Pete McCloskey

Paul Norton "Pete" McCloskey Jr. (born September 29, 1927) is an American politician who represented San Mateo County, California as a Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1967 to 1983.[1]

Pete McCloskey
Pete McCloskey (2014).jpg
McCloskey in 2014
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from California
In office
December 12, 1967 – January 3, 1983
Preceded byJ. Arthur Younger
Succeeded byEd Zschau
Constituency11th district (1967–73)
17th district (1973–75)
12th district (1975–83)
Personal details
Born
Paul Norton McCloskey Jr.

(1927-09-29) September 29, 1927 (age 94)
Loma Linda, California, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (since 2007)
Other political
affiliations
Republican (1948–2007)
ResidenceRumsey, California, U.S.
EducationStanford University (AB, LLB)
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Navy (1945–1947)
United States Marine Corps (1950–1952)
U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (1952–1974)
Years of service1945–1964
RankColonel
Battles/warsKorean War
AwardsNavy Cross
Silver Star
Purple Heart (2)

Born in Loma Linda, California, McCloskey pursued a legal career in Palo Alto, California, after graduating from Stanford Law School. He served in the Korean War as a member of the United States Marine Corps. For his service, he was awarded the Navy Cross and the Silver Star. He won election to the House of Representatives in 1967, defeating Shirley Temple in the Republican primary. He co-authored the 1973 Endangered Species Act.[2] He unsuccessfully challenged President Richard Nixon in the 1972 Republican primaries on an anti-Vietnam War platform[2] and was the first member of Congress to publicly call for President Nixon's resignation after the Saturday Night Massacre.[3]

He continually won re-election until 1982, when he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination to represent California in the United States Senate. The nomination was won by Pete Wilson, who went on to defeat Jerry Brown in the general election. During the 1988 Republican presidential primaries, McCloskey helped end Pat Robertson's campaign by revealing that Robertson's claims of serving in combat were false. In 1989, McCloskey co-founded the Council for the National Interest, non-profit, non-partisan organization that works for "Middle East policies that serve the American national interest."[4] He strongly opposed the Iraq War and supported Democrat John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election. In 2006, he made an unsuccessful run for Congress against Republican Richard Pombo. He endorsed Democrat Jerry McNerney in the general election and became a Democrat himself shortly thereafter.

Early lifeEdit

Pete McCloskey's great-grandfather was orphaned in the Great Irish Famine and came to California in 1853 at the age of 16. He and his son, McCloskey's grandfather, were farmers in Merced County. The family were lifelong Republicans.[5]

McCloskey was born on September 29, 1927, in Loma Linda, California, the son of Mary Vera (McNabb) and Paul Norton McCloskey.[6][7] He attended public schools in South Pasadena and San Marino. He was inducted into South Pasadena High School Hall of Fame for the sport of baseball.[8] He attended Occidental College and California Institute of Technology under the U.S. Navy's V-5 Pilot Program. He graduated from Stanford University in 1950 and Stanford University Law School in 1953.

Military serviceEdit

McCloskey voluntarily served in the U.S. Navy from 1945 to 1947, the U.S. Marine Corps from 1950 to 1952, the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve from 1952 to 1960 and the Ready Reserve from 1960 to 1967. He retired from the Marine Corps Reserve in 1974, having attained the rank of colonel.

He was awarded the Navy Cross and Silver Star decorations for heroism in combat and two Purple Hearts as a Marine during the Korean War.[2] He then volunteered for the Vietnam War before eventually turning against it.[2] In 1992, he wrote his fourth book, The Taking of Hill 610, describing some of his exploits in Korea.

Political careerEdit

 
McCloskey as a congressman in 1969.
 
