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Alan Stuart "Al" Franken (born May 21, 1951) is an American writer, comedian, and politician. Since 2009, he has been the junior United States Senator from Minnesota. He became well known in the 1970s and 1980s as a writer and performer on the television comedy show Saturday Night Live. After decades as a comedic actor and writer, he became a prominent liberal political activist. Franken was first elected to the United States Senate in 2008 in a razor-thin victory over incumbent Republican Senator Norm Coleman, and then won re-election in 2014 over Republican challenger Mike McFadden. Franken is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party.

Al Franken
Al Franken, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
United States Senator
from Minnesota
Assumed office
July 7, 2009[note 1]
Serving with Amy Klobuchar
Preceded by Norm Coleman
Personal details
Born Alan Stuart Franken
(1951-05-21) May 21, 1951 (age 66)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Franni Bryson (m. 1975)
Children 2
Education Harvard University (BA)
Signature
Website Senate website

Born in New York City, Franken moved to Minnesota when he was four. With his writing partner Tom Davis, with whom he had developed an interest in improvisational theater at the prestigious college preparatory school The Blake School, he was hired as a writer for SNL at its inception in 1975. He worked on the show as a writer and performer until 1980, and returned from 1985 to 1995. After leaving SNL, he wrote and acted in movies and television shows. He also hosted a nationally syndicated political radio talk show, The Al Franken Show, and wrote seven books, four of which are political satires critical of conservative politics. His latest book, Al Franken, Giant of the Senate, about his time in the Senate, was a New York Times Non-Fiction Best Seller.[1]

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

Franken was born on May 21, 1951, in New York City, the son of Joseph Franken, a printing salesman, and Phoebe Franken (born Kunst), a real estate agent. His paternal grandparents emigrated from Germany; his maternal grandfather came from Grodno, Belarus, and his maternal grandmother's parents were also from the Russian Empire.[2] Both of his parents were Jewish, and Al was raised in a Reform Jewish home.[3] The Franken family moved to Albert Lea, Minnesota, when Al was four years old.[4] His father opened a quilting factory, but it failed after just two years. The family moved to St. Louis Park, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis.[5] Franken graduated from The Blake School in 1969, where he was a member of the wrestling team.[6] He attended Harvard College where he majored in political science, graduating cum laude (in the top 25% of the class) with a Bachelor of Arts in 1973.[7] His older brother Owen is a photojournalist, and his cousin Bob is a journalist for MSNBC.[8]

Franken began performing in high school, where he and his friend and longtime writing partner, Tom Davis, were known for their humor.[9] The two first performed on stage at the Brave New Workshop theater, in Minneapolis, specializing in political satire.[10] They soon found themselves in what was described as "a life of near-total failure on the fringes of show business in Los Angeles."[11]

Saturday Night LiveEdit

Franken and Tom Davis were recruited as two of the original writers (and occasional performers) on Saturday Night Live (SNL) (1975–1980, 1985–1995). In Season 1 of SNL, as apprentice writers, the two shared a salary of $350 per week.[9] Franken received seven Emmy nominations and three awards for his television writing and producing while creating such characters as self-help guru Stuart Smalley. Another routine proclaimed the 1980s the Al Franken Decade.[12] Franken and Davis wrote the script of the 1986 comedy film One More Saturday Night, appearing in it as rock singers in a band called Bad Mouth. They also appeared in minor roles in All You Need Is Cash and in the Eddie Murphy and Dan Aykroyd film Trading Places.

On Weekend Update near the end of Season 5, Franken delivered a commentary called "A Limo for a Lame-O". He mocked the controversial NBC president Fred Silverman as "a total unequivocal failure" and displayed a chart showing the poor ratings of NBC programs. As a result of this sketch, Silverman refused Lorne Michaels's request that Franken succeed him as producer, prompting Franken to leave the show when Michaels did, at the end of the 1979–80 season.[13] Franken later returned to the show in 1985 as a writer and an occasional performer. Franken has acknowledged using cocaine and other illegal drugs while working in the television business, and stated that the overdose death of John Belushi spurred him to stop.[14][15] In 1995, Franken left the show in protest over losing the role of Weekend Update anchor to Norm Macdonald.[16]

Post-SNLEdit

 
Franken entertaining troops at Ramstein Air Base in December 2000

In 1995, Franken wrote the screenplay and starred in the film Stuart Saves His Family, which was a critical and commercial failure.[17] He became depressed following the movie's failure.[18] With an aggregate rating of 27% on Rotten Tomatoes,[19] Stuart Saves His Family received a number of favorable reviews, however, including those in The Washington Post[20] and by Gene Siskel.[21]

