David Dinkins

David Norman Dinkins (July 10, 1927 – November 23, 2020) was an American politician, lawyer, and author who served as the 106th Mayor of New York City from 1990 to 1993, becoming the first African American to hold the office.

David Dinkins
David dinkins.jpg
Dinkins in 2007
106th Mayor of New York City
In office
January 1, 1990 – December 31, 1993
Preceded byEd Koch
Succeeded byRudy Giuliani
23rd Borough President of Manhattan
In office
January 1, 1986 – December 31, 1989
Preceded byAndrew Stein
Succeeded byRuth Messinger
Member of the New York Assembly
from the 78th district
In office
1966
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byEdward A. Stevenson Sr.
Personal details
Born
David Norman Dinkins

(1927-07-10)July 10, 1927
Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.
DiedNovember 23, 2020(2020-11-23) (aged 93)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
(m. 1953; died 2020)
Children2
EducationHoward University (BS)
Brooklyn Law School (LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Marine Corps
Years of service1945–1946

Before entering politics, Dinkins was among the more than 20,000 Montford Point Marines, the first African-American U.S. Marines; he served from 1945 to 1946.[1] He graduated cum laude from Howard University[2] and received his law degree from Brooklyn Law School in 1956. A longtime member of Harlem's Carver Democratic Club, Dinkins began his electoral career by serving in the New York State Assembly in 1966, eventually advancing to Manhattan borough president[3] before becoming mayor. After leaving office, Dinkins joined the faculty of Columbia University while remaining active as an éminence grise in municipal politics.

Early life and education

Dinkins was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of Sarah "Sally" Lucy and William Harvey Dinkins Jr.[4] His mother was a domestic worker and his father a barber and real estate agent.[2] He was raised by his father after his parents separated when he was six years old.[5] Dinkins moved to Harlem as a child before returning to Trenton. He attended Trenton Central High School, where he graduated in 1945.[6]

Upon graduating, Dinkins attempted to enlist in the United States Marine Corps but was told that a racial quota had been filled. After traveling the Northeastern United States, he finally found a recruiting station that had not, in his words, "filled their quota for Negro Marines"; however, World War II was over before Dinkins finished boot camp.[7] He served in the Marine Corps from July 1945 through August 1946, attaining the rank of private first class.[8][9][10] Dinkins was among the Montford Point Marines who received the Congressional Gold Medal from the United States Senate and House of Representatives.[7]

Dinkins graduated cum laude from Howard University[2] with a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1950. He received his LL.B. from Brooklyn Law School in 1956.[10][11]

Political career

Early and middle career

While maintaining a private law practice from 1956 to 1975, Dinkins rose through the Democratic Party organization in Harlem, beginning at the Carver Democratic Club under the aegis of J. Raymond Jones.[2][12] He became part of an influential group of African American politicians that included Denny Farrell, Percy Sutton, Basil Paterson, and Charles Rangel; the latter three together with Dinkins were known as the "Gang of Four".[13] As an investor, Dinkins was one of fifty African American investors who helped Percy Sutton found Inner City Broadcasting Corporation in 1971.[14]

Dinkins briefly represented the 78th District of the New York State Assembly in 1966. From 1972 to 1973, he was president of the New York City Board of Elections. He was nominated as a deputy mayor by Mayor Abraham D. Beame but was ultimately not appointed,[15] instead serving as city clerk (characterized by Robert D. McFadden as a "patronage appointee who kept marriage licenses and municipal records") from 1975 to 1985.[16][17] He was elected Manhattan borough president in 1985 on his third run for that office. On November 7, 1989, Dinkins was elected mayor of New York City, defeating three-term incumbent mayor Ed Koch and two others in the Democratic primary and Republican nominee Rudy Giuliani in the general election. During his campaign, Dinkins sought the blessing and endorsement of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the Lubavitcher Rebbe.[18]

