Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana

The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Estonian: Maarjamaa Risti teenetemärk, also the Order of the Cross of St. Mary's Land) was instituted by the President of Estonia, Lennart Meri, on 16 May 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state.[1] (The Latin name Terra Mariana, meaning the "Land of Mary" was the official name for Medieval Livonia and designated the area which includes what is now Latvia and southern Estonia in medieval times.)

Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
The Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Typesix class order
Awarded forTo honour the independence of the Estonian state. The President of the Republic bestows the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana to foreigners who have rendered special services to the Republic of Estonia.
CountryEstonia
Presented byPresident of Estonia
Established16 May 1995

1st Class


2nd Class

3rd Class

4th Class


5th Class
Ribbon bars of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of the National Coat of Arms
Next (lower)Order of the White Star

The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is bestowed upon the President of the Republic. Presidents of the Republic who have ceased to hold office keep the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana. The Collar of the Order was used de facto as the badge of office of the President of the Republic, since Soviet authorities took the original presidential collar, that of the Order of the National Coat of Arms, out of Estonia after the Soviet occupation of Estonia in 1940; it remains as of 2023 in the Kremlin in Moscow. A new collar of that order was made in 2008.[2]

The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is also given as a decoration of the highest class to foreigners who have rendered special services to the Republic of Estonia. As such it is the highest and most distinguished order granted by Estonia to non-Estonian citizens.

Classes edit

The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana comprises six classes:

  • One special class – The Collar of the Cross of Terra Mariana;
  • Five basic classes – 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th class.

The crosses and shields of all the classes of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana have the same design and are of the same size.

The blue colour tone of the moiré ribands belonging to the decorations of all the classes of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is determined according to the international PANTONE colour-table as 300 C.

Notable recipients edit

Recipients of the Collar edit

The recipients are :[3]

  Estonian presidents edit

Foreign heads of state edit

Country Recipient Date of
reception
Serie
number
Decision :
number & date
Awarded by President Lennart Meri ( 6 October 1992 – 8 October 2001 ) [4]
  Finland Pres. Martti Ahtisaari 16.05.1995 1 547
  Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf 11.09.1995 11 608
  Mexico Pres. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León 27.10.1995 22 624
  Denmark Queen Margrethe II 28.11.1995 23 640
  Czech Republic Pres. Václav Havel 24.02.1997 37 725 (30.05.1996)
  Latvia Pres. Guntis Ulmanis 23.10.1996 39 6
  Hungary Pres. Árpád Göncz 13.05.1997 49 134
  Slovenia Pres. Milan Kučan 16.05.1997 50 134
  Italy Pres. Oscar Luigi Scalfaro[5] 22.05.1997 51 144
  Turkey Pres. Süleyman Demirel 20.05.1997 52 144
  Lithuania Pres. Algirdas Brazauskas 20.08.1997 55 177
  Poland Pres. Aleksander Kwaśniewski 28.04.1998 72 320
  Iceland Pres. Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson 08.06.1998 73 351
  Norway King Harald V 31.08.1998 75 397
  Greece Pres. Konstantinos Stephanopoulos 24.05.1999 99 586
  Lithuania Pres. Valdas Adamkus 24.09.1999 102 632
  Latvia Pres. Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga 02.05.2000 121 780
  Finland Pres. Tarja Halonen 16.05.2000 123 788
  Germany Pres. Johannes Rau 07.11.2000 131 914
  Hungary President Ferenc Mádl 12.12.2000 177 944
  Malta President Guido de Marco 02.05.2001 233 1049
  Ireland President Mary McAleese 24.05.2001 241 1057
  France President Jacques Chirac 23.07.2001 243 1124
Awarded by President Arnold Rüütel ( 8 October 2001 – 9 October 2006 )
  Turkey President Ahmet Necdet Sezer 18.04.2002 377 141
  Luxembourg Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg 05.05.2003 416 332
  Portugal President Jorge Sampaio 12.05.2003 417 408 ( 08.05.2003 )
  Bulgaria President Georgi Parvanov 11.06.2003 435 414
  Romania President Ion Iliescu 23.10.2003 446 451 [6]
  Cyprus President Tassos Papadopoulos 08.01.2004 449 451
  Italy President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 20.04.2004 498 581
  Slovakia President Ivan Gašparovič 12.10.2005 599 896
  Hungary President László Sólyom 27.03.2006 688 994
Awarded by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ( 9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016 )
  United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II 19.10.2006 693 2
  Georgia President Mikheil Saakashvili 07.05.2007 739 148
  Japan Emperor Akihito 24.05.2007 740 150
  Spain King Juan Carlos I 09.07.2007 741 168
  Portugal President Aníbal Cavaco Silva 24.09.2008 783 269
  Netherlands Queen (now Princess) Beatrix 14.05.2008 824 280
  Belgium King Albert II 10.06.2008 837 290
  Latvia President Valdis Zatlers 07.04.2009 872 460
  Romania President Traian Băsescu 12.04.2011 968 881
  Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev 20.04.2011 970 885
  Malta President George Abela 31.05.2012 988 98
  Latvia President Andris Bērziņš 05.06.2012 1001 99
  Lithuania President Dalia Grybauskaitė 27.05.2013 1045 266
  Germany President Joachim Gauck 03.07.2013 1087 305
  Finland President Sauli Niinistö 09.05.2014 1150 429
  Slovakia President Andrej Kiska 19.10.2015 1233 682
Awarded by President Kersti Kaljulaid ( 10 October 2016 – 11 October 2021)
  Netherlands King Willem-Alexander 12.06.2018 1283 265
  Italy President Sergio Mattarella 04.07.2018 1298 294
  Latvia President Raimonds Vējonis 10.04.2019 1324 440
  Portugal President Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa 15.04.2019 1339 442
  Slovenia President Borut Pahor 02.09.2019 1344 473
  Austria President Alexander Van der Bellen 21.05.2021 1368 744
  Romania President Klaus Iohannis 15.06.2021 1370 755
Awarded by President Alar Karis ( 11 October 2021- )
  Latvia President Egils Levits 19.04.2023 1400 300

