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Kamala Devi Harris (/ˈkɑːmələ/ KAH-mə-lə;[1] born October 20, 1964) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from California since 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she previously served as the 27th District Attorney of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011 and 32nd Attorney General of California from 2011 until 2017. She is a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election.

Kamala Harris
Senator Harris official senate portrait.jpg
United States Senator
from California
Assumed office
January 3, 2017
Serving with Dianne Feinstein
Preceded byBarbara Boxer
32nd Attorney General of California
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2017
GovernorJerry Brown
Preceded byJerry Brown
Succeeded byXavier Becerra
27th District Attorney of San Francisco
In office
January 8, 2004 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byTerence Hallinan
Succeeded byGeorge Gascón
Personal details
Born
Kamala Devi Harris

(1964-10-20) October 20, 1964 (age 54)
Oakland, California, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Douglas Emhoff (m. 2014)
ParentsShyamala Gopalan (mother)
Donald Harris (father)
RelativesMaya Harris (sister)
EducationHoward University (BA)
University of California, Hastings (JD)
Signature
WebsiteSenate website

Harris was born in Oakland, California and is a graduate of Howard University and University of California, Hastings College of the Law. In the 1990s, she worked in the San Francisco District Attorney's Office and the City Attorney of San Francisco's office. In 2004, she was elected District Attorney of San Francisco.

Harris won the election as California's Attorney General in 2010 and was reelected in 2014 by a wide margin. On November 8, 2016, she defeated Loretta Sanchez in the 2016 Senate election to succeed outgoing Senator Barbara Boxer, becoming California's third female U.S. Senator, and the first of Jamaican or Indian ancestry.[2] Since becoming a Senator, she has supported single-payer healthcare, federal descheduling of cannabis, support for sanctuary cities, the DREAM Act, and lowering the tax burden for the working and middle classes while raising taxes on corporations and the wealthiest one percent of Americans.

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

 
Harris (right) with her sister Maya in 2014.

Kamala Harris was born on October 20, 1964 in Oakland, California to a Tamil Indian mother and a Jamaican father. Her mother, Shyamala Gopalan Harris, was a breast-cancer scientist who immigrated to the United States from Madras (present-day Chennai), India in 1960.[3][4] She insisted on giving her daughters Sanskrit names derived from Hindu mythology to help preserve their cultural identity.[5] Her father, Donald Harris, is a Stanford University economics professor who emigrated from Jamaica in 1961 for graduate study in economics at University of California, Berkeley.[6][7] Recalling the lives of his grandmothers, Donald Harris wrote that one was related to a plantation and slave owner while the other had unknown ancestry.[8] She identifies as Indian and black.[9]

Harris's family lived in Berkeley, California, where both of her parents attended graduate school.[10] She was close to her maternal grandfather, P. V. Gopalan, an Indian diplomat.[4][11] As a child, she often visited her extended family in the Besant Nagar neighborhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu.[12] She grew up going to both a Baptist black church and a Hindu temple.[13] She has one younger sister, Maya Harris.[14][15] They both sang in a Baptist choir.[16]

Harris began kindergarten during the second year of Berkeley's school desegregation busing program, which pioneered the extensive use of busing to bring racial balance to each of the city's public schools; a bus took her to a school which two years earlier had been 95% white.[17][18] Her parents divorced when she was seven, and her mother was granted custody of the children.[10][8] After the divorce, when Harris was 12,[19] her mother moved with the children to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where Shyamala accepted a position doing research at Jewish General Hospital and teaching at McGill University.[20][21]

As a teenager she co-founded a small dance troupe of six dancers that played at community center and fundraisers.[22] At Westmount High School in Westmount, Quebec, she was a popular student.[23]

After graduating in 1981,[24][25] Harris majored in political science and economics at Howard University in Washington, D.C.[26][27] At Howard, she was elected to the liberal-arts student council as freshman class representative, was a member of the debate team, and joined the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.[26]

Harris returned to California, where she earned her Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1989.[7][28] She was admitted to the State Bar of California in 1990.[29]

Early careerEdit

Harris served as a deputy district attorney in Alameda County, California, from 1990 to 1998. She sought a career in law enforcement because she wanted to be "at the table where decisions are made".[7] During this time she was appointed to several state boards.[30] In 2000, San Francisco's elected City Attorney, Louise Renne, recruited Harris to join her office, where she was chief of the Community and Neighborhood Division, which oversees civil code enforcement matters.[31]

District Attorney of San FranciscoEdit

 
Harris with Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi soon after Harris became San Francisco District Attorney, 2004

Harris defeated two-term incumbent Terence Hallinan in the 2003 election to become District Attorney of the City and County of San Francisco.[32] Her excellent connections to the city's high society, made in part through her 1990s relationship with the influential state politician Willie Brown, were instrumental to her success and her later career in California.[33]

In April 2004, San Francisco Police Department Officer Isaac Espinoza was shot and killed in the line of duty. Three days later, Harris announced she would not seek the death penalty, angering the San Francisco Police Officers Association. During Espinoza's funeral at St. Mary's Cathedral, U.S. Senator and former San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein rose to the pulpit and called on Harris, who was sitting in the front pew, to secure the death penalty, prompting a standing ovation from the 2,000 uniformed police officers in attendance. Harris still refused. Espinoza's killer was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison.[7]

In 2004, as district attorney, Harris started the Back On Track initiative, a reentry program.[7] Initiative participants (who are nonviolent, first-time drug offenders whose crimes were not weapon- or gang-related) plead guilty in exchange for a deferral of sentencing and regular appearances before a judge over a year-long period. Participants who succeed in obtaining a high-school-equivalency diploma, maintaining steady employment, taking parenting classes, and passing drug tests have their records cleared.[34][35] Over eight years, the program produced fewer than 300 graduates, but achieved a very low recidivism rate.[7] In 2009, a state law (the Back on Track Reentry Act, Assembly Bill 750) was enacted, encouraging other counties to start programs around a similar model. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the bill into law.[36][37] The program met some controversy because it initially included illegal immigrants, including one, Alexander Izaguirre, who was later arrested for assault.[38] She later said allowing persons not eligible to work in the United States was a mistake,[38] and modified the program to bar anyone who could not legally be employed in the United States.[39]

Harris was re-elected in 2007 when she ran unopposed.[40] A 2008 New York Times article listing women who might have the potential to become president of the United States listed then-District Attorney Harris, suggesting she had a reputation as a "tough fighter."[41]

In 2009, Harris's book Smart on Crime: A Career Prosecutor's Plan to Make Us Safer was published by Chronicle Books.[34] In the book, she touted her Back On Track initiative and argued for what she referred to as "a smarter approach when it comes to combating nonviolent crime" emphasizing crime prevention, truancy prevention, and the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children.[34][35] The book discusses a series of "myths" surrounding the criminal justice system and presents proposals to reduce and prevent crime.[35] Recognized by The Los Angeles Daily Journal as one of the top 100 lawyers in California, she served on the board of the California District Attorneys Association and was vice president of the National District Attorneys Association.[42]

In 2013, the San Francisco Weekly reported that the San Francisco Police Department and Harris's office shielded Abraham H. Guerra Sr., a high-ranking member of the Norteño gang, from returning to prison due to parole violations because Guerra was an informant who provided authorities with information.[43]