Franken is the author of four books that made The New York Times best-seller list.[22] In 2003, Penguin Books published Franken's book Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right, a satirical book on American politics and conservatism. The book's title incorporated the Fox News slogan, "Fair and Balanced", and included a cover photo of Fox News commentator Bill O'Reilly; in August that year Fox News sued, claiming infringement of its registered trademark phrase.[23][24] A federal judge found the lawsuit "wholly without merit." The incident with Fox focused media attention on Franken's book and, according to him, greatly increased its sales.[25][26] The publicity resulting from the lawsuit propelled Franken's yet-to-be-released book to number 1 on Amazon.com.[27]

Franken signed a one-year contract in early 2004 to host a talk show for Air America Radio's flagship program with co-host Katherine Lanpher, who remained with the show until October 2005. The network was launched March 31, 2004. Originally named The O'Franken Factor but renamed The Al Franken Show on July 12, 2004, the show aired three hours a day, five days a week for three years. The stated goal of the show was to provide the public airwaves with more progressive views to counter what Franken perceived was the dominance of conservative syndicated commentary on the radio: "I'm doing this because I want to use my energies to get Bush unelected," he told a New York Times reporter in 2004.[28] Franken's last radio show on Air America Radio was on February 14, 2007, at the end of which he announced his candidacy for the United States Senate.[29]

Franken also co-wrote the film When a Man Loves a Woman, co-created and starred in the NBC sitcom LateLine, and appeared in the 2004 remake of The Manchurian Candidate.

In 2003, Franken served as a Fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government at the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy.[12] Since 2005, he has been a contributor to The Huffington Post.[30]

Franken toured Iraq several times with the United Service Organizations.[31] On March 25, 2009, he was presented with the USO Metro Merit Award for his 10 years of involvement with the organization.[32][33]

Political activism prior to electionEdit

 
Franken with Senator Paul Simon in 1991

According to an article by Richard Corliss published in Time magazine, "In a way, Franken has been running for office since the late '70s." Corliss also hinted at Franken's "possibly ironic role as a relentless self-promoter" in proclaiming the 1980s "The Al Franken Decade" and saying, "Vote for me, Al Franken. You'll be glad you did!"[34] In 1999, Franken released a parody book, Why Not Me?, detailing his hypothetical campaign for President in 2000. He had been a strong supporter of Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone and was deeply affected by the Senator's death in a plane crash shortly before the 2002 election. Wellstone was a mentor[35][36] and political and personal role model for Franken, who stated his hopes of following in the late Senator’s footsteps.[37][38]

Franken said he learned that 21% of Americans received most of their news from talk radio, an almost exclusively conservative medium.[34] Said Franken, "I didn't want to sit on the sidelines, and I believed Air America could make a difference."[34] In November 2003, Franken talked about moving back to his home state of Minnesota to run for the Senate. At the time the seat, once held by Wellstone, was occupied by Republican Norm Coleman. At a 2004 Democratic presidential campaign event, Franken tackled a man who was heckling Governor Howard Dean.[39] In 2005, Franken announced his move to Minnesota: "I can tell you honestly, I don't know if I'm going to run, but I'm doing the stuff I need to do in order to do it."[40] In late 2005, Franken started his own political action committee, called Midwest Values PAC. By early 2007, the PAC raised more than $1 million.[41][42]

Franken was the subject of the 2006 documentary film Al Franken: God Spoke, which was, according to The New York Times, "an investigation of the phenomenon of ideological celebrity."[43]

Franken initially supported the Iraq War but opposed the 2007 troop surge. In an interview with MSNBC’s Joe Scarborough,[44] Franken said that he "believed Colin Powell", whose presentation at the United Nations convinced him that the war was necessary. However, since then he had come to believe that "we were misled into the war" and urged the Democratic-controlled Congress to refuse to pass appropriations bills to fund the war if they did not include timetables for leaving Iraq. In an interview with Josh Marshall, Franken said of the Democrats, "I think we've gotta make President George W. Bush say, 'OK, I'm cutting off funding because I won't agree to a timetable.'"[45]