Recipients of the First Class edit

The recipients are :[7]

Former foreign heads of state and government edit

These decorations are awarded for targeted reasons :

Country Recipient Date of
reception
Serie
number
Decision :
number & date
Awarded by President Lennart Meri (6 October 1992 – 8 October 2001)
  United States Former President Gerald Rudolph Ford 07.01.1997 29 683 (16.02.1996 )
  Sweden Carl Bildt, politician, Former Prime Minister (1991–94) 25.07.1996 36 725 (30.05.1996)
  Germany Former President Roman Herzog (1994–99) 20.03.2001 104 730 (08.02.2000)
Awarded by President Arnold Rüütel (8 October 2001 – 9 October 2006)
  Finland Mauno Henrik Koivisto, former president (1982–1994) 20.11.2001 271 30 ( 16.11.2001)
  Finland Esko Tapani Aho, Former Prime Minister, for supporting quest of independence 23.02.2003 381 332 (03.02.2003)
  Ireland Garret FitzGerald, former Prime Minister 22.05.2003 383 332 (03.02.2003)
  Denmark Poul Holmskov Schlüter, Former Prime Minister (1982-1993), for supporting quest of independence 24.02.2003 387 332 (03.02.2003)
  United States George Herbert Walker Bush, for supporting quest to independence 15.09.2005 524 775 (02.02.2005)
  Germany Richard von Weizsäcker, former president (1984–94), for supporting quest to independence 09.06.2005 529 775 (02.02.2005)
  United States Bill Clinton, former president (1993–2001), for supporting adhesion to NATO ? 634 976 (06.02.2006 )
  Germany Helmut Kohl, Former Chancellor (1982–98), for supporting quest to independence 03.04.2006 635 976 (06.02.2006)
  Poland Lech Wałęsa, former president (1990–95), for supporting quest to independence 23.02.2006 636 976 (06.02.2006)
Awarded by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ( 9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016 )
  United States George Walker Bush, former President ? 973 48 (01.02.2012)
Awarded by President Kersti Kaljulaid ( 10 October 2016 – 11 October 2021 )