Violent crimes and conviction rateEdit

While Harris was the San Francisco District Attorney, the overall felony conviction rate rose from 52% in 2003 to 67% in 2006, the highest in a decade; there was an 85% conviction rate for homicides, and convictions of drug dealers increased from 56% in 2003 to 74% in 2006.[44] While these statistics represent only trial convictions, she also closed many cases via plea bargains.[45] When she took office, she took a special interest in clearing part of the murder caseload from the previous administration. She stated that the records from that administration were less than ideal, and worked to get convictions on what she could. Out of the 73 homicide cases backlogged, 32 cases took deals for lesser charges such as manslaughter or took pleas to other crimes such as assault or burglary while the murder charges were dismissed.[46]

 
Harris holding a press conference

In 2004, Harris pushed for higher bail for criminal defendants involved in gun-related crimes. She argued at the time that low bail encouraged outsiders to commit crimes in San Francisco. As U.S. Senator in 2017, she introduced legislation to "reform or replace the practice of money bail."[47]

Officers within the SFPD credited Harris with tightening loopholes in bail and drug programs that defendants had used in the past. They also accused her of being too deliberate in her prosecution of murder suspects.[48] Additionally, in 2009, San Francisco prosecutors won a lower percentage of their felony jury trials than their counterparts at district attorneys' offices covering the 10 largest cities in California, according to data on case outcomes compiled by officials at the San Francisco Superior Court as well as by other county courts and prosecutors. (Officials in Sacramento, the sixth-largest city in California, did not provide data.) Her at-trial felony conviction rate that year was 76%, down 12 points from the previous year. The then-most recent recorded statewide average was 83%, according to statistics from the California Judicial Council.[49] In a small sample, a report computed that the conviction rate for felony trials in San Francisco County in the first three months of 2010 was 53%.[49] San Francisco has historically had one of the lowest conviction rates in the state; the county is known for a defendant-friendly jury pool.[50][49]

In 2012, Superior Court Judge Anne-Christine Massullo ruled that San Francisco District Attorney Harris's office violated defendants' rights by hiding damaging information about a police crime lab technician, and was indifferent to demands that it account for its failings.[51]

Hate crimes and civil rightsEdit

 
Harris at the 2013 San Francisco Pride Parade.

As San Francisco District Attorney, Harris created a special Hate Crimes Unit, focusing on hate crimes against LGBT children and teens in schools. She convened a national conference to confront the "gay-transgender panic defense", which has been used to justify violent hate crimes.[52] She supports same-sex marriage in California and opposed both Proposition 22 and Proposition 8.[53]

In 2004, The National Urban League honored Harris as a "Woman of Power". In 2005, she received the Thurgood Marshall Award from the National Black Prosecutors Association. In her campaign for California Attorney General, she received the endorsements of many groups including EMILY's List, California Legislative Black Caucus, Asian American Action Fund, Black Women Organized for Political Action, the National Women's Political Caucus, Mexican American Bar Association, and South Asians for Opportunity.[54]

Attorney General of CaliforniaEdit

2010 electionEdit

 
Harris being sworn in as Attorney General

On November 12, 2008, Harris announced her candidacy for California Attorney General. Both of California's United States Senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, as well as House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, endorsed her during the Democratic Party primary.[55] In the June 8, 2010, primary, she was nominated with 33.6% of the vote, defeating Alberto Torrico (who received 15.6% of the vote) and Chris Kelly (who received 15.5%).[56]

In her campaign for California Attorney General, Harris received the endorsements of United Farm Workers cofounder Dolores Huerta, United Educators of San Francisco, and San Francisco Firefighters Local 798.[54] She also received the endorsement of Antonio Villaraigosa, Mayor of Los Angeles.[57] In the general election, she faced Los Angeles County District Attorney Steve Cooley. On election night, November 2, 2010, Cooley prematurely declared victory, but many ballots remained uncounted. On November 24, as the count advanced, Harris was leading by more than 55,000 votes, and Cooley conceded.[58] On January 3, 2011, she became the first female,[42] Jamaican-American,[57][59] and Indian-American attorney general in California.[60][61]

2014 electionEdit

Harris announced her intention to run for re-election in February 2014 and filed paperwork to run on February 12. According to the office of California Secretary of State Debra Bowen, Harris had raised the money for her campaign during the previous year in 2013.[62] The Sacramento Bee,[63] Los Angeles Daily News,[64] and Los Angeles Times endorsed her for reelection.[65]

On November 4, 2014, Harris was re-elected against Republican Ronald Gold.[66]

Significant cases and policiesEdit

HousingEdit

When Harris took office in 2011, California was still reeling from the effects of the subprime mortgage crisis. In 2012, she participated in the National Mortgage Settlement against five banks, securing $12 billion of debt reduction for the state's homeowners and $26 billion overall.[67][68]

She introduced the California Homeowner's Bill of Rights in the California State Legislature, a set of laws which took effect on January 1, 2013, banning the practices of "dual-tracking" (processing a modification and foreclosure at the same time) and robo-signing, and provided homeowners with a single point of contact at their lending institution. It also gave the California Attorney General more power to investigate and prosecute financial fraud and to convene special grand juries to prosecute multi-county crimes instead of prosecuting a single crime county by county.[69][70]

Prison conditions and sentencing reformEdit

After the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Plata (2011) declared California's prisons so overcrowded they inflicted cruel and unusual punishment, Harris fought federal court supervision, explaining "I have a client, and I don't get to choose my client."[7] After California failed to fully implement the court's order to reduce crowding, and was ordered to implement new parole programs, the State of California appealed the decision, and in court filings the AG's office argued that if forced to release these inmates early, prisons would lose an important source of labor,[71] such as for fighting wildfires.[72] Prisoners in California earn between 8 and 37 cents per hour in maintenance and kitchen jobs;[71] prisoner firefighters receive higher pay, at $1 per hour.[72] She later backed away from her office's argument in the prison-litigation case, telling the website ThinkProgress: "The way that argument played out in court does not reflect my priorities... The idea that we incarcerate people to have indentured servants is one of the worst possible perceptions. I feel very strongly about that. It evokes images of chain gangs."[72][73]

 
Harris announcing the arrest of 101 Nuestra Familia gang members in 2011

Harris refused to take any position on criminal sentencing-reform initiatives Proposition 36 (2012) and Proposition 47 (2014), arguing it would be improper because her office prepares the ballot booklets.[7] Former California Attorney General John Van de Kamp considered her explanation "baloney."[7]

Prosecuting financial crimesEdit

 
Harris announcing the creation of a Mortgage Fraud Strike Force to Protect Homeowners in 2011

Harris has prosecuted many financial crimes, such as predatory lending.[74] In 2011, while serving as Attorney General of California, she created the Mortgage Fraud Strike Force which had a mandate to eliminate mortgage foreclosure fraud. The task force has been criticized for not filing as many foreclosure cases as in states with smaller populations.[75]

In 2013, Harris did not prosecute Steve Mnuchin's bank OneWest despite evidence "suggestive of widespread misconduct" according to a leaked memo from the Department of Justice.[76][77] In 2017, she said that her office's decision not to prosecute Mnuchin was based on "following the facts and the evidence...like any other case".[78] In 2016, Mnuchin donated $2,000 to her campaign,[79] making her the only 2016 Senate Democratic candidate to get cash from Mnuchin,[80] but as senator, she voted against the confirmation of Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury.[80][81]