Franken favors transitioning to a universal health care system,[46] with the provision that every child in America should receive health care coverage immediately. Franken objects to efforts to privatize Social Security or cut benefits. He favors raising the cap on wages to which Social Security taxes apply.[47] On his 2008 campaign website, he voiced support for cutting subsidies for oil companies, increasing money available for college students, and cutting interest rates on student loans.[48][49]

During the 2008 election, New York state officials asserted that Al Franken Inc. had failed to carry required workers' compensation insurance for employees who assisted him with his comedy and public speaking from 2002 to 2005. Franken paid a $25,000 fine to the state of New York upon being advised his corporation was out of compliance with the state's workers' compensation laws.[50] At the same time, the California Franchise Tax Board reported that the same corporation owed more than $4,743.40 in taxes, fines, and associated penalties in the state of California for 2003 through 2007, because the corporation did not file tax returns in the state for those years.[51] A Franken representative said that it followed the advice of an accountant who believed when the corporation stopped doing business in California that no further filing was required.[52] Subsequently, Franken paid $70,000 in back income taxes in 17 states dating back to 2003, mostly from his speeches and other paid appearances. Franken said he paid the income tax in his state of residence, and he would seek retroactive credit for paying the taxes in the wrong states.[53]

U.S. SenateEdit

2008 electionsEdit

 
Franken campaigning for the U.S. Senate in 2008

On January 29, 2007, Franken announced his departure from Air America Radio,[29] and on the day of his final show, February 14, Franken formally announced his candidacy for the United States Senate from Minnesota in 2008.[54] Challenging him for the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party endorsement was Jack Nelson-Pallmeyer, a professor, author, and activist. Other candidates were trial lawyer Mike Ciresi and attorney and human rights activist Jim Cohen, who had dropped out of the race earlier.[55] Franken won the nomination with 65% of the vote.

On July 8, 2007, Franken's campaign stated that it expected to announce that he had raised more money than his Republican opponent, Norm Coleman, during the second quarter of the year, taking in $1.9 million to Coleman's $1.6 million,[56][57] although in early July 2007, Coleman's $3.8 million cash on hand exceeded Franken's $2 million.[57]

In late May 2008, the Minnesota Republican Party released a letter regarding an article Franken had written for Playboy magazine in 2000 entitled "Porn-O-Rama!" The letter, signed by six prominent GOP women, including a state senator and state representative, called on Franken to apologize for what they referred to as a "demeaning and degrading" article.[58] His campaign spokesman responded that "Al had a long career as a satirist. But he understands the difference between what you say as a satirist and what you do as a senator. And as a Senator, Norm Coleman has disrespected the people of Minnesota by putting the Exxons and Halliburtons ahead of working families. And there's nothing funny about that."[58]

On June 7, 2008, Franken was endorsed by the DFL.[59] In a July 2008 interview with CNN, he was endorsed by Ben Stein, a noted entertainer, speechwriter, lawyer and author known for his conservative views, who generally supported Republican candidates.[60] Stein said of Franken, "He is my pal, and he is a really, really capable smart guy. I don't agree with all of his positions, but he is a very impressive guy, and I think he should be in the Senate."

During his campaign for the Senate, Franken was criticized for advising SNL creator Lorne Michaels on a political sketch ridiculing Senator John McCain's ads attacking Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election.[61] Coleman's campaign reacted, saying, "Once again, he proves he's more interested in entertainment than service, and ridiculing those with whom he disagrees."[62]

Preliminary reports on election night, November 4, were that Coleman was leading by over 700 votes, but by the official results, certified on November 18, 2008, Coleman led by only 215 votes. As the two candidates were separated by less than 0.5 percent of the votes cast, the Minnesota Secretary of State, Mark Ritchie, authorized an automatic recount provided for in Minnesota election law. In the recount, ballots and certifying materials were examined by hand, and candidates could file challenges to the legality of ballots or materials for inclusion or exclusion In the recount. On January 5, 2009, the Minnesota State Canvassing Board certified the recounted vote totals, with Franken ahead by 225 votes.[63]

On January 6, 2009, Coleman's campaign filed an election contest, which led to a trial before a three-judge panel.[64] The trial ended on April 7, when the panel ruled that 351 of 387 disputed absentee ballots were incorrectly rejected and ordered them counted. Counting those ballots raised Franken's lead to 312 votes. Coleman appealed to the Minnesota Supreme Court on April 20.[65][66][67] On April 24, the Minnesota Supreme Court agreed to hear the case.[68][69] Oral arguments were conducted on June 1.[68][70]

