".[169]

Despite not running in the election, Powell received three electoral votes for president from faithless electors in Washington who had pledged to vote for Clinton, coming in third overall.[170] After Barack Obama, he was the second black person to receive electoral votes in a presidential election.[171]

Views on the Trump administration

In an interview in October 2019, Powell warned that the GOP needed to “get a grip" and put the country before their party, standing up to President Trump rather than worrying about political fallout. "When they see things that are not right, they need to say something about it because our foreign policy is in shambles right now, in my humble judgment, and I see things happening that are hard to understand," Powell said.[172] On June 7, 2020, Powell announced he would be voting for former Vice President Joe Biden in the 2020 presidential election.[173] In August, Powell delivered a speech in support of Biden's candidacy at the 2020 Democratic National Convention.[174]

In January 2021, after the Capitol building was attacked by Trump supporters, Powell told CNN "I can no longer call myself a fellow Republican."[175]

Personal life

Powell married Alma Johnson on August 25, 1962. Their son, Michael Powell, was the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from 2001 to 2005. His daughters are Linda Powell, an actress, and Annemarie Powell. As a hobby, Powell restored old Volvo and Saab automobiles.[176][177] In 2013, he faced questions about his relationship with the Romanian diplomat Corina Crețu, after a hacked AOL email account had been made public. He acknowledged a "very personal" email relationship but denied further involvement.[178] He was an Episcopalian.[179][180][181]

Death

 
Powell's coffin is carried by an Armed Forces body bearer team at his funeral on November 5, 2021.

On October 18, 2021, Powell, who was being treated for multiple myeloma,[182] died at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center of complications from COVID-19 at the age of 84.[183] He had been vaccinated, but his myeloma compromised his immune system; he also had early-stage Parkinson's disease.[9][184] President Joe Biden and four of the five living former presidents issued statements calling Powell as an American hero. Donald Trump disparaged him as having made "big mistakes" and as a "classic RINO".[185][186][187]

Present at the funeral service at the Washington National Cathedral were President Biden and former presidents Barack Obama and George W. Bush, along with First Lady Jill Biden and former first ladies Michelle Obama, Laura Bush, and Hillary Clinton (also representing her husband, former President Bill Clinton, who decided not to attend following treatment for sepsis) as well many other dignitaries.[188]

Civilian awards and honors

Colin Powell
 
CrestThe head of an American bald-headed eagle erased, the erasure per bend sinister Proper.
BlazonAzure, two swords in saltire points downwards between four mullets Argent, on a chief of the Second a lion passant Gules.[189]
MottoDevoted To Public Service
The coat of arms of Colin Powell was granted by the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh on February 3, 2004. Technically the grant was to Powell's father (a British subject) to be passed on by descent. Scotland's King of Arms is traditionally responsible for granting arms to Commonwealth citizens of Scottish descent. The swords and stars refer to the former general's career, as does the crest, which is the badge of the 101st Airborne (which he served as a brigade commander in the mid-1970s). The lion may be an allusion to Scotland. The shield can be shown surrounded by the insignia of an honorary Knight Commander of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath (KCB), an award the General received after the first Gulf War.

Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medals of Freedom (the second with distinction), the Congressional Gold Medal, and the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award.

 
Colin Powell Elementary School in Union City, New Jersey, on October 18, 2021, the day Powell died

