Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is recognized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
|Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and Preachers|
|Motto||Veritas et Utilitas|
Motto in English
|"Truth and Service"|
|Established||March 2, 1867|
|Endowment||$685.8 million (2016)|
|President||Wayne A.I. Frederick|
|Location||Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Campus||Urban; 300 acres (1.2 km2)|
|Colors||Blue, White and Red
|Nickname||Bison & Lady Bison|
|NCAA Division I – MEAC|
From its outset Howard has been nonsectarian and open to people of all genders and races. In addition to over 70 distinct undergraduate programs, it has graduate programs in business, nursing, history, computer science, engineering, pharmacy, law, social work, education, communications, art, science, divinity, dentistry, and medicine.
Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U.S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 75 on the 2015 Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings. The Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows. In 2011, the Huffington Post named Howard the second best-dressed college in the nation. Howard is the most comprehensive HBCU in the nation and produces the most black doctorate recipients of any non-profit university.
Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Medicine. The new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the University from 1869–74.
U.S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, and much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, and tuition. An annual congressional appropriation administered by the U.S. Department of Education funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was renovated and made a dormitory for women. J. Stanley Durkee, Howard's last white president, was appointed in 1918.
The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique, which was to play a prominent role in the later civil rights movement. By January, 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D.C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the administration asked the students to stop in the Fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English.
|1867||Charles B. Boynton|
|1869–1874||Oliver Otis Howard|
|1875–1876||Edward P. Smith|
|1877–1889||William W. Patton|
|1906–1912||Wilbur P. Thirkield|
|1912–1918||Stephen M. Newman|
|1918–1926||J. Stanley Durkee|
|1926–1960||Mordecai Wyatt Johnson|
|1960–1969||James Nabrit Jr.|
|1969–1989||James E. Cheek|
|1995–2008||H. Patrick Swygert|
|2008–2013||Sidney A. Ribeau|
|2013–present||Wayne A.I. Frederick|
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.
In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community.
In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's Board of Trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, and eventually occupied the university's Administration building. Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned.
In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying that the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level." This came on the heels of several criticisms of Howard University and its management. The following month, Swygert announced that he would retire in June 2008. The university announced in May 2008 that Sidney Ribeau of Bowling Green State University would succeed Swygert as president. Ribeau appointed a Presidential Commission on Academic Renewal to conduct a year-long self-evaluation that resulted in reducing or closing 20 out of 171 academic programs. For example, they proposed closing the undergraduate philosophy major and African studies major.
Six years later, in 2013, university insiders again alleged that the university was in crisis. In April, the vice chairwoman of the university's board of trustees wrote a letter to her colleagues harshly criticizing the university's president and calling for a vote of no confidence; her letter was subsequently obtained by the media where it drew national headline. Two months later, the university's Council of Deans alleged that "fiscal mismanagement is doing irreparable harm," blaming the university's senior vice president for administration, chief financial officer and treasurer and asking for his dismissal. In October, the faculty voted no confidence in the university's Board of Trustees executive committee, two weeks after university president Sidney A. Ribeau announced that he would retire at the end of the year. On October 1, the Board of Trustees named Wayne A.I. Frederick Interim President. In July 2014 Howard's Board of Trustees named Frederick as the school's 17th president.
The 256-acre (1.04 km2; 0.400 sq mi) campus often referred to as "The Mecca" is located in northwest Washington. Major improvements, additions, and changes occurred at the school in the aftermath of World War I. New buildings were built under the direction of architect Albert Cassell. Howard's buildings and plant have a value of $567.6 million.
The Howard University Gallery of Art was established in 1928 by the University's Board of Trustees. Since its inception, the gallery's permanent collection has grown to over 4,000 works of art and continues to serve as an academic resource for the Howard community.
Howard University has nine residence halls in which students can live: Drew Hall (male freshmen), College Hall North (female freshmen), Tubman Quadrangle (female freshmen), Bethune Annex (co-ed, undergraduates), Cook Hall (co-ed, undergraduates), Plaza Towers West (co-ed, for juniors and seniors only), Slowe Hall (co-ed), College Hall South (co-ed), and Plaza Towers East (co-ed, undergraduate honors program students, graduate students).
Howard University Hospital, opened in 1975 on the eastern end of campus, was built on the site of Griffith Stadium, in use from the 1890s to 1965 as home of the first, second and third incarnations of the MLB Senators, as well as the NFL's Washington Redskins, several college football teams (including Georgetown, GWU and Maryland) and part-time home of the Homestead Grays of the Negro National League.
The Interdisciplinary Research Building (IRB) opened in 2016 was Howard's first new laboratory building in nearly 30 years. The multi-story, 81,670 square foot, state-of-the-art research facility was completed for $70 million. The IRB was designed to cultivate more collaborative research on campus.