Mobile-app user privacyEdit

 
Harris speaking at a U.S. Department of Justice event in 2013

In 2012, Harris sent a letter to 100 mobile-app developers, asking them to comply with California law with respect to privacy issues.[82] If any developer of an application that could be used by a Californian does not display a privacy policy statement when the application is installed, California law is broken, with a possible fine of $2500 for every download. The law affects any developer anywhere in the world if the app is used by a Californian.[83]

Michelle-Lael Norsworthy caseEdit

In February 2014, Michelle-Lael Norsworthy, a transgender woman incarcerated at California's Mule Creek State Prison, filed a federal lawsuit based on the state's failure to provide her with what she argued was medically necessary sex reassignment surgery (SRS).[84] In April 2015, a federal judge ordered the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) to provide Norsworthy with SRS, finding that prison officials had been "deliberately indifferent to her serious medical need."[85][86] Harris, representing CDCR, challenged the order in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals.[87] She argued that "Norsworthy has been receiving hormone therapy for her gender dysphoria since 2000, and continues to receive hormone therapy and other forms of treatment" and that "there is no evidence that Norsworthy is in serious, immediate physical or emotional danger."[88]

In August 2015, while the state's appeal was pending, Norsworthy was released on parole, obviating the state's duty to provide her with inmate medical care[89] and rendering the case moot.[90] Harris maintained that the parole review process was independent of Norsworthy's legal case against CDCR, although the Ninth Circuit, in its opinion, said it was possible that Norsworthy's release on parole, ahead of her scheduled SRS, may have been influenced by CDCR officials.[90]

Bureau of Children's JusticeEdit

On February 12, 2015, Harris announced that she would start a new agency called the Bureau of Children's Justice. The bureau would work on issues such as foster care, the juvenile justice system, school truancy, and childhood trauma. She appointed special assistant attorney general Jill Habig to head the agency.[91]

County prosecutors' misconductEdit

In 2015, Harris defended convictions obtained by county prosecutors who had inserted a false confession into an interrogation transcript, committed perjury, and withheld evidence.[7] Federal appeals court Judge Alex Kozinski threw out the convictions, telling lawyers, "Talk to the attorney general and make sure she understands the gravity of the situation."[7]

In March 2015, a California superior courts judge ordered Harris to take over a criminal case after Orange County District Attorney Tony Rackauckas was revealed to have illegally employed jailhouse informants and concealed evidence.[7] She refused, appealing the order and defending Rackauckas.[7]

Harris appealed the dismissal of an indictment when it was discovered a Kern County prosecutor perjured in submitting a falsified confession as court evidence. In the case, she argued that only abject physical brutality would warrant a finding of prosecutorial misconduct and the dismissal of an indictment, and that perjury alone was not enough.[92][93]

Oil and gas companiesEdit

 
Harris touring the clean-up efforts at a beach affected by a 2015 oil spill

After an oil spill from a pipeline caused damage to the California coastline in May 2015, Harris toured the coastline and directed her office's resources and attorneys to investigate possible criminal violations.[94] The investigations led to dozens of indictments.[95] In June 2016, she issued subpoenas to Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, Phillips 66, Valero Energy, and Tesoro relating to an investigation into possible price-fixing.[96]

Mitrice Richardson caseEdit

Mitrice Richardson was a 24-year-old African American woman who was released from the Los Angeles County Sheriff Department in the middle of the night without any means of fending for herself. Her body was later found in an isolated canyon, leaving the family with many unanswered questions. In 2016, the Attorney General opened a criminal investigation into the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's handling of the Mitrice Richardson case. The AG's Office had originally declined the request of the Richardson family to investigate the case, but reversed course after the family and supporters submitted almost 500 pages of evidence to Harris's office in the hope of prompting an investigation.[97][98][99] In December 2016, the California Attorney General's Office closed the investigation, concluding that there was insufficient evidence to support criminal prosecution of anyone involved in the handling of the Richardson case.[100]

Backpage casesEdit

In October 2016, Harris announced the arrest of Backpage CEO Carl Ferrer on felony charges of pimping a minor, pimping, and conspiracy to commit pimping. The arrest warrant alleged that 99% of Backpage's revenue was directly attributable to prostitution-related ads, many of which involved victims of sex trafficking, including children under the age of 18.[101]

The pimping charge against Ferrer was dismissed by the California courts in 2016 on the grounds of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, but in 2018 Ferrer ultimately pleaded guilty in California to money laundering and agreed to give evidence against the former co-owners of Backpage, Mike Lacey and Jim Larkin.[102] Ferrer simultaneously pleaded guilty to charges of money laundering and conspiracy to facilitate prostitution in Texas state court and Arizona federal court.[102][103][104]

In January 2017, following government pressure, Backpage announced that it was removing its adult section from all of its sites in the United States.[105] Harris welcomed the move, saying "I look forward to them shutting down completely."[106] The investigations continued after she became a senator and in April 2018, Backpage and affiliated sites were seized by federal law enforcement around the same time as Ferrer's guilty plea.[103]

Supreme Court and U.S. Attorney General speculationEdit

During Obama's presidency, Harris was mentioned as a possible nominee for the United States Supreme Court[107][108] or U.S. Attorney General,[109] but she was not nominated to either office.[110][additional citation(s) needed]

U.S. SenateEdit

2016 electionEdit

 
U.S. Senate campaign logo, 2016

After Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA) announced her intention to retire from the United States Senate at the end of her term in 2016, after which she would have served as California's junior senator for 24 years, Harris was the first candidate to declare her intention to run for Boxer's senate seat. Media outlets reported that she would run for senate on the same day that Gavin Newsom, California's Lieutenant Governor and a close political ally of Harris, announced he would not seek to succeed Boxer.[111] She officially announced the launch of her campaign on January 13, 2015.[112]

After holding a flurry of fundraisers in both California and Washington, D.C., Harris was reported to have raised $2.5 million for her campaign.[113] In December, the National Journal released a story describing her use of funds on hotels, the laying off of campaign staff and the inordinate totals, which had contributed to her money on hand being closer to that of another candidate, Loretta Sanchez, who had $1.6 million.[114][115]

Harris was a frontrunner from the beginning of her campaign. In January 2015, weeks after she announced her campaign, a survey by Public Policy Polling showed her leading by 41% to former Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa's 16%, who was seen as a potential candidate.[116] In May, a Field Poll was released, showing that although 58% of likely voters did not have a favored candidate, she was most preferred out of the field, with 19%.[117] October saw the release of a Field Poll with her at 30%, and fellow Democratic candidate Loretta Sanchez in second place at 17%. Harris had increased her support by 11% since the Field Poll in May despite being noted by The Sacramento Bee as not being active in campaigning since appearing at the California Democratic Party's convention.[118]

In late February 2016, the California Democratic Party voted at its state convention to endorse Harris, who received 78% of the vote – 18% more than the 60% needed to secure the endorsement.[119][120] The party endorsement did not secure any candidate a place in the general election, as all candidates would participate in one primary election in June, after which the top two candidates from any party would advance to the general election.[120] She participated in debates with the other major candidates for the seat, her front-runner status causing her to be at the center of discussion.[121][122] Governor Jerry Brown endorsed her on May 23.[123] She came in first place on primary day, June 7, with 40% of the votes, entering a runoff with fellow Democratic candidate Loretta Sanchez.[124] On July 19, President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden endorsed Harris.[125]