Dinkins was elected in the wake of a corruption scandal that stemmed from the decline of longtime Brooklyn Democratic Party chairman and preeminent New York City political leader Meade Esposito's organized crime-influenced patronage network, ultimately precipitating the suicide of Queens borough president Donald Manes and a series of criminal convictions among the city's Democratic leadership. In March 1989, the New York City Board of Estimate (which served as the primary governing instrument of various patronage networks for decades, often superseding the mayoralty in influence) also was declared unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause by the Supreme Court of the United States; this prompted the empanelment of the New York City Charter Revision Commission, which abolished the Board of Estimate and assigned most of its responsibilities to an enlarged New York City Council via a successful referendum in November. Koch, the presumptive Democratic nominee, was politically damaged by his administration's ties to the Esposito network and his handling of racial issues, exemplified by his fealty to affluent interests in predominantly white areas of Manhattan. This enabled Dinkins to attenuate public perceptions of his previous patronage appointments and emerge as a formidable, reform-minded challenger to Koch.[19] Additionally, the fact that Dinkins was African American helped him to avoid criticism that he was ignoring the black vote by campaigning to whites.[20] While a large turnout of African American voters was important to his election, Dinkins campaigned throughout the city.[2] Dinkins' campaign manager was political consultant William Lynch Jr., who became one of his first deputy mayors.[21]

Mayoralty

Dinkins entered office in January 1990 pledging racial healing, and famously referred to New York City's demographic diversity as a "gorgeous mosaic".[22] The crime rate in New York City had risen alarmingly during the 1980s, and the rate of homicide in particular reached an all-time high of 2,245 cases during 1990, the first year of the Dinkins administration.[23] The rates of most crimes, including all categories of violent crime, then declined during the remainder of his four-year term. That ended a 30-year upward spiral and initiated a trend of falling rates that continued and accelerated beyond his term.[24][25] However, the high absolute levels, the peak early in his administration, and the only modest decline subsequently (homicide down 12% from 1990 to 1993)[26] resulted in Dinkins' suffering politically from the perception that crime remained out of control on his watch.[27][28] Dinkins in fact initiated a hiring program that expanded the police department nearly 25%. The New York Times reported, "He obtained the State Legislature's permission to dedicate a tax to hire thousands of police officers, and he fought to preserve a portion of that anticrime money to keep schools open into the evening, an award-winning initiative that kept tens of thousands of teenagers off the street."[28][29]

During his final days in office, Dinkins made last-minute negotiations with the sanitation workers, presumably to preserve the public status of garbage removal. Giuliani, who had defeated Dinkins in the 1993 mayoral race, blamed Dinkins for a "cheap political trick" when Dinkins planned the resignation of Victor Gotbaum, Dinkins' appointee on the board of education, thus guaranteeing Gotbaum's replacement six months in office.[30] Dinkins also signed a last-minute 99-year lease with the USTA National Tennis Center. By negotiating a fee for New York City based on the event's gross income, the Dinkins administration made a deal with the US Open that brings more economic benefit to the City of New York each year than the New York Yankees, New York Mets, New York Knicks, and New York Rangers combined.[2] The city's revenue-producing events Fashion Week, Restaurant Week, and Broadway on Broadway were all created under Dinkins.[31]

Dinkins's term was marked by polarizing events such as the Family Red Apple boycott, a boycott of a Korean-owned grocery in Flatbush, Brooklyn, and the 1991 Crown Heights riot. When Lemrick Nelson was acquitted of murdering Yankel Rosenbaum during the Crown Heights riots, Dinkins said, "I have no doubt that in this case the criminal-justice system has operated fairly and openly."[32] Later he wrote in his memoirs, "I continue to fail to understand that verdict."[2]

In 1991, when "Iraqi Scud missiles were falling" in Israel[33] and the Mayor's press secretary said "security would be tight and gas masks would be provided for the contingent",[34] Mayor Dinkins visited Israel as a sign of support.[35]

The Dinkins administration was adversely affected by a declining economy, which led to lower tax revenue and budget shortfalls.[36] Nevertheless, Dinkins' mayoralty was marked by a number of significant achievements.[36] New York City's crime rate, including the murder rate, declined in Dinkins' final years in office; Dinkins persuaded the state legislature to dedicate certain tax revenue for crime control (including an increase in the size of the New York Police Department along with after-school programs for teenagers), and he hired Raymond W. Kelly as police commissioner.[36] Times Square was cleaned up during Dinkins' term, and he persuaded The Walt Disney Company to rehabilitate the old New Amsterdam Theatre on 42nd Street.[36] The city negotiated a 99-year lease of city park space to the United States Tennis Association to create the USTA National Tennis Center (which Mayor Michael Bloomberg later called "the only good athletic sports stadium deal, not just in New York, but in the country").[36] Dinkins continued an initiative begun by Ed Koch to rehabilitate dilapidated housing in northern Harlem, the South Bronx, and Brooklyn; overall more housing was rehabilitated in Dinkins' only term than Giuliani's two terms.[36] With the support of Governor Mario Cuomo, the city invested in supportive housing for mentally ill homeless people and achieved a decrease in the size of the city's homeless shelter population to its lowest point in two decades.[28]