See also

References

  1. ^ Preferred pronunciation of "Powell" rhymes with "bowel", not "bowl" (as in Charles Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater) – see Alexander Chancellor, "You Say Tomato", The New Yorker. August 9, 1993, p. 27.
  2. ^ Macias, Amanda (October 19, 2021). "Colin Powell, trailblazing soldier and statesman who made case for Iraq invasion, dies of Covid at 84". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 29, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  3. ^ "Colin Powell: Former US secretary of state dies of Covid complications". BBC News. October 19, 2021. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  4. ^ LaFeber 2009.
  5. ^ a b LaFeber 2009, p. 71.
  6. ^ Richardson, Valerie (December 21, 2016). "Colin Powell places third in presidential race at Electoral College". Washington Times. Archived from the original on October 20, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  7. ^ "Biographies of the Secretary of State:Colin Luther Powell". US Department of State, Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  8. ^ Palmowski, Jan (2008). "Powell, Colin Luther". A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3d ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929567-8. OCLC 173498636. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Schmitt, Eric (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell, Who Shaped U.S. National Security, Dies at 84". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  10. ^ Oster, Patrick (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell, U.S. Army general-turned-top diplomat, dies at 84". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  11. ^ Branigan, Tania (May 12, 2004). "Colin Powell claims Scottish coat of arms". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  12. ^ "Colin Powell's Scottish Ancestry". Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter. 9 (20). May 17, 2004. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  13. ^ a b "Colin Powell Fast Facts". CNN. March 30, 2016. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  14. ^ O'Sullivan, Christopher D. (April 16, 2009). Colin Powell: American Power and Intervention From Vietnam to Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-7425-6535-7. Archived from the original on October 29, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  15. ^ "Four things you didn't know about Colin Powell". Los Angeles Times. October 18, 2021. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  16. ^ Daly, Michael (August 2, 2000). "Powell's Old Nabe Boss a Big Backer". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on November 10, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Powell explained that he had joined ROTC. He became an officer after graduation, leaving Sickser's with a smattering of Yiddish...
  17. ^ "Former Secretary of State Gen. Colin Powell and Mario Cuomo, former governor of New York State, each a former Shabbos goy, both share fond recollections of their youth, when they were uniquely qualified to lend a Jewish neighbor a hand." Fertig, Avi. "Glatt Kosher Adventure To The Land Down Under", The Jewish Press, November 21, 2007.
  18. ^ a b "Colin Powell Fast Facts". CNN. April 2, 2017. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. Education: City College of New York, B.S. in geology,1958; George Washington University, M.B.A.,1971; National War College, 1976
  19. ^ "About Gen. Colin L. Powell, USA (Ret.)". The Colin Powell School for Civic and Global Leadership, The City College of New York. July 2, 2015. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. He attended New York City public schools and the City College of New York where he earned a B.S. in Geology.
  20. ^ Schwab, Nikki (May 30, 2012). "Colin Powell: bad student". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017. My cousins became lawyers and doctors and judges and I just sort of hung around," he recalled. "I had a straight C average all the way through high school and the City College of New York – I'm not sure how I got in.
  21. ^ "Colin L. Powell* | GW's Bicentennial Celebration | The George Washington University". bicentennial.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  22. ^ "Major Player: Gen. Colin L. Powell (Ret.)". The Washington Post. July 28, 2000. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  23. ^ "Colin (Luther) Powell Biography (1937– )". The Biography Channel. A&E Television Networks. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
  24. ^ "'It Worked For Me': Life Lessons From Colin Powell". NPR.org. May 22, 2012. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  25. ^ "Colin Powell Biography and Interview". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on April 6, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  26. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  27. ^ "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell (biography)". The White House. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  28. ^ a b "Obituary: Colin Powell". BBC News. October 18, 2021. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c "Colin Powell". CNN. 1996. Archived from the original on September 2, 2000. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  30. ^ Kearny, Cresson H. (1996). Jungle Snafus...And Remedies. Cave Junction, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Science & Medicine. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-884067-10-5. OCLC 41447083.
  31. ^ Steins 2003, pp. 25–26.