On June 30, 2009, the Minnesota Supreme Court unanimously rejected Coleman's appeal and said that Franken was entitled to be certified as the winner. Shortly after the court's decision, Coleman conceded.[71] Governor Tim Pawlenty signed Franken’s election certificate that same evening.[72]

In July 2010, Minnesota Majority, a conservative watchdog group, conducted a study in which they flagged 2,803 voters for examination, including some 1,359 they suspected were ineligible convicted felons in the largely Democratic Minneapolis–St. Paul area who voted illegally in the Senate race.[73][74] Subsequent investigations of Minnesota Majority's claims by election officials found that many of their allegations were incorrect.[75][76][77]

2014 electionsEdit

Franken was re-elected to a second term in 2014. He won the primary election, in which he faced the challenger Sandra Henningsgard, on August 12, 2014, with 94.5% of the vote. [78] He won the general election against the Republican candidate, Mike McFadden, with 53.2% of the vote.[79] [80]

TenureEdit

 
Franken meeting with Vice President Joe Biden in May 2009

Franken was sworn into the senate on July 7, 2009, 246 days after election.[81][82] He took the oath of office with the Bible of late Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, whose old seat was set aside by senate leaders for Franken.[83][84]

On August 6, 2009, Franken presided over the confirmation vote of Sonia Sotomayor to be an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.[85] A year later, on August 5, 2010, Franken presided over the confirmation vote of Elena Kagan. His first piece of legislation, the Service Dogs for Veterans Act, which he wrote jointly with Republican Johnny Isakson, passed the Senate with unanimous consent, establishing a program with the United States Department of Veterans Affairs to pair disabled veterans with service dogs.[86]

 
2009 official portrait

A video of Franken at the Minnesota State Fair on September 2, 2009, engaging in a discussion with a group of Tea Party protesters on health care reform, began circulating on the Internet and soon went viral.[87][88] The discussion was noted for its civility, in contrast to the explosive character of several other discussions between members of the 111th Congress and their constituents that had occurred over the summer.[87][89][90]

During the debate on health care reform, Franken was one of the strongest supporters of a single-payer system.[91] He authored an amendment, called the Medical Loss Ratio, to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that required insurance companies spend at least 80% of premiums on actual health care costs, rising to 85% for large group plans.[92] On September 30, 2013, Franken voted to remove a provision that would repeal the medical device tax in Obamacare from a government funding bill.[93][94] Although Franken says he is in favor of the provision, he disagreed with it being used as a condition in preventing the 2013 federal government shutdown.[95]

Citing the case of Jamie Leigh Jones, Franken offered an amendment to the 2010 Defense Appropriations bill that would withhold defense contracts from companies that restrict their employees from taking workplace sexual assault, battery, and discrimination cases to court. It passed the Senate in November 2010, 68 to 30 in a roll-call vote.[96]

 
Franken in 2017

In May 2010, Franken proposed a financial reform legislation amendment that would create a board to select which credit rating agency would evaluate a given security. Currently any company issuing a security may select the company that evaluates the security.[97] The amendment was passed; however, the financial industry lobbied to have Franken's amendment removed from the final bill.[98] Negotiations between the Senate and House, whose version of financial reform did not include such a provision, resulted in the amendment's being watered down to require only a series of studies being done upon the issue for two years.[99] After the studies, if the Securities and Exchange Commission has not implemented another solution to the conflict of interest problem, Franken's solution would go into effect.[100][101]

In August 2010, Franken made faces and hand gestures and rolled his eyes while Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell delivered a speech in opposition to the confirmation of Elena Kagan to the U.S. Supreme Court.[102][103][104] Franken's actions prompted McConnell to remark, "This isn't Saturday Night Live, Al."[104] Following Kagan's confirmation, Franken delivered a handwritten apology to McConnell and issued a public statement saying that McConnell had a right "to give his speech with the presiding officer just listening respectfully."[102]

The National Journal reported in 2013 that Franken supports the National Security Agency’s data mining programs, believing they have saved lives, and that "I can assure you, this is not about spying on the American people."[105]

When Franken declared his intention to seek re-election in 2014,[106] his seat was thought to be a top target for the Republicans because of his very slim margin of victory in the previous election. However, Politico reported that his high approval rating, large campaign fund, and the Republicans' struggle to find a top-tier candidate meant that he was a "heavy favorite" to win re-election,[107] a view subsequently confirmed in the election, which Franken won comfortably.