1993 election

In 1993, Dinkins lost to Republican Rudy Giuliani in a rematch of the 1989 election. Dinkins earned 48.3 percent of the vote, down from 51 percent in 1989.[37] One factor in his loss was his perceived indifference to the plight of the Jewish community during the Crown Heights riot.[38] Another was a strong turnout for Giuliani in Staten Island; a referendum on Staten Island's secession from New York was placed on the ballot that year by Democratic Governor Mario Cuomo and the New York State Legislature.[2]

Later career

From 1994 until his death, Dinkins was a professor of professional practice at the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs.[39]

Dinkins was a member of the board of directors of the United States Tennis Association.[40] He served on the boards of the New York City Global Partners, the Children's Health Fund, the Association to Benefit Children, and the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. Dinkins was also on the advisory board of Independent News & Media and the Black Leadership Forum, was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and served as chairman emeritus of the board of directors of the National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS.[41]

Dinkins' radio program Dialogue with Dinkins aired on WLIB radio in New York City from 1994 to 2014.[42][43] His memoirs, A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic,[2] written with Peter Knobler, were published in 2013.[44][45]

Although he never attempted a political comeback, Dinkins remained somewhat active in politics after his mayorship, and his endorsements of various candidates, including Mark J. Green in the 2001 mayoral race, were well-publicized. He supported Democrats Fernando Ferrer in the 2005 New York mayoral election, Bill Thompson in 2009, and Bill de Blasio in 2013.[46][47] During the 2004 Democratic presidential primaries, Dinkins endorsed and actively campaigned for Wesley Clark.[48] In the campaign for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination, Dinkins served as an elected delegate from New York for Hillary Clinton.[49] During the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries, Dinkins endorsed former Mayor Michael Bloomberg for president on February 25, 2020, just before a Democratic debate.[50]

Dinkins sat on the board of directors and in 2013 was on the Honorary Founders Board of The Jazz Foundation of America.[51][52] He worked with that organization to save the homes and lives of America's elderly jazz and blues musicians, including musicians who survived Hurricane Katrina. He served on the boards of the Children's Health Fund (CHF), the Association to Benefit Children, and the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund (NMCF). Dinkins was also chairman emeritus of the board of directors of the National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS.[41] He was a champion of college access, serving on the Posse Foundation National Board of Directors until his death in 2020.[53]

Personal life

Dinkins married Joyce Burrows, the daughter of Harlem political eminence Daniel L. Burrows, in August 1953.[54][55] They had two children, David Jr. and Donna.[56] When Dinkins became mayor of New York City, Joyce retired from her position at the State Department of Taxation and Finance. The couple were members of the Church of the Intercession in New York City. Joyce died on October 11, 2020 at the age of 89.[57]

Dinkins was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha and Sigma Pi Phi ("the Boule"), the oldest collegiate and first professional Greek-letter fraternities, respectively, established for African Americans. He was raised as a Master Mason in King David Lodge No. 15, F. & A. M., PHA, located in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1952.[58]

In 1994, Dinkins was part of an Episcopal Church delegation to Haiti.[59]

Dinkins was hospitalized in New York on October 31, 2013, for treatment of pneumonia.[60] He was hospitalized again for pneumonia on February 19, 2016.[61]

Dinkins guest starred as himself on April 13, 2018, in "Risk Management", the 19th episode of the 8th season of the CBS police procedural drama Blue Bloods.[62]

Death

On November 23, 2020, just over a month after the death of his wife, Joyce Dinkins, David Dinkins died from unspecified natural causes at his home on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, at age 93.[56][63]