  32. ^ Finlayson, Reggie (2003). Colin Powell. Biography (A & E). Twenty-First Century Books. p. 55. ISBN 9780822549666. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  33. ^ a b "My Lai at 50: Written Case Study". Center for the Army Profession and Leadership. US Army. 2021. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  34. ^ "Colin Powell: From Vietnam vet to secretary of state". BBC News. October 18, 2021. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  35. ^ "Interview on CNN's Larry King Live". New York: US Department of State. May 4, 2004. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  36. ^ Brown, Warren; Wagner, Heather Lehr (January 1, 2009). Colin Powell: Soldier and Statesman. Infobase Publishing. p. 41,43.
  37. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. p. 588. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  38. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  39. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. p. 631. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  40. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. p. 618. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  41. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. pp. 622–623. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  42. ^ Mann, James (March 8, 2004). Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143034896.
  43. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. pp. 626–628. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  44. ^ Powell, Colin L.; Persico, Joseph E. (December 29, 2010). My American Journey. Random House. pp. 628–629. ISBN 978-0-307-76368-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  45. ^ Kukielski, Philip (2019). The U.S. Invasion of Grenada : legacy of a flawed victory. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. pp. 209–210, 218. ISBN 978-1-4766-7879-5. OCLC 1123182247. Archived from the original on December 27, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  46. ^ a b Graham, Bradley (October 18, 2021). "Colin L. Powell, former secretary of state and military leader, dies at 84". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  47. ^ a b c Walsh, Lawrence E. (1997). Firewall: The Iran–Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. New York: Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-3933-1860-9.
  48. ^ a b Walsh, Lawrence (August 4, 1993). Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters (Report). 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. xx, 70, 92, 341, 406–411, 414, 416, 417, 421, 423, 427, 428, 430–432, 434, 436, 438–440. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  49. ^ "Arms, Hostages and Contras: How a Secret Foreign Policy Unraveled". The New York Times (National ed.). November 19, 1987. sec. A. p. 12. Archived from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  50. ^ Shireen T. Hunter (Spring 1987). "After the Ayatollah". Foreign Policy. 66 (66): 77–97. doi:10.2307/1148665. JSTOR 1148665.
  51. ^ Cave, George. "Why Secret 1986 U.S.-Iran "Arms for Hostages" Negotiations Failed". Washington Report on Middle Eastern Affairs. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  52. ^ Brinley, Joel (June 17, 1992). "Weinberger Faces 5 Counts In Iran-Contra Indictment". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  53. ^ a b Walsh, Lawrence (August 4, 1993). Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters (Report). 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  54. ^ Bamford, James (January 18, 1987). "Carlucci and the N.S.C." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  55. ^ Barno, David; Bensahel, Nora (February 28, 2017). "An Active-Duty National Security Advisor: Myths and Concerns". War on the Rocks. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  56. ^ "Online NewsHour: Colin Powell". Pbs.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  57. ^ "The 14 Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Joint History Office, US Department of Defense. American Forces Press Service. August 10, 1999. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  58. ^ Steins 2003, p. 95.
  59. ^ DeYoung 2006a, p. 210.
  60. ^ O'Sullivan 2010, p. 100.
  61. ^ "Reluctant warrior". The Observer. September 30, 2001. Archived from the original on September 21, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  62. ^ a b c Perry, Mark (2017). The Pentagon's wars: the military's undeclared war against America's presidents (First ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0-465-07971-1. OCLC 972386823.
  63. ^ Bowden, Mark (1999). Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 340. ISBN 0-87113-738-0. OCLC 40135273.
  64. ^ Abrams, Jim (March 21, 1991). "Schwarzkopf, Powell Up For Awards, But Fifth Star Not Given Lightly". Associated Press. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  65. ^ Company, Johnson Publishing (March 1991). "U.S. Sen. Kasten Pushing Effort To Award Powell With Historic Fifth Star". Jet. 79 (23). ISSN 0021-5996. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2011. ...there is a movement afoot in the U.S. Senate to award an historic fifth star to the nation's first Black Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Gen. Colin L. Powell for his military proficiency.
  66. ^ Italia, Bob (1991). Armed Forces: War in the Gulf. Abdo & Daughters. pp. 44–6. ISBN 978-1-56239-026-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Others want to make him a five-star general. [...] Congress is talking about giving him a fifth silver star, which is very rare.
  67. ^ Stephanopoulos, George (1999). All Too Human: A Political Education. Thorndike Press. pp. 330–1. ISBN 978-0-7862-2016-8. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Mack asked me to secretly research the procedure for awarding a fifth star to a general. [...] If Powell did challenge Clinton, the fifth star would forestall criticism of the general's military record.
  68. ^ Hamilton, Nigel (2007). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. PublicAffairs. pp. 190, 399. ISBN 978-1-58648-516-0. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Moreover, for the very reason he admired Colin Powell as the most distinguished living black American, Clinton also feared the general as a potential rival. [...] Bill Clinton had denied Powell his rightful fifth star...
