Loma Linda, California
Loma Linda (Spanish for "beautiful hill") is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States, that was incorporated in 1970. The population was 23,261 at the 2010 census, up from 18,681 at the 2000 census. The central area of the city was originally known as Mound City; its eastern half was originally the unincorporated community of Bryn Mawr.
City of Loma Linda
A view of Loma Linda University Medical Center, with the city surrounding it
Location of Loma Linda in San Bernardino County, California.
|Incorporated||September 29, 1970|
|• City council||Mayor Rhodes Rigsby |
Mayor pro tempore John Lenart
|• Total||7.55 sq mi (19.55 km2)|
|• Land||7.55 sq mi (19.55 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2) 0.01%|
|Elevation||1,165 ft (355 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||3,204.77/sq mi (1,237.65/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-8 (Pacific)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (PDT)|
92350, 92354, 92357
|GNIS feature IDs||1660935, 2410857|
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2015)
In the late 1800s, Loma Linda began as a development of tourist halls called Mound City, as encouraged by railroad companies. In the early 1800s, shops and cottages were built, but the project would later fail. During the late 1890s, a group of businessmen and physicians from Los Angeles bought the hotel and reopened it as a convalescent home and health resort. They called it Loma Linda, meaning “Beautiful Hill” in Spanish. The city was incorporated in 1970.
In 1969, San Timoteo Creek overflowed its banks, inundating two-thirds of Loma Linda. Many of the bridges over the creek washed away, and Loma Linda Academy was completely flooded. In 2010, the creek again flooded parts of Loma Linda.
Loma Linda is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and is considered part of the Inland Empire. It is bordered on the north by San Bernardino, on the east by Redlands, on the west by Colton, and on the south by Riverside County. An area of unincorporated territory in Riverside County separates Loma Linda from the city of Moreno Valley to the south. The remnants of Bryn Mawr, an unincorporated community formerly located between Loma Linda and Redlands, was annexed by the City in 2008.
The city is in the southern San Bernardino Valley. The southern third of the city is known as the South Hills; this rugged and hilly area at the northwestern end of The Badlands is a city-owned open space reserve protected by a local initiative. San Timoteo Creek flows from southeast to northwest through the city.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.5 square miles (19 km2), 99.99% of it land.
Water contamination and air pollutionEdit
Ground water near Loma Linda is contaminated by a plume of the chemical perchlorate which was used in the manufacture of solid rocket fuel. Also, this chemical was formerly (decades ago and in very small amounts) prescribed by physicians to control the overactive thyroid glands of certain patients. Attempts to quantify the effects of low-level exposure to perchlorate have met with resistance from environmental (and other) activists. A nearby plant operated by Lockheed Aerospace has been implicated in the improper disposal of the rocket fuel ingredient, which leached into the ground water northeast of Loma Linda. Loma Linda's municipal water supply, nevertheless, has been unaffected by the plume, primarily because Lockheed Martin installed a $19 million treatment plant in 2010 to remove both perchlorate and trichloroethylene from water after pumping it from the aquifer.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The 2010 United States Census reported that Loma Linda had a population of 23,261. The population density was 3,094.3 people per square mile (1,194.7/km²). The racial makeup of Loma Linda was 47.8% White —11,122 persons— (37.0% Non-Hispanic White); 8.7% African American —2,032 persons—; 0.4% Native American —97 persons—; 28.3% Asian —6,589 persons—; 0.7% Pacific Islander —154 persons—; 8.7% from other races —2,022 persons—; and 5.4% from two or more races —1,245 persons—. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,171 persons (22.2%).
The Census reported that 22,457 people (96.5% of the population) lived in households, 562 (2.4%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 242 (1.0%) were institutionalized.
There were 8,764 households, out of which 2,650 (30.2%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,832 (43.7%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,190 (13.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 461 (5.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 351 (4.0%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 46 (0.5%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,453 households (28.0%) were made up of individuals and 837 (9.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56. There were 5,483 families (62.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.
The population was spread out with 4,859 people (20.9%) under the age of 18, 2,642 people (11.4%) aged 18 to 24, 7,463 people (32.1%) aged 25 to 44, 5,056 people (21.7%) aged 45 to 64, and 3,241 people (13.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.
There were 9,649 housing units at an average density of 1,283.6 per square mile (495.6/km²), of which 3,432 (39.2%) were owner-occupied, and 5,332 (60.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.5%; the rental vacancy rate was 9.9%. 9,496 people (40.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 12,961 people (55.7%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 18,681 people, 7,536 households, and 4,498 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,541.7 people per square mile (981.3/km²). There were 8,084 housing units at an average density of 1,099.9 per square mile (424.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 54.2% White, 7.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 24.4% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 7.5% from other races, and 6.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.3% of the population.