In the June 2016 primary election, with results detailed at the county level, Harris won 48 of 58 counties. She won seven counties with more than 50% of the vote: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. The highest percentage was San Francisco, with 70.4% of the vote.[126][127] She faced Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez, also a Democrat, in the general election. This assured that the seat would stay in Democratic hands; it was the first time a Republican did not appear in a general election for the Senate since California began directly electing senators in 1914.[128]

In the November 2016 election, Harris defeated Sanchez with 62 percent of the vote, carrying all but four counties.[129] Following her victory, she promised to protect immigrants from the policies of President-elect Donald Trump.[130]

Following her election to the United States Senate, Harris announced her intention to remain California's Attorney General through the end of 2016 and resign shortly before being sworn in as Senator on January 3, 2017.[131] Governor Jerry Brown announced his intention to nominate Congressman Xavier Becerra as her successor.[132]

TenureEdit

On January 21, 2017, a day after President Trump was sworn into office, Harris called the message of Trump's inaugural address "dark" when speaking during the Women's March on Washington.[133] On January 28, after Trump signed Executive Order 13769, barring citizens from several Muslim-majority countries from entering the US for 90 days, she condemned the order and was one of many to describe it as a "Muslim ban".[134][135] When John F. Kelly was White House Chief of Staff, she called him at home to gather information and push back against the contentious executive order.[136]

In early February, Harris spoke in opposition to Trump's cabinet picks Betsy DeVos, for Secretary of Education,[137] and Jeff Sessions, for United States Attorney General.[138] Later that month, in her first speech on the senate floor, she spent 12 minutes critiquing Trump's immigration policies.[139] In early March, she called on Attorney General Sessions to resign, after it was reported that Sessions spoke twice with Russian Ambassador to the United States Sergey Kislyak.[140] On March 14, she claimed repealing the Affordable Care Act would send the message of health care's being a "privilege" rather than a "civil right".[141]

 
Welcoming several of the new female CBC members in January 2019

In a May 2017 interview, Harris criticized Republican representative Raul Labrador for saying that no one dies due to lack of access to health care.[142]

On June 7, 2017, Harris garnered media attention for her questioning of Rod Rosenstein, the Deputy Attorney General, over the role he played in the May 2017 firing of James Comey, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[143] The prosecutorial nature of her questioning caused Senator John McCain, an ex officio member of the Intelligence Committee, and Senator Richard Burr, the committee chairman, to interrupt her and request that she be more respectful of the witness;[144] other Democrats on the committee pointed out that they had asked similarly tough questions, but had not been interrupted.[144] On June 13, she questioned Jeff Sessions, the Attorney General, on the same topic;[145] She was again interrupted by McCain and Burr.[146] Sessions stated that her mode of questioning "makes me nervous";[146] other Democratic members of the committee again pointed out that she was the only senator whose questioning was interrupted with an admonishment from the chairman.[146] Burr's singling out of Harris sparked suggestion in the news media that his behavior was sexist, with commentators arguing that Burr would not treat a male Senate colleague in a similar manner.[147] In addition, when CNN pundit Jason Miller described her as "hysterical", Kirsten Powers, who was taking part in the same on-air segment, told Miller that his use of the term to describe Harris was sexist, and that he would not describe male senators in the same manner.[148]

In July 2017, Harris voted in favor of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act that grouped together sanctions against Iran, Russia and North Korea.[149]

In a January 2018 hearing, Harris questioned Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen for favoring Norwegian immigrants over others and claiming to be unaware that Norway is a predominantly white country.[150]

In an April 2018 hearing, Harris questioned Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg for Facebook's misuse of users' data.[151]

In response to the administration's family separation policy, Harris visited one of the detention facilities near the border in June 2018.[152]

In the September and October 2018 Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court confirmation hearings, Harris participated in questioning the FBI Director's limited scope of the investigation on Kavanaugh.[153]

Harris was one of the targets of the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts.[154]

In February 2019, Rep. Ilhan Omar, D-Minn., tweeted, "It's all about the Benjamins baby" in reference to American politicians' support for Israel and invoked the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). A number of Democratic leaders – including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi – condemned the tweet, which was interpreted as implying that money was fueling American politicians' support of Israel.[155] Harris defended Ilhan Omar, saying that "We should be having a sound, respectful discussion about policy. You can both support Israel and be loyal to our country. I also believe there is a difference between criticism of policy or political leaders, and anti-Semitism."[156]

Committee assignmentsEdit

Source: Los Angeles Times

Caucus membershipsEdit

2020 presidential campaignEdit

 
Harris announcing her presidential candidacy, January 27, 2019

Harris had been considered a top contender and potential frontrunner for the 2020 Democratic nomination for President.[160][161][162] In June 2018, she was quoted as "not ruling it out".[163] As of July 2018, she was spending more on Facebook advertising than any other senator.[164] In July 2018, it was announced that she would publish a memoir, another sign of a possible run.[165] She also stumped for candidates in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina.[166][167][168]

On January 21, 2019, Harris officially announced her candidacy for President of the United States in the 2020 United States presidential election.[169] In the first 24 hours after her candidacy announcement, she tied a record set by Bernie Sanders in 2016 for the most donations raised in the day following announcement.[170] However, Sanders later broke this record after announcing his own 2020 presidential campaign.[171]

Over 20,000 people attended her formal campaign launch event in her hometown of Oakland, California on January 27, according to a police estimate.[172]

Harris's support rose by between 6–9 points in polls following the first Democratic presidential debate.[173][174][175]

Political positionsEdit

AbortionEdit

Since her election to the Senate, Harris has maintained a 100% rating by the abortion rights advocacy group Planned Parenthood Action Fund and a 0% rating by the anti-abortion group National Right to Life Committee.[176]

Campaign financeEdit

Harris's 2020 campaign has disavowed most corporate donations, and has committed to rejecting money from corporate political action committees for her presidential campaign.[177][178] Harris, along with candidates Cory Booker, Julian Castro, Tulsi Gabbard, Kirsten Gillibrand, Amy Klobuchar, Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, and Marianne Williamson, has explicitly discouraged single-candidate super PACs from operating on her behalf, though she cannot prevent them from doing so.[179] In 2017, Harris met with prominent Democratic Party donors in The Hamptons.[180][181] For her 2020 campaign, Harris is relying on both small and large individual donors.[182] After the FEC released donation disclosures in April 2019, The Intercept noted "the Harris campaign received the most registered lobbyist donations of any Democratic presidential campaign that has said it would not take the cash."[183] In the first quarter of 2019, 37% of Harris's donations came from small donors (donations of less than $200) and 63% of her donations came from large donors (donations of $200 or more).[184]

CannabisEdit

Harris did not initially support the legalization of recreational marijuana, but later moved to support legalization.[177] In 2010, while campaigning for Attorney General of California, she opposed Proposition 19, the first failed attempt to legalize recreational marijuana in California, on the grounds that selling drugs harms communities.[185] In 2015, she called for an end on the federal prohibition of medical marijuana.[186]

In May 2018, Harris announced she would co-sponsor the Marijuana Justice Act, which Senator Cory Booker introduced in August 2017. The legislation would eliminate marijuana's status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substance Act. The move would also require federal courts to automatically expunge earlier federal marijuana convictions related to use or possession and would establish a grant program aimed at incentivizing the expungement and sealing of state convictions for marijuana possession.[187][188]