  69. ^ Halberstam, David (2001). War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-7432-0212-1. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2011. They checked it out and found that the last general to get a fifth star was Omar Bradley forty-three years earlier. Powell, they decided, was not Bradley. Besides, as George Stephanopoulos noted, if they gave him one more star, it might help him one day politically.
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "US Army green service uniform jacket and service medals worn by Colin L. Powell". National Museum of African American History and Culture. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h "Colin Luther Powell". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  72. ^ a b Graham, Bradley (October 18, 2021). "Colin L. Powell, former secretary of state and military leader, dies at 84". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  73. ^ a b Clinton, W. J. (September 30, 1993). "Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell in Arlington, Virginia". University of California, Santa Barbara: The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016. In recognition of your legacy and service, of your courage and accomplishment, today, General Powell, I was honored to present you with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with distinction. I want to tell all those here in attendance that this was the second Medal of Freedom you have received, the first from President Bush in 1991. And today, you became only the second American citizen in the history of the Republic to be the recipient of two Medals of Freedom.
  74. ^ a b Rodriguez, Jeremiah (October 18, 2021). "Photos: Key moments in former U.S. secretary of state Colin Powell's career". CTVNews. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  75. ^ a b "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  76. ^ "Remarks With Bulgarian President Georgi Purvanov At Award Ceremony for the Stara Planina First Order Medal". Presidential Palace, Coat of Arms Hall, Sofia, Bulgaria: US Department of State. December 7, 2004. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  77. ^ "Parvanov-Powell". President of the Republic of Bulgaria. December 7, 2004. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2007. President Georgi Parvanov awarded US Secretary of State Colin Powell with the highest Bulgarian order "Stara Planina" for his extraordinary services to the advancement of Bulgarian-American relations and in connection with the 100th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and the United States.
  78. ^ Schram, Martin (January 21, 1995). "Don't Count Out Colin Powell". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
  79. ^ Van Dyk, Ted (September 6, 1990). "Will Powell Run With Bush in '92?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
  80. ^ Lusane C. Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice: Foreign Policy, Race and the New American Century. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98309-9, p. 46.
  81. ^ O'Reilly, Bill (January 29, 2013). "Bill O'Reilly: A 'No Spin' interview with Colin Powell". Fox News. Archived from the original on July 3, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  82. ^ Apple, R. W. (October 28, 1995). "Life in Iowa May Not Have Changed, But the Political Turf Is Another Story". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 3, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
  83. ^ Berke, Richard L. (October 19, 1995). "New Hampshire Poll Finds Powell With an Edge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  84. ^ Clines, Francis X. (November 9, 1995). "The Powell Decision: The Announcement". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  85. ^ Plissner, Martin (February 7, 2007). "Ready for Obama Already". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  86. ^ "NH US Vice President – R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. February 20, 1996. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  87. ^ "Colin L. Powell Center for Public Policy". Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  88. ^ "How Mccain Does It". Newsweek. March 6, 2000. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  89. ^ Denton Jr., Robert E. (2002). The 2000 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-275-97107-6. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  90. ^ O'Sullivan 2010, p. xi.
  91. ^ "Colin Powell: Former US secretary of state dies of Covid complications". BBC News. October 19, 2021. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  92. ^ Wheeler, Russell (October 21, 2020). "Can the Electoral College be subverted by "faithless electors"?". Brookings. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  93. ^ a b Clark, Tony (December 16, 2000). "Bush names Powell as choice for U.S. secretary of state". CNN.
  94. ^ Vulliamy, Ed (December 17, 2000). "Bush chooses Powell". The Guardian.
  95. ^ "PN100 — Colin Luther Powell — Department of State, 107th Congress (2001-2002)". U.S. Congress. January 20, 2001. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
  96. ^ "Powell ceremoniously sworn in as secretary of state". CNN. January 26, 2001.
  97. ^ Powell, Colin Luther (January 26, 2001). Secretary of State Swearing-In Ceremony. The White House, Washington, D. C.
  98. ^ Kessler, Glenn (July 14, 2004). "Powell Flies in the Face of Tradition; The Secretary of State Is Least Traveled in 30 Years". The Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  99. ^ Steins 2003, p. 116.
  100. ^ DeYoung 2006a, pp. 338–339.
