Brent Scowcroft (//; born March 19, 1925) is a former United States Air Force officer who was a two-time United States National Security Advisor - first under U.S. President Gerald Ford and then under George H. W. Bush. He also served as Military Assistant to President Richard Nixon and as Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs in the Nixon and Ford administrations. He served as Chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005 and assisted President Barack Obama in choosing his national security team.
|Chairman of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board|
October 5, 2001 – February 25, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Warren Rudman|
|Succeeded by||Jim Langdon|
|9th and 17th United States National Security Advisor|
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Colin Powell|
|Succeeded by||Tony Lake|
November 3, 1975 – January 20, 1977
|Preceded by||Henry Kissinger|
|Succeeded by||Zbigniew Brzezinski|
|Born||March 19, 1925|
Ogden, Utah, U.S.
(m. 1951; died 1995)
|Education||United States Military Academy (BA)|
Columbia University (MA, PhD)
|Branch/service||United States Air Force|
|Years of service||1947-1975|
Early life and educationEdit
Scowcroft was born March 19, 1925, in Ogden, Utah, the son of Lucile Scowcroft (formerly Ballantyne) and James Scowcroft, a grocer and business owner. He is a descendant of early 19th-century British immigrants from England and Scotland, along with immigrants from Denmark and Norway. He elaborated upon his relationship with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in a 1999 oral history: "I have close personal ties to some of the church leadership. They would not consider me a good Mormon. I don’t live by all of the rules the Mormons like—I like a glass of wine and a cup of coffee. But yes, I do consider myself a Mormon. It’s part of a religious and a cultural heritage."
Scowcroft received his undergraduate degree and commission in the United States Army Air Forces from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York in June 1947. With the establishment of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947, his commission transferred to USAF. Scowcroft subsequently earned an M.A. (1953) and Ph.D. (1967) in international relations from Columbia University.
Before joining the Bush administration, Scowcroft was Vice Chairman of Kissinger Associates. He has had a long association with Henry Kissinger, having served as his assistant when Kissinger was the National Security Adviser under Richard Nixon, from 1969.
He is the founder and president of The Forum for International Policy, a think tank. Scowcroft is also president of The Scowcroft Group, an international business consulting firm. He is co-chair, along with Joseph Nye, of the Aspen Strategy Group. He is a member of the Trilateral Commission and the Council on Foreign Relations and a board member of the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Atlantic Council.
Following his commissioning as an Air Force Second Lieutenant in 1947, Scowcroft completed pilot training in October 1948 and then served in a variety of operational and administrative positions from 1948 to 1953. In the course of his military career, he held positions in the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Headquarters of the United States Air Force, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. Other assignments included faculty positions at the United States Air Force Academy and the United States Military Academy, and Assistant Air Attaché in the American Embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
As a senior officer, General Scowcroft was assigned to Headquarters U.S.A. Air Force in the office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and Operations, and served in the Long Range Planning Division, Directorate of Doctrine, Concepts and Objectives from 1964 to 1966. He next attended the National War College at Fort McNair, followed by assignment in July 1968 to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. In September 1969, he was reassigned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force in the Directorate of Plans as Deputy Assistant for National Security Council Matters. In March 1970 he joined the Joint Chiefs of Staff organization and became the Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Staff.
Scowcroft was appointed Military Assistant to the President in February 1972, and in August 1973 he was reassigned as Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. He was promoted to Lieutenant General on August 16, 1974 and retired from active duty at that rank on December 1, 1975.
Scowcroft has chaired or served on a number of policy advisory councils, including the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control, the President's Commission on Strategic Forces, the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management, the Defense Policy Board and the President's Special Review Board (Tower Commission) investigating the Iran–Contra affair. He also serves on the Guiding Coalition of the nonpartisan Project on National Security Reform. He was appointed Co-Chair of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future from 2010–2012 alongside Lee Hamilton.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, Scowcroft was in an E-4B aircraft, also known as the National Airborne Operations Command Center (NAOC), on the tarmac waiting to takeoff and fly to Offutt Air Force Base, when the first hijacked airliner hit the World Trade Center (WTC). Scowcroft's aircraft was en route to Offutt when the second hijacked airliner struck the WTC and Scowcroft was involved in observing the command and control operations of both President George W. Bush in Florida and Vice President Dick Cheney, who was in the White House.