The university is led by a Board of Trustees that includes a faculty trustee from the undergraduate colleges, a faculty trustee from the graduate and professional colleges serving 3-year terms, two student trustees, each serving 1-year terms, and three alumni-elected trustees, each serving 3-year terms.
Schools and collegesEdit
- College of Engineering and Architecture
- College of Nursing & Allied Health Sciences
- College of Pharmacy
- Howard University College of Arts and Sciences
- Howard University College of Dentistry
- Howard University School of Business
- Howard University School of Communications
- Howard University College of Medicine
- Howard University School of Law
- Middle School of Mathematics and Science
- School of Divinity
- School of Education
- School of Social Work
Howard offers three honors programs for its most high-achieving undergraduate students: the College of Arts & Sciences Honors Program, the Executive Leadership Honors Program in the School of Business, and the Annenberg Honors Program in the School of Communications.
Howard University WestEdit
In 2017, Google Inc. announced it established a residency program named "Howard University West" on its campus in Mountain View, California to help increase black representation in the tech industry. Howard University's computer science juniors and seniors will spend 12-weeks during at least one summer learning from senior Google engineers and Howard faculty, practicing the latest coding techniques, and experiencing tech culture for course credit towards their undergraduate degrees.
"The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (MSRC) is recognized as one of the world's largest and most comprehensive repositories for the documentation of the history and culture of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and other parts of the world. The MSRC collects, preserves, and makes available for research a wide range of resources chronicling black experiences."
NASA University Research Center (BCCSO)Edit
The Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO) is a NASA University Research Center located at the Beltsville, Maryland campus of Howard University. BCCSO consists of a multidisciplinary group of Howard faculty in partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Division, other academic institutions, and government. This group is led by three Principal Investigators, Everette Joseph, also the director of BCCSO, Demetrius Venable and Belay Demoz. BCCSO trains science and academic leaders to understand atmospheric processes through atmospheric observing systems and analytical methods.
Howard University is home to The Hilltop, the award-winning (Princeton Review) student newspaper. Founded in 1924 by Zora Neale Hurston, The Hilltop enjoys a long legacy at the university, providing students with the ability to learn the newspaper industry.
Howard University is the publisher of The Journal of Negro Education, which began publication in 1932. The Howard University Bison Yearbook is created, edited and published during the school year to provide students a year-in-review. Howard University also publishes the Capstone, the official e-newsletter for the university; and the Howard Magazine, the official magazine for the university, which is published three times a year.
Howard University LibrariesEdit
- The Founders Library, the main library, founded in January 1939.
- The School of Business Library
- The School of Divinity Library
- The School of Social Work Library
- The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
- The Channing Pollock Theatre Collection
- The Patent and Trademark Resource Center
- The Undergraduate Library (UGL).
- Afro-American Studies Center.
The U.S. students come from the following regions: New England 2%, Mid-West 8%. South 22%, Mid-Atlantic 55%, and West 12%. Nearly 4% of the student body are international students. Howard University is 86.1% African-American/Black.
Howard is one of the top five largest HBCUs in the nation with over 10,000 students.
Howard produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.
There are over 200 student organizations and special interest groups established on campus.
As of 2006[update], Howard's six-year graduation rate was 67.5%. In 2009, 1,270 of the 1,476 full-time freshmen enrolled were found to have financial need (86%). Of these, Howard could meet the full financial aid needs of 316 freshmen. Howard's average undergraduate student's indebtedness at graduation is $16,798.
Howard faculty include: member of Congress from Maryland Roscoe Bartlett, blood shipment pioneer Charles Drew, Emmy-winning actor Al Freeman Jr., suffragist Elizabeth Piper Ensley, civil rights lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, media entrepreneur Cathy Hughes, marine biologist Ernest Everett Just, professor of surgery LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., political consultant Ron Walters, novelist and diplomat E. R. Braithwaite, filmmaker Haile Gerima, and psychiatrist Francis Cress Welsing.
Greek letter organizationsEdit
Howard University is the founding site of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and five of the most prestigious NPHC chapters (Alpha Chapters). The Alpha Chapters of Alpha Kappa Alpha (1908), Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914), and Zeta Phi Beta (1920) were established on Howard's campus. However, the Beta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was the first to appear in 1907. Also in 1920, the Xi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi appeared on campus, followed by the Alpha Phi Chapter of Sigma Gamma Rho in 1939, and the Alpha Tau Chapter of Iota Phi Theta in 1983.
Other notable Greek letter organizations registered at Howard include Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, Delta Sigma Pi, Phi Sigma Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Alpha Nu Omega, Alpha Kappa Psi, Phi Sigma Rho, Gamma Iota Sigma, Phi Mu Alpha, Sigma Alpha Iota, Gamma Sigma Sigma, Kappa Kappa Psi, Tau Beta Sigma and Phi Alpha Delta.