Consorts of foreign heads of state and royalties edit

Country Recipient Date of
reception
Serie
number
Decision :
number & date
Awarded by President Lennart Meri ( 6 October 1992 – 8 October 2001 )
  Finland Eeva Ahtisaari, née Hyvärinen, President Martti Ahtisaari's wife 16.05.1995 2 547 ( 16.05.1995 )
  Sweden Queen Silvia of Sweden 11.09.1995 12 608 ( 08.09.1995 )
  Sweden Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden 11.09.1995 13 608 ( 08.09.1995 )
  Sweden Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland 11.09.1995 14 608 ( 08.09.1995 )
  Sweden Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland 11.09.1995 15 608 ( 08.09.1995 )
  Denmark Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark 28.11.1995 25 640 ( 20.11.1995 )
  Denmark Frederick, Crown Prince of Denmark 28.11.1995 24 640 ( 20.11.1995 )
  Norway Queen Sonja of Norway 31.08.1998 76 397 ( 24.08.1998 )
  Latvia Imants Freibergs, President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga's husband 02.05.2000 122 780 ( 27.04.2000 )
  Finland Pentti Arajärvi, President Tarja Halonen's husband 16.05.2000 124 788 ( 04.05.2000 )
  Germany Christina Rau, President Johannes Rau's wife 07.11.2000 132 914 ( 02.11.2000 )
  Hungary Dalma Mádl, President Ferenc Mádl's wife 12.12.2000 178 944 ( 01.12.2000 )
  Malta Violet de Marco, President Guido de Marco's wife 02.05.2001 234 1049 ( 24.04.2001 )
  Ireland Martin McAleese, President Mary McAleese's husband 24.05.2001 242 1057 ( 15.05.2001 )
Awarded by President Arnold Rüütel (8 October 2001 – 9 October 2006)
  Finland Taimi Tellervo Koivisto, President Mauno Henrik Koivisto's wife 20.11.2001 272 30 ( 16.11.2001 )
  Poland Jolanta Kwaśniewska, President Aleksander Kwaśniewski's wife : 18.03.2002 337 121 ( 13.03.2002 )
  Norway Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway 10.04.2002 356 137 ( 02.04.2002 )
  Norway Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway 10.04.2002 357 137 ( 02.04.2002 )
  Portugal Maria José Rodrigues Ritta, President Jorge Sampaio's wife : 12.05.2003 418 408 ( 08.05.2003 )
  Bulgaria Zorka Petrova Parvanova, President Georgi Parvanov's wife : 11.06.2003 436 414 ( 30.05.2003 )
Awarded by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves (9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016)
  Spain Sofia of Spain 09.07.2007 742 168 ( 05.07.2007 )
  Spain Felipe, Prince of Asturias 09.07.2007 743 168 ( 05.07.2007 )
  Spain Letizia, Princess of Asturias 09.07.2007 744 168 ( 05.07.2007 )
  Belgium Queen Paola of Belgium 10.06.2008 838 290 ( 05.06.2008 )
  Latvia Lilita Zatlere, President Valdis Zatlers's wife : 07.04.2009 873 460 ( 02.04.2009 )
  Sweden Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland 18.01.2011 906 807 ( 12.01.2011 )
  Sweden Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland 18.01.2011 907 807 ( 12.01.2011 )
  Romania Maria Băsescu, President Traian Băsescu's wife 12.04.2011 969 881 ( 06.04.2011 )
  Malta Margaret Abela, President George Abela's wife 31.05.2012 989 98 ( 29.05.2012 )
  Latvia Dace Seisuma, President Andris Bērziņš's wife 05.06.2012 1002 99 ( 31.05.2012 )
  Germany Daniela Schadt, President Joachim Gauck's partner 09.07.2013 1088 305 ( 03.07.2013 )
Awarded by President Kersti Kaljulaid ( 10 October 2016 – 11 October 2021 )

High Personalities edit

Country Recipient Date of
reception
Serie
number
Decision :
number & date
Awarded by President Lennart Meri ( 6 October 1992 – 8 October 2001 )
  European Union Otto von Habsburg, Member of European Parliament 11.10.1996 30 683 ( 16.02.1996 )
  European Union Mr Jacques Delors, former chairman of the European Commission 23.03.1999 78 495 ( 02.02.1999 )
  Turkey Bartholomew I Archbishop and Patriarch of Constantinople-New Rome 27.10.2000 130 444 ( 09.10.2000 )
Awarded by President Arnold Rüütel (8 October 2001 – 9 October 2006)
  Russia Alexy II of Moscow, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia 29.09.2003 439 444 ( 18.09.2003 )
  Spain Juan Antonio Samaranch 29.11.2003 448 464 ( 20.11.2003 )
  European Union John Kjær, Head of the Delegation of the European Union (2000–04) 23.11.2004 523 717 ( 12.11.2004 )
  European Union Patrick Cox, Former President of European Parliament, for supporting adhesion to European Union 03.11.2006 526 775 ( 02.02.2005 )
  European Union Christopher Patten, Former Member of the European Commission, for supporting adhesion to European Union 27.10.2005 527 775 ( 02.02.2005 )
  European Union Günter Verheugen, Former Member of the European Commission, for supporting adhesion to European Union 02.05.2005 528 775 ( 02.02.2005 )
Awarded by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ( 9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016 )
  European Union José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission 23.02.2009 855 423 ( 04.02.2009 )
  NATO Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer 09.07.2009 886 520 ( 06.07.2009 )
  European Union Hans-Gert Pöttering (  Germany), President of the European Parliament 23.02.2013 1036 224 ( 06.02.2013 )
  United States Vinton Gray Cerf, Computer scientist 28.04.2014 1103 368 ( 05.02.2014 )
Awarded by President Kersti Kaljulaid ( 10 October 2016 – 11 October 2021)

Recipients of the Fourth Class edit

Recipients of the Fifth Class edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana. President of the Republic of Estonia, Estonian State Decorations. Retrieved 2011-01-22
  2. ^ "President.ee". www.president.ee. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  3. ^ "Bearers of decorations: Maarjamaa Risti ketiklassi teenetemärk". president.ee. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Bearers of decorations: Maarjamaa Risti ketiklassi teenetemärk". president.ee. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  5. ^ "Bearers of decorations: Maarjamaa Risti ketiklassi teenetemärk". president.ee. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  6. ^ "Bearers of decorations: Maarjamaa Risti ketiklassi teenetemärk". president.ee. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  7. ^ Estonian Presidency, Recipients First Class (Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärk). Retrieved 03 October 2013
  8. ^ Listing for Robert Fripp (2008)

External links edit