Scowcroft was a leading Republican critic of American policy towards Iraq before and after the 2003 invasion, which war critics in particular have seen as significant given Scowcroft's close ties to former President George H.W. Bush. Despite his public criticism of the decision to invade, Scowcroft continued to describe himself as "a friend" of the Bush administration. He also strongly opposed a precipitous withdrawal, arguing that a pull-out from Iraq before the country was able to govern, sustain, and defend itself "would be a strategic defeat for American interests, with potentially catastrophic consequences both in the region and beyond." Scowcroft supported the invasion of Afghanistan as a "direct response" to terrorism.
President George H.W. Bush presented him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991. In 1993, he was created an Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace. In 2005, Scowcroft was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award by the Intelligence and National Security Alliance.
In 1998, he co-wrote A World Transformed with George H.W. Bush. This book described what it was like to be in the White House during the end of the Cold War, as the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s. Notably, both figures explained why they didn't go on to Baghdad in 1991: "Had we gone the invasion route, the United States could conceivably still be an occupying power in a bitterly hostile land."
His discussions of foreign policy with Zbigniew Brzezinski, led by journalist David Ignatius, were published in a 2008 book titled America and the World: Conversations on the Future of American Foreign Policy.
Scowcroft is a member of the Honorary Council of Advisors for U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). Critics have suggested that Scowcroft is unethical in his lobbying for the Turkish and Azeri governments because of his ties with Lockheed Martin and other defense contractors that do significant business with Turkey. He is a member of the board of directors of the International Republican Institute. He is on the Advisory Board for Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs and for America Abroad Media.
Scholarly evaluations of Scocroft's performance have been generally favorable. For example Ivo Daalder and I. M. Destler quoting other scholars, conclude:
- Brent Scowcroft was in many ways the ideal national security adviser—indeed, he offers a model for how the job should be done.” His “winning formula” consisted of gaining the trust of the key principals of U.S. foreign policymaking, establishing “a cooperative policy process at all levels,” one both transparent and collegial, and keeping an “unbreakable relationship with the president,” thanks to their close friendship and mutual respect. The result was that Scowcroft “proved to be an extraordinarily effective national security adviser” in comparison with others who have held the office, particularly in light of the difficult and transformative period in which he held office.
Scowcroft was the inspiration and namesake for a special presidential award begun under the George H. W. Bush administration. According to Robert Gates, the award is given to the official "who most ostentatiously falls asleep in a meeting with the president." According to Gates, the president "evaluated candidates on three criteria. First, duration—how long did they sleep? Second, the depth of the sleep. Snoring always got you extra points. And third, the quality of recovery. Did one just quietly open one's eyes and return to the meeting, or did you jolt awake and maybe spill something hot in the process?" According to Bush himself, the award "gives extra points for he/she who totally craters, eyes tightly closed, in the midst of meetings, but in fairness a lot of credit is given for sleeping soundly while all about you are doing their thing." Scowcroft had gained a reputation for doing such things to the extent that it became a running gag.
Scowcroft married Marian Horner in 1951. His wife, a Pennsylvania native, trained as a nurse at St. Francis School of Nursing in Pittsburgh and graduated from Columbia University. They had one daughter, Karen Marian Horner Scowcroft, a diabetic. Marian Scowcroft died on July 17, 1995, at George Washington University Hospital. In March 1993, when Scowcroft was awarded by Queen Elizabeth with an Honorary KBE, his daughter was also received by the Queen.
- Distinguished Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters
- Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (1991)
- Honorary Knight Commander (KBE) of the Order of the British Empire, Military version (1993)
- Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, 3rd Class (2006)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (2009)
- Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service (2016)
- Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (2016)
|District of Columbia||1989||George Washington University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Utah||24 April 1992||Brigham Young University||Doctor of Public Service (DPS) |
|Virginia||2000||College of William & Mary||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)|
|New York||18 May 2005||Columbia University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D)|
|Utah||10 December 2010||Weber State University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
- "Brent Scowcroft". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- P.O. Box 400406. "Brent Scowcroft—Miller Center". Millercenter.org. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
-  Archived August 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Biographies : Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft". Af.mil. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Scowcroft, Brent (2008). America and The World: Conversations on the future of American Foreign Policy. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01501-6.