Congressional campaign bumper sticker

McCloskey served as a Deputy District Attorney for Alameda County, California, from 1953 to 1954 and practiced law in Palo Alto, California, from 1955 to 1967, cofounding the firm that eventually became Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati. He was a lecturer on legal ethics at the Santa Clara and Stanford Law Schools from 1964 to 1967. He was elected as a Republican to the 90th Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of U.S. Rep. J. Arthur Younger, after defeating Shirley Temple in the primary, and was reelected to the seven succeeding Congresses, serving from December 12, 1967 to January 3, 1983. In a 1981 interview, he stated that he thought he "was the first Republican elected opposing the war" despite the fact that his "constituency, two to one, favored the war in 1967".[9]

McCloskey was the first member of Congress to publicly call for the impeachment of President Nixon after the Watergate scandal and the Saturday Night Massacre. He was also the first lawmaker to call for a repeal of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had allowed for the War in Vietnam.[2] He chose, in early 1975, to see for himself the effects of US bombing in Cambodia, stating afterwards that his country had committed "greater evil than we have done to any country in the world, and wholly without reason, except for our benefit to fight against the Vietnamese".[10]

 
1972 presidential campaign bumper sticker

In the 1972 Republican Party presidential primaries McCloskey campaigned on a pro-peace/anti-Vietnam War platform and obtained 19.7 percent of the vote against incumbent President Richard M. Nixon in the New Hampshire primary.[11] At the New Mexico Republican Party state convention Rep. Manuel Lujan Jr. cast a decisive vote that resulted in McCloskey being awarded a national convention delegate.[12] Consequently, at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, Rep. McCloskey received one vote (out of 1,348) from a New Mexico delegate; all other votes cast went to Nixon.[13] In 2016, McCloskey published a tribute to Lujan titled An Honest Public Servant.[14]

In January 1980, McCloskey was one of six members of an official bipartisan delegation of the House of Representatives appointed by Speaker Tip O'Neill to visit Lebanon, Syria, and Israel.[15] In Beirut the delegation met with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasir Arafat with a plan to conclude the trip with a meeting with Prime Minister Menachem Begin and other Israeli leaders in Jerusalem.[15]

In June 1981, in a speech to retired US military officers, McCloskey said: " 'We've got to overcome the tendency of the Jewish community in America to control the actions of Congress and force the President and the Congress not to be evenhanded' in the Middle East."[16] In a press conference later the same day Mr. McCloskey criticized Menachem Begin for lobbying the Rev. Jerry Falwell for support for the June 7, 1981, Israeli airstrike on an unfinished Iraqi nuclear reactor and added, "We have to respect the views of our Jewish citizens, but not be controlled by them."[16] McCloskey later defended his remarks saying "There is a strong Jewish lobby ... I do not understand why the Jewish community should resent it being labeled as such. They are a very effective lobby."[16] However, he also predicted that criticism by B'nai B'rith officials in California would harm his prospects of winning the 1982 Republican Senate primary there.[16]

Shortly after Israel's passage of the Golan Heights Law on December 14, 1981, McCloskey denounced the move as an "aggressive and imperialistic action" and urged his Congressional colleagues to block a $2.2 billion in foreign aid package to Israel unless the action was rescinded.[17] He said the "annexation of the Golan Heights was another step which could eventually drag the U.S. into a nuclear war."[17]

In 1982, McCloskey was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for nomination to the United States Senate. The California Republican Senatorial primary that year was a contentious battle among the major candidates in the 12-person GOP field, featuring mainly Reps. McCloskey, Bob Dornan, Barry Goldwater Jr. (son of Arizona Senator and 1964 Republican Presidential nominee Barry Goldwater), Maureen Reagan (daughter of then-President Ronald Reagan), San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson, former Rep. John G. Schmitz, and Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce president Ted Bruinsma. Wilson was the eventual victor and went on to defeat the Democratic candidate, then-Governor Jerry Brown, in the general election[18]

According to Paul Findley, McCloskey was hounded by the Anti-Defamation League, both during his political career and when he retired to private practice as a lawyer, for his outspoken views on Israel's attitude to Palestinians and on the Israel Lobby.[19]

2006 run for CongressEdit

On January 23, 2006, McCloskey announced at a press conference in Lodi, California, that he would return to the political arena by running against seven-term incumbent Republican Richard Pombo in the Republican Party for California's 11th congressional district.[20] Earlier in the year, he formed a group called the "Revolt of the Elders" to recruit a viable primary candidate to run against Pombo. McCloskey's aging campaign bus sported the slogan "Restore Ethics to Congress." McCloskey said, "Congressmen are like diapers. You need to change them often, and for the same reason."[2] McCloskey was endorsed in the Republican Party primary by the San Francisco Chronicle[21] and the Los Angeles Times.[22] In the June 6, 2006, primary, McCloskey was defeated by Pombo, receiving 32 percent of the vote.[23]