The Associated Press has noted that contrary to expectations, Franken has not sought out the media spotlight: "He rarely talks to the Washington press corps, has shed his comedic persona and focused on policy, working to be taken seriously."[108] In interviews he has expressed his desire to be known for a focus on constituency work, keeping his head down, and working hard.[91][109]

Committee assignmentsEdit

Books and CDsEdit

BooksEdit

CDs and compilationsEdit

  • The Best Democracy Money Can Buy: The Truth About Corporate Cons, Globalization, and High-Finance Fraudsters with Greg Palast (2004)
  • The O'Franken Factor Factor — The Best of the O'Franken Factor
  • The Al Franken Show Party Album

FilmographyEdit

Year Work Writer Actor Cameo Notes
1977–1980 Saturday Night Live Yes Yes Yes
1976 Tunnel Vision Yes Role: Al
1977 The Paul Simon Special Yes
1978 All You Need is Cash Yes Role: Extra
1981 Grateful Dead: Dead Ahead Yes Concert video
Role: Host
1981 Steve Martin's Best Show Ever Yes
1981 Bob and Ray, Jane, Laraine and Gilda Yes
1981 The Coneheads Yes
1983 Trading Places Yes Role: Baggage handler
1984 Franken and Davis at Stockton State Yes
1984 The New Show Yes
1986 Saturday Night Live Yes Yes Yes
1986 One More Saturday Night Yes Yes Role: Paul Flum
1988–1995 Saturday Night Live Yes Yes Yes
1994 When a Man Loves a Woman Yes
1995 Stuart Saves His Family Yes Yes Role: Stuart Smalley
1997 3rd Rock from the Sun Yes Episode: "Dick the Vote"
1997 The Larry Sanders Show Yes Episode: "The Roast"
1998 LateLine Yes Yes Yes
1998 From the Earth to the Moon Yes TV miniseries
Role: Jerome Wiesner
2002 Harvard Man Yes
2004 Outfoxed Yes Role: Air America host
2004 The Manchurian Candidate Yes
2004–2007 The Al Franken Show Yes Yes Host of radio talk show
2004 Tanner on Tanner Yes
2006 Al Franken: God Spoke Yes Documentary
2011 Hot Coffee Yes Documentary

Electoral historyEdit

2008 Minnesota U.S. Senate Democratic–Farmer–Labor primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Al Franken 164,136 65.34%
DFL Priscilla Lord Faris 74,655 29.72%
DFL "Dick" Franson 3,923 1.56%
DFL Bob Larson 3,152 1.25%
DFL Rob Fitzgerald 3,095 1.23%
DFL Ole Savior 1,227 0.49%
DFL Alve Erickson 1,017 0.40%
2008 Minnesota U.S. Senate election[110][111]
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Al Franken 1,212,629 41.994%
Republican Norm Coleman 1,212,317 41.983%
Independence Dean Barkley 437,505 15.151%
Libertarian Charles Aldrich 13,923 0.482%
Constitution James Niemackl 8,907 0.308%
Write-ins 2,365 0.082%
Margin of victory 312 0.011%
Total votes 2,887,646 100
2014 Minnesota U.S. Senate Democratic–Farmer–Labor primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Al Franken (incumbent) 182,720 94.50%
DFL Sandra Henningsgard 10,627 5.50%
2014 Minnesota U.S. Senate election[112]
Party Candidate Votes %
DFL Al Franken (incumbent) 1,053,205 53.15
Republican Mike McFadden 850,227 42.91
Independence Steve Carlson 47,530 2.4
Libertarian Heather Johnson 29,685 1.5
Write-ins Others 881 0.04
Margin of victory 202,978 10.24%
Total votes 1,981,528 100
DFL hold