Death penaltyEdit

Harris is opposed to the death penalty, but has said that she would review each case individually.[189] Her position was questioned in April 2004, when SFPD Officer Isaac Espinoza was murdered in the Bayview district. She announced that she would not seek the death penalty for the man accused of his killing. The decision evoked protests from the San Francisco Police Officers Association, Senator Dianne Feinstein, and others.[7] Those who supported her decision not to seek the death penalty included San Francisco Supervisors Tom Ammiano and Sophie Maxwell, in whose district the murder occurred.[190] The jury found the convicted killer, David Hill, guilty of second-degree murder, although the prosecutor, Harry Dorfman, had sought a first-degree murder conviction.[191] The defense had argued that Hill thought Espinoza was a member of a rival gang, and that the murder was not premeditated. Hill was given the maximum sentence for the conviction, life without the possibility of parole.[191]

 
Harris with Senator Dianne Feinstein and Governor Jerry Brown in October 2017

Harris's position against the death penalty was tested again in the case of Edwin Ramos, an illegal immigrant and alleged MS-13 gang member who was accused of murdering Tony Bologna and his sons Michael and Matthew.[38] On September 10, 2009, she announced she would seek life in prison without the possibility of parole rather than the death penalty in the Ramos case.[192]

Harris has expressed the belief that life without possibility of parole is a better, and more cost-effective, punishment.[193] According to the California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, the death penalty costs $137 million per year.[194] If the system were changed to life without possibility of parole, the annual costs would be approximately $12 million per year.[194] She noted that the resulting surplus could put 1,000 more police officers into service in San Francisco alone.[193]

When in 2014, U.S. District Judge Cormac J. Carney declared capital punishment in California unconstitutional, Harris appealed the case.[7]

On July 31, 2019, following Attorney General William Barr announcing that the United States federal government would resume the use of the death penalty for the first time in over twenty years, Harris was a cosponsor of a bill banning the death penalty.[195]

Disaster reliefEdit

In August 2018, Harris was one of eight senators to sign a letter to the Federal Emergency Management Agency charging the agency with not assisting displaced homeowners in Puerto Rico in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria under the Individuals and Households program (IHP) at "alarming rates."[196]

EducationEdit

 
Harris and Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani activist for female education and Nobel Prize laureate.

Harris has argued for treating "habitual and chronic truancy" among children in elementary school as a crime committed by the parents of truant children.[197] She argues that there is a direct connection between habitual truancy in elementary school and crime later in life.[198][199] She has received the endorsement of the California Federation of Teachers.[54]

Harris opposed California's ban on affirmative action.[200] She asked the Supreme Court to "reaffirm its decision that public colleges and universities may consider race as one factor in admissions decisions."[201][202] Harris filed legal papers in the Supreme Court case supporting race as an admissions factor at the University of Texas.[201] She also filed papers supporting affirmative action in a different Supreme Court case involving the University of Michigan.[203]

Harris supports busing for desegregation of public schools, saying that "the schools of America are as segregated, if not more segregated, today than when I was in elementary school."[204] Harris views busing as an option to be considered by school districts, rather than the responsibility of the federal government.[205]

Election securityEdit

On December 21, 2017, Harris was one of six senators to introduce the "Secure Elections Act", legislation authorizing block grants for states that would update outdated voting technology. The act would also create a program for an independent panel of experts to develop cybersecurity guidelines for election systems that states could adopt if they choose, along with offering states resources to implement the recommendations.[206]

EnvironmentEdit

During her time as San Francisco District Attorney, Harris created the Environmental Justice Unit in the San Francisco District Attorney's Office[207] and prosecuted several industries and individuals for pollution, most notably U-Haul, Alameda Publishing Corporation, and the Cosco Busan oil spill. She also advocated for strong enforcement of environmental protection laws.[208]

In October 2017, Harris was one of nineteen senators to sign a letter to Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Scott Pruitt questioning Pruitt's decision to repeal the Clean Power Plan, asserting that the repeal's proposal used "mathematical sleights of hand to over-state the costs of industry compliance with the 2015 Rule and understate the benefits that will be lost if the 2017 repeal is finalized" and science denying and math fabricating would fail to "satisfy the requirements of the law, nor will it slow the increase in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, the inexorable rise in sea levels, or the other dire effects of global warming that our planet is already experiencing."[209]

In September 2018, Harris was one of eight senators to sponsor the Climate Risk Disclosure Act, a bill described by cosponsor Elizabeth Warren as using "market forces to speed up the transition from fossil fuels to cleaner energy – reducing the odds of an environmental and financial disaster without spending a dime of taxpayer money."[210] She stated that her goal would be achieving 100% of U.S. electricity from renewable energy sources, and that she supports a Green New Deal, an idea made popular by first term Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, because "climate change is an existential threat to all of us."[211]

In November 2018, Harris was one of 25 Democratic senators to cosponsor a resolution specifying key findings of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change report and National Climate Assessment. The resolution affirmed the senators' acceptance of the findings and their support for bold action toward addressing climate change.[212]

On July 29, 2019, Harris and Ocasio-Cortez introduced the Climate Equity Act, a bill that would lay out steps for Congress and the White House on how to go about guaranteeing policies that composed "a future Green New Deal protect the health and economic wellbeing of all Americans for generations to come." Referring to climate change as "an existential threat", Harris noted cutting emissions and ending American reliance on fossil fuels were not enough and cited the need "that communities already contending with unsafe drinking water, toxic air, and lack of economic opportunity are not left behind."[213]

Foreign policyEdit

In April 2017, responding to the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack, Harris charged Syrian president Bashar al-Assad with attacking Syrian children, and stated "the clear fact that president Assad is not only a ruthless dictator brutalizing his own people – he is a war criminal the international community cannot ignore." She called on President Trump to work with Congress on his administration's "lack of clear objectives in Syria and articulate a detailed strategy and path forward in partnership with our allies."[214]

 
Harris in 2017 signing the guestbook at Yad Vashem in Mount Herzl, Israel as her husband looks on
 
Harris speaks with Palestinian students at the Al-Quds University in the State of Palestine, West Bank, November 12, 2017

In 2017, Harris gave a public address to AIPAC attendees. She said: "I believe Israel should never be a partisan issue, and as long as I'm a United States senator, I will do everything in my power to ensure broad and bipartisan support for Israel's security and right to self-defense."[215] She has opposed the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement targeting Israel.[216] She was a co-sponsor of a Senate resolution expressing objection to the UN Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law.[217][218][216] At the AIPAC conference, she said that "the first resolution I co-sponsored as a United States senator was to combat anti-Israel bias at the United Nations".[217] She also supported a Senate resolution celebrating the 50th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem.[219][220] In late 2017, she traveled to Israel, where she met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[217]

In October 2017, Harris condemned the genocide of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar and called for a stronger response to the crisis.[221]

In February 2018, Harris was one of 18 Democratic senators to sign a letter to Trump stating that he lacked the authority to launch a preemptive strike against North Korea without authorization from Congress. The letter stated: "Without congressional authority, a preventative or preemptive U.S. military strike would lack either a constitutional basis or legal authority."[222]