  101. ^ a b Powell, Secretary Colin L. (February 5, 2003). "Remarks to the United Nations Security Council". New York City: US Department of State. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  102. ^ "Iraq had no WMD - inspectors". The Guardian. October 6, 2004. Archived from the original on October 21, 2021. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  103. ^ Wood, B. Dan (August 27, 2012). Presidential Saber Rattling: Causes and Consequences. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139108720. ISBN 978-1-139-53669-1. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  104. ^ DeYoung 2006a, p. 401.
  105. ^ Warrick, Joby (April 12, 2006). "Lacking Biolabs, Trailers Carried Case for War; Administration Pushed Notion of Banned Iraqi Weapons Despite Evidence to Contrary". The Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  106. ^ Borger, Julian (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell's UN speech: a decisive moment in undermining US credibility". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  107. ^ "Powell regrets Iraq failings". Al Jazeera. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  108. ^ Breslow, Jason M. (May 17, 2016). "Colin Powell: U.N. Speech "Was a Great Intelligence Failure"". Frontline. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  109. ^ Lawless, Jill (February 7, 2003). "U.S. Scholar Uncredited in Iraq Report". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  110. ^ "UK accused of lifting dossier text". CNN. February 7, 2003. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  111. ^ Miller, Greg (July 15, 2004). "Flaws Cited in Powell's U.N. Speech on Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  112. ^ a b DeYoung, Karen (October 1, 2006). "Falling on His Sword: Colin Powell's most significant moment turned out to be his lowest". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  113. ^ "Colin Powell on Iraq, Race, and Hurricane Relief". ABC News: 20/20. September 8, 2005. Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  114. ^ Brancaccio, David (February 3, 2006). "Iraq Pre-War Intelligence". NOW. PBS. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  115. ^ DeYoung 2006a, pp. 344–345.
  116. ^ DeYoung 2006a, p. 356.
  117. ^ DeYoung 2006a, p. 388.
  118. ^ Rutten, Tim (October 9, 2006). "Powell biography involves a game of connect the blots". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  119. ^ Forward Staff (February 2, 2007). "Groups Fear Public Backlash Over Iran". Forward. Archived from the original on September 19, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  120. ^ Pincus, Walter (February 14, 2004). "Support for Intelligence Plan". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  121. ^ Pincus, Walter (September 14, 2004). "Support for Intelligence Plan". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  122. ^ "Remarks at the 2003 Groundhog Job Shadow Day Program, Secretary Colin L. Powell, Remarks and question and answer session with students, Washington, DC, January 31, 2003, excerpt on 1973 Chile coup, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Archived from the original on November 20, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  123. ^ "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, Interview On Black Entertainment Television's Youth Town Hall, February 20, 2003, excerpt on 1973 U.S. covert action in Chile, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Archived from the original on November 20, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  124. ^ Hamilton, Rebecca (August 17, 2011). "Inside Colin Powell's Decision to Declare Genocide in Darfur". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  125. ^ "Bush Nominates Rice to Be Secretary of State". ABC News. January 7, 2006. Archived from the original on November 16, 2004. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  126. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (November 18, 2004). "Exiles Add to Claims on Iran Nuclear Arms". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  127. ^ Matthews 2019, pp. 321, 379–85.
  128. ^ VandeHei, Jim; Robin Wright (April 22, 2005). "Powell Playing Quiet Role in Bolton Battle". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  129. ^ Borger, Julian (April 23, 2005). "Powell's remarks harm Bolton's chances of UN job". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  130. ^ "Bush appoints Bolton as U.N. ambassador". NBC News. July 29, 2005. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  131. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (April 28, 2005). "The good soldier's revenge". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  132. ^ "Powell criticises storm response". BBC News. September 9, 2005. Archived from the original on February 20, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2006.
  133. ^ "Senators defy Bush on tribunals". BBC News. September 15, 2006. Archived from the original on November 6, 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  134. ^ "Board of Directors". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  135. ^ "Who Mentored Colin Powell?". President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2008. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
  136. ^ "Al Gore, Colin Powell, Caroline Kennedy in Obama's Administration? – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. November 11, 2008. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  137. ^ "Powell advised against Afghan surge". Politico. September 27, 2009. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  138. ^ Ingrid Lunden. "General Colin Powell Joins Salesforce Board Of Directors, As CRM Giant Zeros In On Public Sector". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on August 30, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  139. ^ Why Colin Powell says he no longer considers himself a Republican (CNN Video), archived from the original on January 11, 2021, retrieved January 10, 2021