- "Double Warning Against Iraq War". Commondreams.org. August 5, 2002. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Interviews – Brent Scowcroft | Gunning For Saddam | FRONTLINE". PBS. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Kessler, Glenn (October 16, 2004). "Scowcroft Is Critical of Bush". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Priest, Dana; Wright, Robin (January 7, 2005). "Scowcroft Skeptical Vote Will Stabilize Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Rice, Andrew (September 6, 2004). "Brent Scowcroft Calls Iraq War "overreaction"". The New York Observer. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Scowcroft, Brent (January 4, 2007). "Getting the Middle East Back on Our Side". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- "USACC. Brent Scowcroft". Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "Kissinger, Iraq, BNL". Pinknoiz.com. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- International Republican Institute web site, accessed July 16, 2010 Archived April 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "SIPA: School of International and Public Affairs". Sipa.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on December 21, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Blake, A. 78 Republican politicians, donors and officials who are supporting Hillary Clinton.. The Washington Post. December 7, 2016.
- Ivo Daalder and I. M. Destler, In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served—From JFK to George W. Bush (2009), p. 170.
- Wilkie, Christina (May 12, 2010). "Fall asleep in the Oval Office? You could win a 'Scowcroft award'". The Hill. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "The Boss Lauds a Champion Sleeper". The New York Times. January 18, 1990. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- Roberts, Argetsinger, Roxanne, Amy (December 14, 2011). "Brent Scowcroft and the art of sleeping through the meeting". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "Marian Horner Scowcroft – St. Francis Hospital (Pittsburgh) School of Nursing Memorial Site". Lindapages.com. July 18, 1995. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Court Circular – People – News". The Independent. March 18, 1993. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Brent Scowcroft | The Scowcroft Group, biography
- "Vabariigi President". www.president.ee. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Remarks Honoring Brent Scowcroft with the DOD Distinguished Public Service Award
- "General Scowcroft awarded Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun - The Scowcroft Group". www.scowcroft.com. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "Honorary Degree Recipients - GW Libraries". library.gwu.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "SCOWCROFT SAYS NOW IS TIME TO HELP SHAPE WORLD
". April 24, 1992. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "Complete List of Recipients (1945-Present) - Office of the Secretary of the University". secretary.columbia.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "Former National Security Advisor to Receive Honorary Degree". www.weber.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "Inter-American Dialogue | Brent Scowcroft". www.thedialogue.org. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Daalder, Ivo H., and I.M. Destler. In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served—From JFK to George W. Bush Simon & Schuster; 2009, ISBN 978-1-4165-5319-9.
- Sparrow, Bartholomew H. "Realism's Practitioner: Brent Scowcroft and the Making of the New World Order, 1989–1993." Diplomatic History 34.1 (2010): 141-175. online
- Sparrow, Bartholomew. The Strategist: Brent Scowcroft and the Call of National Security (2015).
- Bush, George H.W., and Brent Scowcroft. A world transformed (Vintage, 2011). excerpt
- Deutch, John, Arnold Kanter, and Brent Scowcroft. "Saving NATO's foundation." Foreign Affairs (1999) 78#6: 54-67. online
- Perry, William James, Brent Scowcroft, and Charles D. Ferguson. US nuclear weapons policy (Council on Foreign Relations, 2009) online.
- Scowcroft, Brent. "Getting the Middle East Back on Our Side." New York Times (jan. 4, 2007) online.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brent Scowcroft.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Oral History of Brent Scowcroft at The West Point Center for Oral History (www.westpointcoh.org) at Archive.today (archived April 16, 2013)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Brent Scowcroft on IMDb
- Brent Scowcroft on Charlie Rose
- Transcript: Charlie Rose interviews Zbigniew Brzezinski, Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft, International Herald Tribune, June 18, 2007.
- "Don't Attack Saddam" by Brent Scowcroft.
- Brent Scowcroft speech to Harvard Kennedy School, October 29, 2008.
- Brent Scowcroft résumé.
- Works by or about Brent Scowcroft in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Brent Scowcroft collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
| Deputy National Security Advisor
| National Security Advisor
| National Security Advisor
| Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board
| Chair of the Intelligence Oversight Board|