In 2018, after Trump announced the United States was withdrawing from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Harris released a statement saying the decision "jeopardizes our national security and isolates us from our closest allies" while calling the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action "the best existing tool we have to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons and avoid a disastrous military conflict in the Middle East."[223] In late 2018, she voted to withdraw U.S. military aid for Saudi Arabia's war in Yemen. She also backed a resolution blaming Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman for the murder of dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul.[224]

Harris supported the Iran nuclear deal to prevent Iran from acquiring weapons of mass destruction.[216] In December 2018, after Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced the Trump administration was suspending its obligations in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 60 days in the event that Russia continued to violate the treaty, she was one of 26 senators to sign a letter expressing concern over the administration "now abandoning generations of bipartisan U.S. leadership around the paired goals of reducing the global role and number of nuclear weapons and ensuring strategic stability with America's nuclear-armed adversaries" and calling on Trump to continue arms negotiations.[225]

Harris voted in favor of a $675 billion defense budget bill for the 2019.[226] She said that North Korea is "one of the most serious security threats".[227] In February 2019, after former Acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe claimed that President Trump believed the claims of President of Russia Vladimir Putin over U.S. intelligence agencies' reports on the subject of North Korea's missile capabilities, she told reporters, "The idea that the president of the U.S. would take the word of the head of Russia over the intel community is the height of irresponsibility and shameful."[228]

GunsEdit

Harris earned an "F" rating from the National Rifle Association for her consistent efforts supporting gun control.[229] While serving as district attorney in San Francisco Harris, along with other district attorneys, filed an amicus brief in District of Columbia v. Heller arguing that the Washington, D.C. gun law at issue did not violate the Second Amendment.[230] In her second term as district attorney, she said that getting guns off the streets was a priority.[231]

During her run for Senate, Harris was endorsed by former U.S. Representative Gabby Giffords, who had been shot in Tucson in 2011. She was also endorsed by the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.[232]

In response to the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, Harris supported the call for more gun control. Saying that she believed that thoughts and prayers are inadequate answers to the shooting, she stated that "...we must also commit ourselves to action. Another moment of silence won't suffice."[233][234]

On August 14, 2019, Harris unveiled a plan that would address domestic terrorism while prioritizing increasing the difficulty for suspected individuals to either obtain or keep firearms through the formation of domestic terrorism prevention orders meant to empower law enforcement officers and family members with the ability to petition federal court for a temporary restriction on a person’s access to firearms in the event that they "exhibit clear evidence of dangerousness." Harris stated that in the US "loaded guns should not be a few clicks away for any domestic terrorist with a laptop or smartphone” and cited the "need to take action to keep guns out of the hands of dangerous people and stop violent, hate-fueled attacks before they happen."[235]

Harris owns a gun for "personal safety", as she was a career prosecutor.[236]

Health careEdit

On August 30, 2017, Harris announced at a town hall in Oakland that she would co-sponsor fellow Senator Bernie Sanders' "Medicare for All" bill, supporting single-payer healthcare.[237][177]

In April 2018, Harris was one of ten senators to sponsor the Choose Medicare Act, an expanded public option for health insurance that also increased ObamaCare subsidies and rendered individuals with higher income levels eligible for its assistance.[238]

In December 2018, Harris was one of 42 senators to sign a letter to Trump administration officials Alex Azar, Seema Verma, and Steve Mnuchin arguing that the administration was improperly using Section 1332 of the Affordable Care Act to authorize states to "increase health care costs for millions of consumers while weakening protections for individuals with pre-existing conditions." The senators requested the administration withdraw the policy and "re-engage with stakeholders, states, and Congress."[239]

On July 29, 2019, Harris unveiled a health plan that would expand coverage while preserving a role for private insurance companies, the plan calling for transitioning to a Medicare for All system over a period of ten years that would be concurrent with infants and the uninsured automatically being placed into the system while other individuals would have the option to buy into the health care plan backed by the government.[240] The plan has been met with some criticism from both democrats and republicans. [241]

ImmigrationEdit

 
Meeting with DREAMers in December 2017

Harris has expressed support for San Francisco's sanctuary city policy of not inquiring about immigration status in the process of a criminal investigation.[242] She argued that it is important that immigrants be able to talk with law enforcement without fear.[243]

On October 25, 2017, Harris stated she would not support a spending bill until Congress addressed the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program in a way that clarified "what we are going to do to protect and take care of our DACA young people in this country."[244] She did not support a February 2018 proposal by some Democrats to provide President Trump with $25 billion in funding for a border wall in exchange for giving DREAMers a pathway to citizenship.[245]

In a January 2018 interview, when asked by Hiram Soto about her ideal version of a bipartisan deal on the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, Harris stated the need to focus on comprehensive immigration reform and "pass a clean DREAM Act."[246]

In April 2018, Harris was one of five senators to send a letter to acting director of ICE Thomas Homan on standards used by the agency when determining how to detain a pregnant woman, requesting that pregnant women not be held in custody unless under extraordinary standards after reports "that ICE has failed to provide critical medical care to pregnant women in immigration detention – resulting in miscarriages and other negative health outcomes".[247]

In July 2018, the Trump administration falsely accused Harris of "supporting the animals of MS-13."[248][249] She responded, "As a career prosecutor, I actually went after gangs and transnational criminal organizations. That's being a leader on public safety. What is not, is ripping babies from their mothers."[248]

In July 2018, Harris was one of 22 senators to sponsor the Stop Shackling and Detaining Pregnant Women Act, which if enacted would prohibit immigration officers from detaining pregnant women in a majority of circumstances and improve conditions of care for individuals in custody.[250]

 
Harris speaking at L.A.'s Families Belong Together protest in June 2018

In August 2018, Harris led fifteen Democrats and Bernie Sanders in a letter to United States Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen Nielsen demanding that the Trump administration take immediate action in attempting to reunite 539 migrant children with their families, citing each passing day of inaction as intensifying "trauma that this administration has needlessly caused for children and their families seeking humanitarian protection."[251]

In November 2018, Harris was one of eleven senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Defense James Mattis concerning "the overt politicization of the military" with the Trump administration's deployment of 5,800 troops to the U.S.–Mexico border, and requesting a briefing and written justification from the U.S. Northern Command for troop deployment, while urging Mattis to "curb the unprecedented escalation of DOD involvement in immigration enforcement."[252]

In January 2019, Harris was one of twenty senators to sponsor the Dreamer Confidentiality Act, a bill imposing a ban on the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) from passing information collected on DACA recipients to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Department of Justice, or any other law enforcement agency with exceptions in the case of fraudulent claims, national security issues, or non-immigration related felonies being investigated.[253]

In June 2019, following the Housing and Urban Development Department's confirmation that DACA recipients did not meet eligibility for federal backed loans, Harris and eleven other senators introduced The Home Ownership Dreamers Act, legislation that mandated that the federal government was not authorized to deny mortgage loans backed by the Federal Housing Administration, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or the Agriculture Department solely due to the immigration status of an applicant.[254]

In July 2019, along with Kirsten Gillibrand and Amy Klobuchar, Harris sent a letter to the Office of Refugee Resettlement asserting that the agency "should be prioritizing reunification of every child as soon as possible, but instead it has been responsible for policies that are forcing longer stays in government custody for children" and that it was mandatory that the office "ensure that the custody and processing of [unaccompanied migrant children] is meeting the minimum standards required by domestic and international law."[255]