  140. ^ Rozell, Mark J.; Wilcox, Clyde (1997). God at the Grass Roots, 1996: The Christian Right in the American Elections. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-8476-8611-7. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  141. ^ Siddiqui, Sabrina (January 13, 2013). "Colin Powell Shows Support For Gun Control Measures, Including Assault Weapons Ban". HuffPost. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  142. ^ O'Sullivan 2009, p. 106.
  143. ^ DeYoung, Karen (February 3, 2010). "Colin Powell shifts stance on 'don't ask, don't tell' policy". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
  144. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (November 18, 2004). "Colin and the crazies". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  145. ^ "Sen. McCain Releases Letter from Gen. Colin Powell". The Washington Post. September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  146. ^ See Official website: Aspen Ideas Festival Archived July 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  147. ^ "Conversation with Colin Powell" (PDF). Aspen Ideas Festival. July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2008.
  148. ^ a b "Powell: Support for Obama doesn't mean Iraq war wrong". CNN. October 19, 2008. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  149. ^ Klatell, James M. (December 17, 2006). "Powell: We Are Losing In Iraq". CBS. Archived from the original on January 30, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
  150. ^ "Powell says Iraq surge should have come earlier". The Seattle Times. July 5, 2009. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
  151. ^ Henry, Ed (August 9, 2007). "Powell donates to McCain". CNN. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2007.
  152. ^ Holland, Steve (March 5, 2008). "McCain now has to pick a vice presidential nominee". Boston Globe. Reuters. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  153. ^ a b "Powell endorses Obama for president; Republican ex-Secretary of State calls Democrat 'transformational figure'". NBC News. Meet the Press. October 19, 2008. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  154. ^ a b "Meet the Press' transcript for October 19, 2008". NBC News. October 19, 2008. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
  155. ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (October 20, 2008). "Colin Powell endorses Barack Obama for president". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  156. ^ "Powell on Rush Limbaugh". CNN. July 16, 2010. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  157. ^ "Colin Powell: Republican Party Needs Me More Than The Democratic Party Needs Me". TheLonelyConservative.com. February 7, 2014. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  158. ^ Ward, Jon (July 3, 2009). "Powell airs doubts on Obama agenda". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
  159. ^ Budoff Brown, Carrie (September 19, 2010). "Colin Powell critical of President Obama". Politico. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  160. ^ "Video". CNN. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  161. ^ "Colin Powell endorses Barack Obama for president". CBS News. October 25, 2012. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  162. ^ Falcone, Michael. "Colin Powell Slams 'Idiot Presentations' by Some Republicans, Urges GOP Leaders to 'Speak Out'". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  163. ^ Stableford, Dylan (October 1, 2015). "Colin Powell slams Donald Trump's immigration plan". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  164. ^ Reilly, Mollie (March 7, 2016). "Colin Powell: The GOP Race Has 'Gone Into The Mud'". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  165. ^ "Colin Powell Says Hillary Clinton's 'People Have Been Trying to Pin' Email Scandal on Him". People. August 21, 2016. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  166. ^ Cummings, William (September 13, 2016). "Colin Powell calls Trump 'national disgrace' in hacked emails". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  167. ^ Blumenthal, Paul (September 14, 2016). "Colin Powell Attacked Hillary Clinton's 'Hubris' In Leaked Emails". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  168. ^ Blake, Aaron (September 14, 2016). "Here are the juiciest Colin Powell comments about Trump and Clinton from his hacked emails". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  169. ^ Blake, Aaron (November 7, 2016). "78 Republican politicians, donors and officials who are supporting Hillary Clinton". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  170. ^ Brunner, Jim (December 19, 2016). "Four Washington state electors break ranks and don't vote for Clinton". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  171. ^ "Electoral College Results". National Archives. November 12, 2019. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  172. ^ Russo, Amy (October 6, 2019). "Colin Powell: Republicans Terrified Of Speaking Out Need To 'Get A Grip'". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  173. ^ Cole, Devan (June 7, 2020). "Colin Powell says he will vote for Joe Biden for president". CNN. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  174. ^ Sullivan, Kate (August 19, 2020). "Colin Powell touts Biden's character at DNC: 'We need to restore those values to the White House'". CNN. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  175. ^ Pitofsky, Marina (January 10, 2021). "Colin Powell: 'I can no longer call myself a fellow Republican'". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  176. ^ Powell, Colin (October 17, 2005). "Interview transcript". Larry King Live (Interview). Interviewed by Larry King. CNN. Archived from the original on August 28, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  177. ^ Powell, Colin (August 2, 2004). "A Conversation with Colin Powell". The Atlantic (Interview). Interviewed by P. J. O'Rourke. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  178. ^ Colin Powell insists 'there was no affair then and there is not one now' with diplomat Archived October 19, 2021, at the Wayback Machine. NY Daily News. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.