Howard's homecoming week is the most highly publicized and richest cultural tradition of the institution. Over 100,000 of alumni, students, special guests, and visitors are in attendance to patronize the many events and attractions affiliated with the festive week on and near campus. While the specific calendar of events changes from year to year, many of the traditional homecoming events include the Homecoming Football Game and Tailgate, the Pep Rally, the Coronation Ball, the Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), and the Fashion Show. After a two-year hiatus, the Yardfest also returned in 2016 as one of the cherished traditions.
Springfest is an annual tradition that officially began in 2010 by members of the Undergraduate Student Association (USA) to celebrate the new spring season. Springfest is similar to Howard's homecoming week in the fall but on a smaller scale (less events and attendees). For Springfest, normally planned is a Spring Fashion Show, Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), Vendor Fair, Poetry Showcase, Beauty Conference, Charity Basketball Game, and a major community service event. The official schedule of events slightly changes every year.
The Bison Ball and Excellence Awards is an annual black tie gala hosted by the Howard University Student Association (HUSA). A select number of students, faculty, organizations, and administrators from the Howard community are honored for their exceptional accomplishments. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester.
Resfest week is a Howard tradition where students living in freshmen residence halls on campus compete in various organized competitions for awards and bragging rights; arguably the most coveted award is winning the Resfest Step-Show which normally involves elaborate themes and productions. This event is held every spring semester.
Howard is the alma mater of many notable individuals, including:
- Ben Ali, co-founder and owner of Ben's Chili Bowl, the famous restaurant in Washington, D.C.;
- Choreographer, actress and singer Debbie Allen;
- Emmy Award nominated actor and star of the TV Show Black-ish Anthony Anderson;
- The first Nigerian president Nnamdi Azikiwe;
- Mayor of Newark, New Jersey Ras J. Baraka;
- NFL player Antoine Bethea;
- Civil rights and Black Power leader Stokely Carmichael;
- Rapper Sean Combs;
- Congressman Elijah Cummings;
- Actor Ossie Davis;
- Former Malian prime minister and NASA engineer Cheick Modibo Diarra;
- David Dinkins, the first African-American mayor of New York City;
- Mike Espy, the first African-American U.S. Secretary of Agriculture;
- Former Mayor of the District of Columbia Adrian Fenty;
- Writer Ta-Nehisi Coates;
- Sociologist E. Franklin Frazier;
- Actor Lance Gross;
- Kamala Harris, first African-American, and first Asian-American female Attorney General & US Senator from California;
- Television journalist Lori Stokes
- Patricia Roberts Harris, former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and first African-American woman United States Ambassador;
- Oscar and Emmy-Nominated and Golden Globe Winning Actress Taraji P. Henson;
- Shauntay Hinton, beauty pageant winner;
- Gus Johnson, sports broadcaster;
- Attorney Vernon Jordan;
- Television personality Ananda Lewis;
- Thurgood Marshall, First African-American U.S. Supreme Court Justice;
- Nobel Prize and Pulitzer Prize–winning author Toni Morrison;
- Actress and singer Phylicia Rashad;
- Charlotte E. Ray, first African-American woman lawyer;
- Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia Kasim Reed;
- Actress Wendy Raquel Robinson;
- Book artist Clarissa Sligh;
- Stan Verrett, anchor on the ESPN and ESPNEWS networks in the United States.
- Educator and writer Josephine Turpin Washington;
- Mayor of Washington, D.C., Walter Washington;
- Award-winning gospel artist Richard Smallwood
- Recording artist Crystal Waters;
- Tom Joyner Morning Show producer Nikki Woods;
- United States Ambassador Andrew Young.
Chadwick Boseman, actor
In popular cultureEdit
- Andre Johnson in the TV show Black-ish is a Howard University alum.
- In the 2011 film Captain America: The First Avenger, linguistic expert Gabe Jones of the Howling Commandos attended Howard before joining the Army.
- Captain Hero in the TV show Drawn Together attended Howard University.
- Queen Latifah and Erika Alexander, actresses on the hit TV show "Living Single," were Howard University alumnae.
- Many episodes of A Different World were inspired by Debbie Allen's experiences as a Howard student. Debbie Allen served as a producer of the show following the first season.
- As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017.
- "HU's Enrollment Fluctuation".
- Howard University Identity Guidelines (PDF). 2015-05-22. Retrieved 2016-07-22.
- "Howard University Demographics".