In July 2019, Harris and fifteen other Senate Democrats introduced the Protecting Sensitive Locations Act which mandated that ICE agents get approval from a supervisor ahead of engaging in enforcement actions at sensitive locations with the exception of special circumstances and that agents receive annual training in addition to being required to report annually regarding enforcement actions in those locations.[256]

In August 2019, after the Trump administration released a new regulation imposing the possibility that any green card and visa applicants could be turned down in the event they have low incomes or little education and have used benefits such as food stamps and housing vouchers at some point, Harris referred to the regulation as part of President Trump's ongoing campaign "to vilify a whole group of people" and cited Trump's sending of service members to the southern border and building a border wall as part of his goal to distract "from the fact that he has betrayed so many people and has actually done very little that has been productive in the best interest of American families."[257]

LGBT rightsEdit

 
Harris during the 2019 San Francisco Pride Parade

During her tenure as California Attorney General, Harris declined to defend the state's ban on same-sex marriage in court. She supported the Obama administration's guidance supporting transgender students. Following the Supreme Court's overturning of the ban on same-sex marriage, she proceeded to conduct California's first same-sex marriage.[258] Later on in 2015, she argued in court to withhold gender reassignment surgery from two transgender inmates who were prescribed the procedure while serving the sentences. This stance disappointed some LGBT rights advocates; she later stated that she only took that stance in court because her job required her to do so.[259]

As a member of the U.S. Senate, she co-sponsored the Equality Act.[259]

Net neutralityEdit

In September 2017, Harris was one of nine senators to sign a letter to Federal Communications Commission Chairman Ajit Pai that charged the FCC with failing "to provide stakeholders with an opportunity to comment on the tens of thousands of filed complaints that directly shed light on proposed changes to existing net neutrality protections."[260]

In March 2018, Harris was one of ten senators to sign a letter spearheaded by Jeff Merkley lambasting a proposal from FCC Chairman Ajit Pai that would curb the scope of benefits from the Lifeline program during a period where roughly 6.5 million people in poor communities relied on Lifeline to receive access to high-speed internet, citing that it was Pai's "obligation to the American public, as the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, to improve the Lifeline program and ensure that more Americans can afford access, and have means of access, to broadband and phone service." The senators also advocated for insuring "Lifeline reaches more Americans in need of access to communication services."[261]

TaxesEdit

Harris opposed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, and has called for a repeal of the bill's tax cuts for wealthy Americans.[262] In 2018, she proposed a tax cut for the majority of working- and middle-class Americans. An analysis by the nonpartisan Tax Policy Center estimated that the bill would reduce federal revenue by $2.8 trillion over a decade. She proposed to pay for the tax cuts by repealing tax cuts for wealthy Americans and by increasing taxes on corporations.[178][262][263]

Voting rightsEdit

In May 2019, Harris attributed the 2018 gubernatorial losses of Stacey Abrams and Andrew Gillum, in both Georgia and Florida to voter suppression.[264]

Electoral historyEdit

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kamala D. Harris 762,995 33.6
Democratic Alberto Torrico 354,792 15.6
Democratic Chris Kelly 350,757 15.5
Democratic Ted W. Lieu 237,618 10.5
Democratic Pedro Nava 222,941 9.7
Democratic Rocky Delgadillo 219,494 9.6
Democratic Mike Schmier 127,291 5.5
Total votes 2,275,888 100.0
California Attorney General election, 2010[265]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Kamala Harris 4,442,781 46.05% -10.24%
Republican Steve Cooley 4,368,624 45.28% +7.17%
Green Peter Allen 258,879 2.68% +0.37%
Libertarian Timothy J. Hannan 246,583 2.56% +0.46%
American Independent Diane Beall Templin 169,993 1.76% N/A
Peace and Freedom Robert J. Evans 160,416 1.66% +0.47%
Total votes 9,647,276 100.0% N/A
Democratic hold
Nonpartisan blanket primary[266]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kamala Harris (Incumbent) 2,177,480 53.2
Republican Ronald Gold 504,091 12.3
Republican Phil Wyman 479,468 11.7
Republican David King 368,190 9.0
Republican John Haggerty 336,433 8.2
No party preference Orly Taitz 130,451 3.2
Libertarian Jonathan Jaech 99,056 2.4
Total votes 4,095,169 100.0
California Attorney General election, 2014[267]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Kamala Harris (Incumbent) 4,102,649 57.49% +11.44%
Republican Ronald Gold 3,033,476 42.51% -2.77%
Total votes 7,136,125 100.0% N/A
Democratic hold
Primary results[268]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kamala Harris 3,000,689 37.9%
Democratic Loretta Sanchez 1,416,203 17.9%
Republican Duf Sundheim 584,251 7.8%
Republican Phil Wyman 352,821 4.7%
Republican Tom Del Beccaro 323,614 4.3%
Republican Greg Conlon 230,944 3.1%
Democratic Steve Stokes 168,805 2.2%
Republican George C. Yang 112,055 1.5%
Republican Karen Roseberry 110,557 1.5%
Libertarian Gail K. Lightfoot 99,761 1.3%
Democratic Massie Munroe 98,150 1.3%
Green Pamela Elizondo 95,677 1.3%
Republican Tom Palzer 93,263 1.2%
Republican Ron Unz 92,325 1.2%
Republican Don Krampe 69,635 0.9%
No party preference Eleanor García 65,084 0.9%
Republican Jarrell Williamson 64,120 0.9%
Republican Von Hougo 63,609 0.8%
Democratic President Cristina Grappo 63,330 0.8%
Republican Jerry J. Laws 53,023 0.7%
Libertarian Mark Matthew Herd 41,344 0.6%
Peace and Freedom John Thompson Parker 35,998 0.5%
No party preference Ling Ling Shi 35,196 0.5%
Democratic Herbert G. Peters 32,638 0.4%
Democratic Emory Peretz Rodgers 31,485 0.4%
No party preference Mike Beitiks 31,450 0.4%
No party preference Clive Grey 29,418 0.4%
No party preference Jason Hanania 27,715 0.4%
No party preference Paul Merritt 24,031 0.3%
No party preference Jason Kraus 19,318 0.3%
No party preference Don J. Grundmann 15,317 0.2%
No party preference Scott A. Vineberg 11,843 0.2%
No party preference Tim Gildersleeve 9,798 0.1%
No party preference Gar Myers 8,726 0.1%
Republican Billy Falling (write-in) 87 0.0%
No party preference Ric M. Llewellyn (write-in) 32 0.0%
Republican Alexis Stuart (write-in) 10 0.0%
Total votes 7,512,322 100.0%
United States Senate election in California, 2016[269]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Kamala Harris 7,542,753 61.60% N/A
Democratic Loretta Sanchez 4,701,417 38.40% N/A
Total votes 12,244,170 100.0% N/A
Democratic hold

Personal lifeEdit

Harris is married to California attorney Douglas Emhoff,[270] who was at one time partner-in-charge at Venable LLP's Los Angeles office.[271] Emhoff is Jewish.[272] They married on August 22, 2014, in Santa Barbara, California.[273] The Washington Post reported their 2018 income as $1.9 million.[274][275][276] Her sister is Maya Harris, an MSNBC political analyst, and her brother-in-law is Tony West, general counsel of Uber and a former United States Department of Justice senior official.[14][15] She has two adult stepchildren.[277][278]