  179. ^ "Former Secretary of State Colin Powell Dies of COVID Complications". CBN News. October 18, 2021. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  180. ^ Board, Daily News Editorial. "Son of NYC: Colin Powell's legacy of integrity". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  181. ^ "Statement from Presiding Bishop Michael Curry on the passing of Gen. Colin Powell, former secretary of state". The Episcopal Church. October 18, 2021. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  182. ^ Macias, Amanda (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell, former secretary of State who made case for Iraq invasion, dies of Covid complications at 84". CNBC. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  183. ^ Page,Susan (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell, Former US Secretary of State, dies at 84". USA Today.
  184. ^ Dunham, Will; Mohammed, Arshad (October 19, 2021). "Colin Powell, top U.S. soldier and diplomat, dies of COVID-19 complications". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 21, 2021. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  185. ^ Garrison, Joey (October 18, 2021). "'Country before self ... before all else': US presidents remember Colin Powell as American hero". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  186. ^ Benen, Steve. "Trump admonishes Colin Powell the day after his death". MSNBC.com. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  187. ^ Jackson, David. "Amid tributes to Colin Powell, Donald Trump disparages former secretary of state". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  188. ^ Naylor, Brian (November 5, 2021). "Colin Powell is remembered as a down-to-earth statesman and leader at his funeral". npr.org. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  189. ^ "Journal Christmas 2004" (PDF). Somerset Heraldry Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  190. ^ National Winners | public service awards Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Jefferson Awards.org. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.
  191. ^ "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today". NAACP. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  192. ^ "Colin L. Powell". The Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans. Archived from the original on August 30, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  193. ^ "Public Law 102-33 – Apr. 23, 1991" (PDF). gpo.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  194. ^ "The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006.
  195. ^ Oladipo, Gloria (October 18, 2021). "Colin Powell: key facts from his life". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  196. ^ "1998 Sylvanus Thayer AWard". West Point Association of Graduates. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  197. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  198. ^ Powell, Colin (July 4, 2002). "2002 Liberty Medal Acceptance Speech". Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
  199. ^ "Africare to Honor General Colin Powell at 2005 Africare Bishop John T. Walker Memorial Dinner - CSPAN To Broadcast". AllAfrica. October 4, 2005. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  200. ^ Richissin, Todd (May 2, 2006). "AARP honors Colin Powell with Andrus Award". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on June 20, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  201. ^ "Statement from Ambassador Mark Green on the Passing of General Colin L. Powell". Wilson Center. Archived from the original on October 18, 2021. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  202. ^ "List of Silver Buffalo recipients". Scouting Magazine. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  203. ^ "GEN Colin Powell". March 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  204. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  205. ^ According to the Fort Bliss Bugle, as of October 24, 2013, nine schools have been named for Colin Powell.
  206. ^ "Colin Luther Powell". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  207. ^ ".: The Official Wings Of Hope Homepage :". Wings-of-hope.org. Archived from the original on December 18, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  208. ^ "efworld". Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  209. ^ "Powell: Friendship with Israel means friendship with Arabs" (PDF). afhu.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  210. ^ McDonald, Terrence T. (February 8, 2013). "Gov. Christie visits Union City school opening, hears Democratic mayor praise him" Archived April 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. NJ.com.
  211. ^ Wenik, Ian (June 9, 2013). "Saluting the general". The Union City Reporter. pp. 1, 11.
  212. ^ "National Board of Advisors". National Board of Advisors. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.

Sources

Further reading

External links

Political offices
Preceded by Deputy National Security Advisor
1986–1987
Succeeded by
Preceded by National Security Advisor
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Preceded by United States Secretary of State
2001–2005
Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1989–1993
Succeeded by
Awards and achievements
Preceded by Recipient of the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
1993
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention
2000
Served alongside: John McCain
Succeeded by