Books

  • Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. New York: PublicAffairs Books. ISBN 9781610393010. OCLC 826322884.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dinkins, David (July 21, 2005). "Transcript of Interview with Dinkins, David". library.uncw.edu.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0.
  3. ^ "Dinkins Seriously Considers Entering the Race for Mayor" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Lynn, Frank, The New York Times, December 8, 1988.
  4. ^ Dinkins, David N. (September 17, 2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610393027. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ McQuiston, John T. (October 20, 1991). "William Dinkins, Mayor's Father And Real Estate Agent, Dies at 85". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  6. ^ Abdur-Rahman, Sulaiman (November 24, 2020). "Legendary city native David Dinkins dies at 93". The Trentonian. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  7. ^ a b Hockenberry, John (June 27, 2012). "First Black Marines Awarded Congressional Gold Medal". The Takeaway. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  8. ^ Marriott, Michel (November 28, 1988). "To Run or Not to Run: Dinkins's Struggle". Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved December 20, 2017 – via www.nytimes.com.
  9. ^ "David Dinkins Biography – 1190 WLIB – Your Praise & Inspiration Station". Wlib.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Cheers, D. Michael. "Mayor of 'The Big Apple': 'nice guy' image helps David N. Dinkins in building multi-ethnic, multiracial coalition – New York City" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Ebony (magazine), February 1990. Accessed September 4, 2008.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "J. Raymond Jones, Harlem Kingmaker, Dies at 91" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Fraser, C. Gerald, The New York Times, June 11, 1991.
  13. ^ Schapiro, Rich, "Harlem 'trailblazer', former World War II Tuskegee Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Airmen [sic] Percy Sutton dies", New York Daily News, December 27, 2009.
  14. ^ "David Dinkins, New York's First and Only Black Mayor, Dies at 93".
  15. ^ News, Herb Boyd & Nayaba Arinde / Amsterdam. "David N. Dinkins, the first Black mayor of New York City, dead at 93". St. Louis American.
  16. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (November 24, 2020). "David N. Dinkins, New York's First Black Mayor, Dies at 93" – via NYTimes.com.
  17. ^ "NYC 100 – NYC Mayors – The First 100 Years". Nyc.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
  18. ^ Ehrlich, M. Avrum, The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present (KTAV Publishing, January 2005), p. 109. ISBN 0-88125-836-9
  19. ^ Lankevich, George J. (2002). New York City: A Short History. pp. 237–238, paragraph 3. ISBN 9780814751862. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
  20. ^ Thompson, J. Phillip, "David Dinkins' Victory in New York City: The Decline of the Democratic Party Organization and the Strengthening of Black Politics" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Political Science & Politics via jstor.org, June 1990.
  21. ^ Katz, Celeste (August 9, 2013). "Political consultant William Lynch Jr. dies at 72". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  22. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (January 2, 1990). "Mayor Dinkins; Dinkins Sworn In; Stresses Aid to Youth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  23. ^ The Power of the Mayor, Chris McNickle, p. 355
  24. ^ Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0. Riggio, Len, Foreword, page xi.
  25. ^ Langan, Patrick A.; Matthew R. Durose (December 2003). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City". In Linda Laura Sabbadini; Maria Giuseppina Muratore; Giovanna Tagliacozzo (eds.). Towards a Safer Society: The Knowledge Contribution of Statistical Information (PDF). Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (published 2009). pp. 131–174. ISBN 978-88-458-1640-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018. According to NYPD statistical analysis, crime in New York City took a downturn starting around 1990 that continued for many years, shattering all the city's old records for consecutive-year declines in crime rates. [See also Appendix: Tables 1–2.]
  26. ^ The Power of the Mayor, Chris McNickle, p. 356
  27. ^ Barrett, Wayne (June 25, 2001). "Giuliani's Legacy: Taking Credit For Things He Didn't Do". Gotham Gazette. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  28. ^ a b c Powell, Michael (October 25, 2009). "Another Look at the Dinkins Administration, and Not by Giuliani". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  29. ^ Roberts, Sam (August 7, 1994). "As Police Force Adds to Ranks, Some Promises Still Unfulfilled". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  30. ^ Siegel, Fred, The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and the Genius of American Life (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005), p. 90.
  31. ^ Nesoff, Bob. "David Dinkins! New York Now and Then". New York Lifestyles Magazine. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 24, 2020. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  32. ^ Taylor, John (December 7, 1992). "The Politics of Grievance: Dinkins, the Blacks, and the Jews". New York Magazine. Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