On July 24, 2006, McCloskey endorsed Jerry McNerney, a Democrat who would go on to unseat Pombo in the 2006 midterm elections.[24] McCloskey spent most of Election Night at McNerney's victory party.[25] The Sierra Club recognized McCloskey for helping to unseat Pombo with their 2006 Edgar Wayburn Award.[26]

IHR/Holocaust controversyEdit

During the 2006 primary campaign there was controversy over what McCloskey allegedly said about the Holocaust during his keynote address, titled “The Machinations of the Anti-Defamation League”, to the May 2000 Institute for Historical Review conference.[27] According to the San Jose Mercury News, McCloskey said at the time, "I don't know whether you are right or wrong about the Holocaust," and he referred to the "so-called Holocaust". McCloskey replied "that he has never questioned the existence of the Holocaust, and the 2000 quote referred to a debate over the number of people killed."[28] McCloskey said in an interview with the Contra Costa Times on January 18, 2006 that the IHR transcript of his speech had been inaccurate.[29]

Journalist Mark Hertsgaard of The Nation, in response to criticism of McCloskey following an article about the candidate's 2006 campaign, stated that a videotape he had viewed of McCloskey's speech to the IHR did not contain the "right or wrong" wording present in the transcript.[30][31] According to Hertsgaard, McCloskey "told the delegates, 'I may not agree with you about everything I’ve heard today,' before he reiterated a core point of his speech–that the right for anyone to question what is said about the past is basic to freedom of thought in America."[31] Hertsgaard also denied Rafael Medoff's claim that McCloskey praised the " 'courage' of Holocaust deniers in Europe."[31]

Outside CongressEdit

On Israel-Palestinian issuesEdit

In 1984, McCloskey was invited to return to Stanford University as a visiting lecturer.[32] The director of Hillel at Stanford characterized McCloskey's appointment as "a slap in the face of the Jewish community".[32] Members of the student government also tried to pressure McCloskey to remove an article by former US diplomat George Ball from his course syllabus and "add materials reflecting pro-AIPAC views."[32] Following a "faculty review" McCloskey's student opponents were censured for " 'serious abridgments' of academic freedom" and Stanford's Provost offered McCloskey a formal apology.[32]

In 1986, McCloskey engaged in a debate about Israel-Palestinian issues with Jewish Defense League founder, Rabbi Meir Kahane.[33] According to a disputed transcript of an event fourteen years later, McCloskey stated that two thousand people attended the 1986 debate which took place in San Francisco.[34][35] The event was eventually turned into a short film titled, "Why Terrorism?" produced by Mark Green.[36]

McCloskey and former Rep. Paul Findley (R-III.) helped arrange a June 8, 1991, White House ceremony during which forty-two surviving crew members of the USS Liberty, an intelligence ship attacked by Israeli forces in 1967, were belatedly presented the Presidential Unit Citation awarded, but never presented, to the ship's crew by President Johnson in 1968.[37] The ceremony took place on the 24th anniversary of the incident, which killed thirty-four Americans, and was attended by White House Chief of Staff John Sununu and National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft.[37] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) expressed concerns about whether the event was an held "to give a stamp of approval to those seeking to malign Israel”.[37] The ADL singled out the participation of McCloskey and Findley as "staunch critics of Israel" and "expressed concern with their involvement 'and the sanction given by the White House of such rhetoric.' "[37]

Pat Robertson presidential campaign controversyEdit

McCloskey contradicted Pat Robertson's statements about Korean War service and so put an end to Robertson's 1988 Presidential run. Robertson first claimed that he was a "combat veteran" back in 1981, which aroused the ire of McCloskey, who had been shipped to Korea along with Robertson as second lieutenants as part as the 5th Replacement Draft to bolster the First Marine Division, which had suffered great losses at the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. McCloskey and Robertson were part of a contingent of 71 Marine officers and 1,900 enlisted men shipped to Korea aboard the USS General J.C. Breckenridge to serve as replacements.[38]