- "Howard University | Best College | US News". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "Howard University School of Business Ranks Among Top Schools | Howard University". .howard.edu. 2015-10-28. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "School of Law Ranked Among Top 50 Law Schools". Law.howard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- Three Howard Seniors Awarded Fulbright Scholarships, Howard University. April 8, 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Competitive Scholarships". Howard University. 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "Best dressed colleges of 2011". Ibtimes.com. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "TECH-Levers: HBCUs Produce the Most Black Alums Who Receive Doctorates in Science and Engineering". Hbcu-levers.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "History | Howard University". .howard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "Brief History of Howard University". Howard.edu. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- "U.S. Department of Education funding of Howard University".
- "Woodson at the Library of Congress".
- Clifford L. Muse, "Howard University and The Federal Government During The Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928-1945." Journal of Negro History 76.1/4 (1991): 1-20. in JSTOR
- "Biography of Alan Locke.".
- "Biography of Ralph Johnson Bunche.".
- Murray, Pauli (November 1944). "A Blueprint for First Class Citizenship". The Crisis. reprinted in Carson, Clayborne; Garrow, David J.; Kovach, Bill (2003). Reporting Civil Rights: American journalism, 1941–1963. Library of America. pp. 62–67. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Biography of Kwame Ture.".
- "Logan, Rayford W. (1897-1982)". blackpast.org. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Information on Edward Franklin Frazier.".
- "University of Texas speeches archive".
- Johnson, Lyndon B. "To Fulfill These Rights". What So Proudly We Hail. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Stanley, Alessandra; Jacob V. Lamar (March 20, 1989). "Saying No to Lee Atwater". Time.com. Time Warner.
- Susan Kinzie and Keith L. Alexander (March 10, 2007). "Ouster Sought of Howard President". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- "Howard University". Washington Post. May 21, 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- Strauss, Valerie (May 8, 2008). "Bowling Green President Named to Top Position". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- de Vise, Daniel (December 14, 2010). "Howard prepares for test of its future". Washington Post. p. B1.
- Jack Stripling (June 7, 2013). "In Ominous Letter, a Trustee Blasts Howard U.'s President and Board Chair". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (June 7, 2013). "Howard trustee says university in 'trouble'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (July 1, 2013). "Howard academic deans allege 'fiscal mismanagement'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (October 16, 2013). "Howard faculty group votes no confidence in key Board of Trustees committee". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Howard University Press Release". Howard University. October 1, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- Emma Brown and Wesley Robinson (July 22, 2014). "Wayne A.I. Frederick named 17th president of Howard University". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Howard Facts 2009 (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Clifford L. Muse, Jr. (1991). "Howard University and The Federal Government During The Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928–1945". The Journal of Negro History. Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. 76 (1/4): 1–20. JSTOR 2717406.
- "Howard's Gallery of Art Among Top 50 in the United States - Howard University". Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Howard University opens $70 million laboratory building, with hopes for more to come". Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Undergraduate Programs of Excellence". Howard University. 2015. Retrieved Jul 2, 2016.
- "Howard History".
- "About". Howard University Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO)". Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Howard University’s Founders Library named a national treasure".
- Cornish, Stephanie (2 March 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure - Afro".
- Willis, Kiersten (1 April 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure, to Be Modernized with New Technology".
- Matthews, Lopez. "LibGuides V2: Welcome to the Howard University Libraries: Contact Us".
- Matthews, Lopez. "LibGuides V2: Welcome to the Howard University Libraries: Contact Us".
- "Home | Howard University". .howard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "Howard University". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "Howard University". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Howard University 2009 Performance Plan". US Dept. of Education. Feb 14, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- "College Search – Howard University". College Board. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- Starr, Douglas P. (2000). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. New York: Quill. pp. 111–117. ISBN 978-0-7515-3000-1.
- "Acting Legend Al Freeman Jr. Remembered at Howard University - Howard University News Room". Howard.edu. 2000-03-16. Archived from the original on 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2015-07-19.
- "Denver cemetery's data "very valuable" to state". The Denver Post. 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2015-10-24.
- "E. R. Braithwaite, Author of ‘To Sir, With Love,’ Dies at 104". The New York Times. 13 December 2016.
- "Campus Tours".
- Wesley, Charles H. (1981). The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life (14th ed.). Chicago, IL: Foundation. p. 43. ASIN: B000ESQ14W.
- "Howard University Libraries".
- "Howard’s homecoming: a brand and a business". Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Howard University Homecoming Event Lineup". Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Hollywood Goes to Howard University Homecoming". 3 November 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Howard Homecoming 2011: The People, History, And Events". Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Howard Homecoming Committee Introduces 2016 Theme: BLUEPRINT". Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Upcoming Events - Bison Ball & Excellence 2016 Awards - WHUT Howard University Television". Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Bison Ball + Excellence Awards - The Concrete Rose". Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Campus Virtual Tour: Residence Life at Howard University". Howard.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- "Mali's new prime minister via Microsoft and Nasa". The Telegraph. London. April 17, 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "Taraji P. Henson". IMDb. Retrieved 2016-01-18.