There were 7,536 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.3% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.4 and the average family size was 3.1.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,204, and the median income for a family was $45,774. Males had a median income of $36,086 versus $35,096 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,189. About 12.9% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. Whether or not these poverty statistics include unemployed full-time students is not known.
State and federal representationEdit
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The city of Loma Linda is part of the Redlands Unified School District, with Bryn Mawr Elementary School being situated within Loma Linda city limits. However, the western edge of the city is served by the Colton Unified School District. Also located in the city are Loma Linda Academy, a K-12 school, and Loma Linda University (LLU), a health sciences higher learning institution, both of which are run by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Notable firsts at Loma Linda University's medical center include first baboon-to-human heart transplant and first split-brain surgery.
This section needs expansion with: Controversy over opening of McDonald's fast-food restaurant in the city. You can help by adding to it. (February 2016)
Loma Linda "is home to one of the largest concentrations of Seventh-day Adventists in the world." The Loma Linda University Church of Seventh-day Adventists, on the LLU campus, has one of the largest Adventist congregations in the world. Due to the large number of Loma Linda residents who are Seventh-day Adventists, the city was one of the few which had weekend mail delivery service on Sunday instead of Saturday. However, this distinction ended on April 23, 2011, when Saturday delivery resumed as part of a Post Office cost-cutting effort.
Since a popular practice of Seventh-day Adventists is vegetarianism, most restaurants in Loma Linda, including local fast-food franchises, feature a vegetarian menu in addition to regular menu items. The Loma Linda Baker's Drive-Thru was the first in that fast-food chain to feature the "Loma Linda Kitchen" vegetarian menu. The chain has since dropped the Loma Linda name for the menu and expanded its vegetarian choices.
Adventists in Loma Linda have one of the highest rates of longevity in the country. Researcher Dan Buettner has labeled Loma Linda as a Blue Zone, an area where the longevity is appreciably higher than the national average and a substantial proportion of the population lives past 100 years. Buettner's book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest, attributes Loma Linda's longevity rate to Adventist cultural health and diet practices. The city strictly controls the sale of alcohol and has banned public smoking. The church-owned grocery store does not sell meat.
In popular cultureEdit
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "Boards & Commissions:City Council". Loma Linda, California: City of Loma Linda, California. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
- "Loma Linda". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "Loma Linda (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 27, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- "About Us". Loma Linda, California: The City of Loma Linda, California. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "City of Loma Linda ~ Our City: About Us". Lomalinda-ca.gov. September 23, 1910. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
- "Recent rains bring of flood of memories". Redlandsdailyfacts.com. February 23, 1992. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Quakes Not the Only Concern Locals Face, Says Seismologist - Redlands, CA Patch". Patch.com. January 24, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "Sister Cities". The City of Loma Linda, California. lomalinda-ca.gov. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- "Loma Linda General Plan : Conservation and Open Space Element" (PDF). Lomalinda-ca.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "ATSDR - Public Health Assessments & Health Consultations - California". Atsdr.cdc.gov. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Loma Linda city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Loma Linda (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov. Archived from the original on March 27, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- "California's 31st Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.
- "CITY OF LOMA LINDA : GENERAL PLAN" (PDF). Lomalinda-ca.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Emily Esfahani Smith (February 4, 2013). "The Lovely Hill: Where People Live Longer and Happier". The Atlantic.
- "Loma Linda University Church of Seventh-day Adventists". Archived from the original on December 11, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- "Welcome to Westwind Online". wallawalla.edu. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010.
- Perkes, Courtney (December 6, 1997). "In Loma Linda, a Seventh Day Adventist culture prevails". The Press-Enterprise. Riverside, California. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Bowes, Peter (December 8, 2014). "Loma Linda: The secret to a long healthy life?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Medina, Jennifer (December 11, 2011). "Fast-Food Outlet Stirs Concerns in a Mecca of Healthy Living". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "Longevity, The Secrets of Long Life - National Geographic Magazine". nationalgeographic.com.
- Carstensen, Melinda (December 16, 2014). "100-year-old surgeon, WWII vet who retired at age 95 shares secrets to longevity". Fox News. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- Santschi, Darrell (October 27, 2009). "Loma Linda University Medical Center celebrates 100 years". The Press-Enterprise. Riverside, California. Retrieved January 29, 2010.