When Robertson began claiming again that he was a combat veteran during the 1988 Republican primaries, McCloskey wrote a public letter to U.S. Representative Andrew Jacobs Jr., also a Marine veteran of the Korean War, in which McCloskey said that Robertson was actually spared combat duty when his powerful father, U.S. Senator A. Willis Robertson of Virginia, intervened on his behalf, and that Robertson had actually boasted that his father would keep him out of combat. Robertson, a college friend, and four other second lieutenants were shipped to Japan, detailed to a training mission for Marines coming out of Korea. Of the remaining Marine officers, half were killed or wounded in combat.[38]

Robertson sued McCloskey and another accuser for libel and demanded damages of $35 million, but research underwritten by McCloskey that cost him $400,000 proved that his revelations had been true. Rather than being a combat veteran, Robertson had been shipped to Japan right off the USS Breckenridge, then spent most of his time when returned to Korea and was posted at the safe harbor of the Division Headquarters. Robertson served as the Division "liquor officer", responsible for keeping the officers' clubs supplied with alcohol, which meant he kept traveling back to Japan. It was claimed that Robertson sexually harassed a Korean woman at one of his clubs and worried about getting gonorrhea. Documentary evidence uncovered by McCloskey revealed that his father, Senator Robertson, thanked Marine Commandant Robinson for getting his son out of combat. By the time of the libel trial, which was scheduled for Super Tuesday, many other Marine officers were prepared to testify that Robertson had avoided combat duty. The day before the trial, Robertson dropped the libel suit. On Super Tuesday, he was punished at the polls. He later paid McCloskey's court costs.[38][39]

McCloskey wrote a book about his Korean War experiences, The Taking of Hill 610.

Council of the National InterestEdit

In 1989, McCloskey co-founded the Council for the National Interest along with former Congressman Paul Findley.[40] It is a 501 (c)4 non-profit, non-partisan organization that works for "Middle East policies that serve the American national interest."[41][42] He taught political science at Santa Clara University in the early 1980s. For many years, he practiced law in Redwood City, California and resided in Woodside, California.

Iraq WarEdit

An opponent of the Iraq War,[43] McCloskey broke party ranks in 2004 to endorse John Kerry in his bid to unseat George W. Bush as President of the United States.[2]

Change of political affiliationEdit

In the spring of 2007, McCloskey announced that he had changed his party affiliation to the Democratic Party. In an email and letter to the Tracy Press, McCloskey stressed that the "new brand of Republicanism" had finally led him to abandon the party that he had joined in 1948.[44][45] He followed this up with an op-ed column in which he explained that "Disagreement [with party leadership] turned into disgust" and "I finally concluded that it was fraud for me to remain a member of this modern Republican Party", although it was a "decision not easily taken."[5]

In the 2020 United States presidential election, McCloskey was nominated to be a member of the Democratic slate of electors for the state of California.[46][47] As Democrat Joe Biden won the state's popular vote, McCloskey became one of California's 55 members of the Electoral College. He cast his presidential vote for Biden and vice-presidential vote for California Senator Kamala Harris on December 14, 2020.[48]

Political positionsEdit

McCloskey is pro-choice, supports stem cell research and Oregon's assisted suicide law. He was a co-chair of the first Earth Day in 1970.[2]

Family and personal lifeEdit

McCloskey's first marriage was to Caroline; they had four children, Nancy, Peter, John, and Kathleen, before divorcing. He later married Helen V. Hooper.[49]

BibliographyEdit

  • McCloskey, Paul Norton, The United States Constitution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1964. OCLC 221421526
  • McCloskey, Paul N., Truth and Untruth; Political Deceit in America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972. ISBN 067121201X OCLC 266811
  • Boyle, Richard & Paul N. McCloskey (foreword), The Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the U.S. Army in Vietnam. San Francisco: Ramparts Pr. 1972. ISBN 978-0878670208 OCLC 251881288
  • McCloskey, Paul N., and Helen Hooper McCloskey, The Taking of Hill 610: And Other Essays on Friendship. Woodside, CA: Eaglet Books, 1992. ISBN 978-0963518606 OCLC 28194371
  • McCloskey, Paul N. "Pete", An Honest Public Servant: A Brief Biography of Manuel Lujan, Republican Congressman of New Mexico, 1968-1988, Secretary of the Interior of the United States, 1989-1993. Rumsey, CA: Eaglet Books, 2016. ISBN 978-0692787793 OCLC 980362390
  • McCloskey Jr., Paul N. "Pete", The Story Of The First Earth Day 1970: How Grassroots Activism Can Change Our World. Rumsey, CA: Eaglet Books, 2020. ISBN 978-0578657721

FilmsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "McCLOSKEY, Paul Norton , Jr. (Pete) - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "White knight in a battle-bus". The Economist. 2006-06-01. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
  3. ^ "Pete McCloskey: Leading from the Front". The Video Project. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
  4. ^ Ayoon Wa Aza, How Pro-Israeli Lobbies Destroy U.S. Interests, Dar Al Hayat, International edition, November 14, 2010, via Highbeam.
  5. ^ a b McCloskey, P. "Another Point of View: What Happened to the Party of Ford & Eisenhower?". (Auburn, Calif.) Sentinel, April 27, 2007.
  6. ^ Kennedy-Minott, Rodney (1968). "The Sinking of the Lollipop: Shirley Temple Vs. Pete McCloskey".
  7. ^ "The San Bernardino County Sun from San Bernardino, California on May 6, 1917 · Page 8".
  8. ^ South Pasadena High School Archived June 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ WGBH (1981-10-14). "Interview with Paul N. Mccloskey, 1981." WGBH Media Library & Archives, 14 October 1981. Retrieved on 2010-11-03 from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  10. ^ Logevall, Fredrik (2010). "The Indochina wars and the Cold War, 1945–1975". In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume II: Crises and Détente (pp. 281–304). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83720-0.
  11. ^ "New Hampshire Finals". The Miami Herald. UPI. March 15, 1972. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  12. ^ Simonich, Milan (2017-03-26). "The presidential candidate who hated politics". Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  13. ^ Frankel, Max (1972-08-23). "Nixon is Renominated by 1,347‐to‐1 Vote; Liberals Lose Fight over Rules for 1976". The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  14. ^ McCloskey, Paul N. (2016). An Honest Public Servant: A Brief Biography of Manuel Lujan, Republican Congressman of New Mexico, 1968-1988, Secretary of the Interior of the United States, 1989-1993. Rumsey, CA: Eaglet Books. ISBN 978-0692787793. OCLC 980362390.
  15. ^ a b "Congressmen Meet with Arafat". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1980-01-08. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  16. ^ a b c d Associated Press (1981-07-13). "McCloskey Defends Remarks on Success of Jewish Lobbying". New York Times. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  17. ^ a b "Mccloskey Urges Congress to Reject Foreign Aid Israel is Due to Receive". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1981-12-16. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  18. ^ Vassar, Alex; and Meyers, Shane (2013-07-01). JoinCalifornia: Election History for the State of California. 1 July 2013. Retrieved on 2013-07-01 from http://www.joincalifornia.com/candidate/5759.
  19. ^ Paul Findley, They Dare to Speak Out: People and Institutions Confront Israel's Lobby, Chicago Review Press, 2003 pp.54-61 p.59:'A tracking system initiated by the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith (ADL) assured that McCloskey would have no peace, even as a private citizen.'
  20. ^ map Archived 2006-01-26 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ McCloskey over Pombo, San Francisco Chronicle editorial, May 24, 2006.
  22. ^ James Taranto, From the WSJ Opinion Archives, Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2006.
  23. ^ Brian Foley, Pombo to face McNerney in November; Zone 7 candidates tight, Tri-Valley Herald, June 8, 2006. Accessed June 20, 2006.
  24. ^ McCloskey Bucks GOP, Backs Democrat[dead link], Washington Post, July 24, 2006
  25. ^ McNerney, enviros take down Richard Pombo Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, Capitol Weekly, November 9, 2006
  26. ^ John Upton,Greens honor McCloskey, Tracy Press, November 25, 2006
  27. ^ McCloskey, Jr., Paul N. (n.d.) [2000-05-28]. "Machinations of the Anti-Defamation League". Institute for Historical Review (published Sep–Dec 2001). Archived from the original on 2002-04-18. Retrieved 2021-10-09. You might wonder why a man would leave northern California and come to southern California in the middle of a lovely weekend. I came because I respect the thesis of this organization -- the thesis being that there should be a reexamination of whatever governments say or politicians say or political entities say.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  28. ^ Mary Anne Ostrom, At 78, Spoiling for One Last Fight Archived 2006-06-24 at the Wayback Machine, San Jose Mercury News, February 20, 2006, reprinted on McCloskey's web site. Accessed online June 20, 2006.