From 1994 to 1995,[33] Harris dated Speaker of the California State Assembly Willie Brown,[30][279] who appointed her to paid positions at the Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board and the California Medical Assistance Commission.[280] The relationship, which she ended after his election to mayor of San Francisco, helped launch her later political career by helping her meet influential people.[33]

She has received honorary degrees from Howard University (2012),[281][282] the University of Southern California (2015),[283] and Howard University (2017).[281][284] She identifies as a Baptist.[285]

PublicationsEdit

Harris has written two non-fiction books and one children's book.[286][287] She also wrote the entry for Christine Blasey Ford when Ford was named one of the Time 100 people in 2019.[288]

  • The Truths We Hold: An American Journey. Diversified Publishing. 2019. ISBN 1984886223.
  • Superheroes Are Everywhere. Penguin Young Readers Group. 2019. ISBN 1984837494.
  • Smart on Crime: A Career Prosecutor's Plan to Make Us Safer. Chronicle Books. 2009. ISBN 0811865282.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ken Thomas (February 15, 2013). "You Say 'Ka-MILLA;' I Say 'KUH-ma-la.' Both Are Wrong". Wall Street Journal: 1. 'It's "COMMA-la,"' Ms. Harris said with a laugh. 'Just think of "calm." At least I try to be most of the time.'
  2. ^ Viser, Matt (January 21, 2019). "Kamala Harris enters 2020 Presidential Race". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  3. ^ ": The New Face of Politics… An Interview with Kamala Harris". DesiClub. Archived from the original on December 11, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Obituary: Dr. Shyamala G. Harris". San Francisco Chronicle. March 22, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  5. ^ "Kamala Harris". The Los Angeles Times. October 24, 2004. p. 108. Retrieved January 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ See:
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bazelon, Emily (May 25, 2016). "Kamala Harris, a 'Top Cop' in the era of Black Lives Matter". The New York Times Magazine.
  8. ^ a b "Kamala Harris' Jamaican Heritage". jamaicaglobalonline.com. October 1, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  9. ^ Cadelago, Christopher (February 12, 2019), "Why Kamala Harris is glad people are asking if she's black enough", Politico.
  10. ^ a b Martinez, Michael (October 23, 2010). "A 'female Obama' seeks California attorney general post". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  11. ^ Egelko, Bob (November 7, 2012). "Kamala Harris mixing idealism, political savvy". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  12. ^ Sreevatsan, Ajai (November 28, 2010). "California's next A-G, city's pride". The Hindu. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  13. ^ Finnegan, Michael (September 30, 2015). "How race helped shape the politics of Senate candidate Kamala Harris". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  14. ^ a b Sari Horwitz (February 27, 2012). "Justice Dept. lawyer Tony West to take over as acting associate attorney general". The Washington Post.
  15. ^ a b Shaban, Hamza (October 27, 2017). "Uber hires PepsiCo's Tony West as general counsel". The Washington Post.
  16. ^ Bazelon, Emily (May 25, 2016). "Kamala Harris, a 'Top Cop' in the Era of Black Lives Matter". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  17. ^ Spencer, Saranac Hale (July 13, 2018). "Sen. Harris Didn't 'Lie' About Integration". Factcheck.org.
  18. ^ "Fact check: Kamala Harris was correct on integration in Berkeley, school district confirms".
  19. ^ Kamala Harris, The Truths We Hold: An American Journey (New York: Penguin Press, 2019), p. 19.
  20. ^ Sam Whiting (May 14, 2009). "Kamala Harris grew up idolizing lawyers". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
  21. ^ "Brilliant Careers". Super Lawyers. August 1, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  22. ^ "Will ex-Montrealer Kamala Harris be the one to unseat Donald Trump?". Montreal Gazette. October 9, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  23. ^ Dale, Daniel (December 29, 2018). "U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris's classmates from her Canadian high school cheer her potential run for president". thestar.com. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  24. ^ "Rising Democratic party star Kamala Harris has Montreal roots". CTV News. The Canadian Press. October 9, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  25. ^ Dale, Daniel (December 29, 2018). "U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris's classmates from her Canadian high school cheer her potential run for president". Toronto Star. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  26. ^ a b Owens, Donna (November 8, 2016). "Meet Kamala Harris, the second Black woman elected to the U.S. Senate". NBC News. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  27. ^ "Howard Alumna Becomes First Woman Elected as California Attorney General" (Press release). Howard University. December 17, 2010. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  28. ^ "Kamala Harris '89 Wins Race for California Attorney General". UC Hastings News Room. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on November 30, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  29. ^ California, The State Bar of. "State Bar of CA :: Kamala Devi Harris". members.calbar.ca.gov. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  30. ^ a b Richardson, James (1996). Willie Brown: A Biography. University of California Press. pp. 390, 394, 402, 404.
  31. ^ "Women's Radio: This DA Makes a Difference For Women". Womensradio.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  32. ^ Martin, Nina (August 2007). "Why Kamala Matters". San Francisco Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  33. ^ a b c Kruse, Michael (August 9, 2019). "How San Francisco's Wealthiest Families Launched Kamala Harris". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  34. ^ a b c Fraley, Malaika (October 26, 2009). "Book 'em, Kamala – S.F. District Attorney Harris adds author to list of credits". East Bay Times. Walnut Creek, California: Bay Area News Group.
  35. ^ a b c Marteau Emerson, Kimberly (November 24, 2009). "Smart on Crime Q&A". HuffPost. New York City: Huffington Post Media Group.
  36. ^ "Kamala Harris: Finding the Path Back on Track". HuffPost. New York City: Huffington Post Media Group. November 9, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  37. ^ Begin, Brent (October 14, 2009). "District Attorney program is now statewide example". San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, California: San Francisco Media Company LLC.
  38. ^ a b c Finnegan, Michael. San Francisco D.A.'s program trained illegal immigrants for jobs they couldn't legally hold, Los Angeles Times, June 22, 2009.
  39. ^ Willon, Phil (July 6, 2016). "8 things to know about Senate candidate Kamala Harris' career gold stars and demerits". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California: Tronc. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  40. ^ Knight, Heather (November 7, 2007). "Kamala Harris celebrates unopposed bid for district attorney". San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, California: Hearst Corporation. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  41. ^ Zernike, Kate (May 18, 2008). "She Just Might Be President Someday". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  42. ^ a b "Kamala Harris wins Dem nomination for California AG". Z News. June 9, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
  43. ^ Winston, Ali (May 8, 2013). "Cover of Darkness: S.F. Police Turned a Blind Eye to Some of the City's Most Dangerous Criminals – Who Were Also Some of Their Most Trusted Sources". San Francisco Weekly. San Francisco, California: San Francisco Media Co. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  44. ^ "Convicting Felons – Kamala Harris". January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  45. ^ Peter Jamison (May 5, 2010). "A Lack of Conviction". SF Weekly.
  46. ^ Van Derbeken, Jaxon (March 20, 2006). "Trials and tribulations of Kamala Harris, D.A. / 2 years into term, prosecutor, police have their differences". San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, California: Hearst Corporation. p. 4. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.
  47. ^ staff, C. N. N. "Fact check: CNN's Democratic debate, night 2". CNN. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
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