  33. ^ Clyde Haberman (July 9, 1993). "Dinkins Leaves Israel". The New York Times. p. B3.
  34. ^ Felicia R. Lee (January 26, 1991). "Dinkins to Lead Contingent in Trip to Israel". NYTimes.com. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  35. ^ Jonathan Ferziger (February 4, 1991). "Dinkins visits Shamir, Patriots, Ethiopians". UPI.com. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Powell, Michael (October 5, 2009). "Another Look at the Dinkins Administration, and Not by Giuliani". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  37. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (November 3, 1993). "Giuliani ousts Dinkins by a thin margin ..." The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  38. ^ Shapiro, Edward S. (2006). Crown Heights: Blacks, Jews, and the 1991 Brooklyn Riot. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, University Press of New England. ISBN 1-58465-561-5. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  39. ^ "SIPA: Faculty David N. Dinkins". Columbia University. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  40. ^ "David Dinkins was a New York City mayor, and a tennis superfan". Tennis.com.
  41. ^ a b "David N. Dinkins, Director at Large". United States Tennis Association. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  42. ^ "Praise Team: On-Air Schedule". WLIB. January 6, 2009. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007.
  43. ^ Hinckley, David (April 4, 2014). "After two decades, David Dinkins signing off at radio station WLIB". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  44. ^ "Trentonian David Dinkins tells all in A Mayor's Life" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Trenton (NJ) Trentonian, September 21, 2013.
  45. ^ "Their Honors" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Roberts, Sam, The New York Times, Sunday Book Review, November 22, 2013.
  46. ^ "William Thompson picks up a pair of key endorsements" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Fermino, Jennifer, Daily News (New York), June 3, 2013.
  47. ^ "The Ghosts of Mayors Past" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Roberts, Sam, The New York Times, September 29, 2013.
  48. ^ "David Dinkins supports Wesley Clark, to join him in N.H." Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today, Associated Press, January 21, 2004.
  49. ^ "Reporters Notebook: New Yorkers make their mark on Maryland politics". The Gazette. Gaithersburg, MD. October 1, 2010. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
  50. ^ Wilkinson, Joseph. "Former NYC Mayor David Dinkins endorses Mike Bloomberg for President". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  51. ^ "Hon. David Dinkins" Archived March 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, JazzFoundation.org. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  52. ^ McMullan, Patrick, May 10, 2009. "The Jazz Foundation of America's 'A great night in Harlem' benefit" (photo archive) Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine patrickmcmullan.com, May 29, 2008. Event at the Apollo Theater, NYC. Accessed: May 10, 2009.
  53. ^ "Longtime Board Member, Former NYC Mayor David Dinkins Reflects on Path to Education, Posse" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, possefoundation.org. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  54. ^ "Joyce Burrows and David Dinkins are wed in double ring ceremony". The New York Age. September 5, 1953. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  55. ^ Marriott, Michel (January 1, 1990). "Joyce Dinkins, a Quiet Lady Who Is No Longer a Private Person". New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  56. ^ a b McFadden, Robert D. (November 24, 2020). "David N. Dinkins, New York's First Black Mayor, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  57. ^ "Joyce Dinkins, wife of NYC's first Black mayor, dies". Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  58. ^ Stieb, Matt (November 24, 2020). "David Dinkins, New York's First and Only Black Mayor, Has Died at 93". Intelligencer.
  59. ^ Lemonis, Anita (June 15, 1994). "piscopal Church Delegation to Haiti Finds Desperate Struggle to Cope". Episcopal News Service. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  60. ^ "Dinkins hospitalized". New York: WNYW. October 31, 2013. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013.
  61. ^ "Former NYC Mayor Dinkins Hospitalized for Pneumonia". ABC News.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  62. ^ "Listings-Blue Bloods". The Futon Critic. April 13, 2018. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  63. ^ "Former New York City Mayor David Dinkins Dies at 93". NBC 4 New York. November 23, 2020. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2020.

Further reading

External links

New York State Assembly
New district Member of the New York Assembly
from the 78th district

1966
Succeeded by
Edward A. Stevenson Sr.
Political offices
Preceded by
Andrew Stein
Borough President of Manhattan
1986–1989
Succeeded by
Ruth Messinger
Preceded by
Ed Koch
Mayor of New York City
1990–1993
Succeeded by
Rudy Giuliani