  29. ^ Lisa Vorderbrueggen, McCloskey takes challenge to run against Pombo, Contra Costa Times, January 19, 2006.Archived May 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Hertsgaard, Mark (2006-03-09). "A Dragon Slayer Returns". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2006-03-27. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  31. ^ a b c Hertsgaard, Mark (2006-05-01). "Hertsgaard Replies". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2020-06-04. Retrieved 2021-10-09. McCloskey did speak at the 2000 IHR convention, but he appears not to have said what Rafael Medoff and others allege, apparently basing their charge on an IHR newsletter report. But when I viewed a videotape of McCloskey’s speech, I found no such wording. He told the delegates, “I may not agree with you about everything I’ve heard today,” before he reiterated a core point of his speech–that the right for anyone to question what is said about the past is basic to freedom of thought in America. “I may not agree with you” is very different from “I don’t know if you’re right or wrong.” McCloskey also devoted much of his speech to describing how Jews had long been discriminated against in the United States and abroad.
  32. ^ a b c d Mearsheimer, John J. and Walt, Stephen (2007). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-374-17772-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ "RABBI MEIR DAVID KAHANE Debates SENATOR PETE McCLOSKEY". YouTube.
  34. ^ Lisa Vorderbrueggen, McCloskey takes challenge to run against Pombo, Contra Costa Times, January 19, 2006.Archived May 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ McCloskey, Jr., Paul N. (n.d.) [2000-05-28]. "Machinations of the Anti-Defamation League". Institute for Historical Review (published Sep–Dec 2001). Archived from the original on 2002-04-18. Retrieved 2021-10-09. Now, I've always been willing to debate. I once debated Meir Kahane in front of two thousand Jews in San Francisco. I've debated Irv Rubin of the Jewish Defense League. But no ADL leader will debate me on the subject of Israel.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  36. ^ Mitgang, Herbert (August 26, 1986). "AN 'INTERCOM' DEBATE, 'WHY TERRORISM?'". The New York Times.
  37. ^ a b c d "Questions Surround Ceremony for Survivors of Uss Liberty". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1991-06-20. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  38. ^ a b c Brady, James. "Pat Robertson Redux". Forbes. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  39. ^ Plummer, William and Dirk Mathison. "A Lawsuit Over Pat Robertson's War Record Has Ex-Marine Pete Mccloskey Fighting Mad". People Magazine. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  40. ^ Ayoon Wa Aza, How Pro-Israeli Lobbies Destroy U.S. Interests, Dar Al Hayat, International edition, November 14, 2010, via Highbeam.
  41. ^ CNI web site "About Us" page.
  42. ^ Delinda C. Hanely, CNI Cruises into a New Decade, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, January 1, 2010, via Highbeam.
  43. ^ Mark Hertsgaard, A Dragon Slayer Returns, The Nation, posted March 9, 2006 (March 27, 2006 issue). Accessed June 20, 2006.
  44. ^ Lisa Vorderbrueggen, McCloskey leaves Republican Party Archived April 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Contra Costa Times Politics Weblog, April 16, 2007
  45. ^ McCloskey, Pete (April 21, 2007). "McCloskey: Why I have switched political parties". Tracy Press. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on September 29, 2007.
  46. ^ https://www.archives.gov/files/electoral-college/2020/ascertainment-california.pdf
  47. ^ https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/article247837010.html
  48. ^ https://www.archives.gov/files/electoral-college/2020/vote-california.pdf
  49. ^ Pete McCloskey. NNDB. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
  50. ^ "Earth Days (2009) - IMDb". www.imdb.com.
  51. ^ "The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers (2009) - IMDb". www.imdb.com.
  52. ^ "Pete McCloskey: Leading from the Front (2010?) - WorldCat". www.worldcat.org.
  53. ^ "GrowthBusters (2011) - IMDb". www.imdb.com.
  54. ^ "Last Days in Vietnam (2014) - IMDb". www.imdb.com.

External linksEdit

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 11th congressional district

1967–1973
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 17th congressional district

1973–1975
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 12th congressional district

1975–1983
Succeeded by