Personal lifeEdit

Franken met his wife, Franni Bryson, in his first year at Harvard. In 2005, they moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota.[113] Together they have two children. Their daughter, Thomasin,[5] has degrees from Harvard and the French Culinary Institute; she is the director of extended learning at DC Prep, an organization in Washington, D.C., that manages charter schools.[114] Their son, Joseph, works in the finance industry.[5] Franken is a second cousin of the actor Steve Franken, known for his appearances in the television series The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis.[115] In 2013, Franken received the Stewart B. McKinney Award for his work fighting homelessness.[116]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Franken was elected to the term beginning January 3, 2009, but did not take his seat until July 7, 2009, because of a recount and a subsequent election challenge.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Combined Print & E-Book Nonfiction Books - Best Sellers - The New York Times". Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  2. ^ "Ancestry of Al Franken". William Addams Reitwiesner. Retrieved 2014-09-07. 
  3. ^ "Al Franken". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  4. ^ "Meet Al". 
  5. ^ a b c Colapinto, John. "Enter Laughing". The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  6. ^ Liebovich, Mark (2016-12-13). "Al Franken Faces Donald Trump and the Next Four Years". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-12-13. At 65, Franken retains the thick build of the high-school wrestler he once was. 
  7. ^ White, Deborah. "Profile of Sen. Al Franken of Minnesota". About.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  8. ^ "CNN Newsnight Aaron Brown". CNN. April 29, 2002. Retrieved November 5, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b Martin, Douglas (July 19, 2012). "Tom Davis, Comedian and ‘SNL’ Sketch Writer, Dies at 59". New York Times. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ Davis, Tom (2010). Thirty-Nine Years of Short-Term Memory Loss: The Early Days of SNL from Someone Who Was There. Grove Press; Reprint edition. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8021-4456-0. 
  11. ^ Hill, Doug; Weingrad, Jeff (1987). Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Live p. 57. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-75053-5.
  12. ^ a b Kornbluth, Jesse (March–April 2012). "Al Franken: You Can Call Me Senator". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved September 26, 2012. 
  13. ^ Shales, Tom (2003). Live From New York: An Uncensored History of Saturday Night Live, as Told by Its Stars, Writers and Guests. p. 191. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-73565-5.
  14. ^ Cox, Ana Marie (April 5, 2007). "Don't Laugh at Al Franken". CNN/Time. Archived from the original on September 19, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  15. ^ Westfall, Sandra Sobieraj (May 26, 2017). "Al Franken Says John Belushi’s Fatal Overdose Inspired Him to Give Up Drugs". People. 
  16. ^ Spano, Wy (2010). A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Senate: Franken vs. Coleman and the Decline and Fall of Civilized Politics. p. 51. Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-3902-3.
  17. ^ Leopold, Todd (May 7, 2002). "Al Franken's Guide to Life". CNN. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  18. ^ "'Stuart Saves His Family'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  19. ^ "Stuart Saves His Family (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  20. ^ Howe, Desson (1995-04-14). "‘Stuart Saves His Family’ (PG-13)". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  21. ^ Siskel, Gene (1995-04-14). "‘Stuart' Funny Without Making Fun of Self-Help Movement". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  22. ^ Powers, Retha (2005). This Is My Best: Great Writers Share Their Favorite Work (Paperback ed.). Chronicle Books. p. 549. ISBN 978-0-8118-4829-9. 
  23. ^ Saulny, Susan (August 12, 2003). "To Fox, 'Fair and Balanced' Doesn't Describe Al Franken". New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Fox News Sues Humorist Al Franken over Slogan". Associated Press. August 11, 2003. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  25. ^ Saulny, Susan (August 23, 2003). "In Courtroom, Laughter at Fox and a Victory for Al Franken". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2005. 
  26. ^ "Comedian and Political Commentator Al Franken". National Public Radio. September 3, 2003. Archived from the original on September 11, 2005. Retrieved October 5, 2005. 
  27. ^ "Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (review)". Bookreporter.com. 
  28. ^ Shorto, Russell (March 21, 2004). "Al Franken, Seriously So —". New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  29. ^ a b "Al Franken to Leave Air America in February". 
  30. ^ "Al Franken". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 26, 2012. 
  31. ^ Kasindorf, Martin; Komarow, Steven (2005-12-22). "USO Cheers Troops, but Iraq Gigs Tough to Book". USA Today. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  32. ^ Carden, Michael J. (March 26, 2009). "USO Metro Salutes Exceptional Troops, Volunteers". Defense.gov. American Forces Press Service. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  33. ^ Diaz, Kevin (Mar 23, 2009). "Franken to Receive Award for USO Service". StarTribune. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c Corliss, Richard (February 14, 2007). "Vote for Me, Al Franken". Time. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  35. ^ Roper, Eric (July 10, 2009). "Franken Shakes Off the Hoopla, Settles into Job". StarTribune. Retrieved February 13, 2017. ...Paul Wellstone, Franken's political mentor, whose picture now sits near his desk. 
  36. ^ Croman, John (July 26, 2016). "Minnesotans in Spotlight as DNC Opens". KARE-11. Retrieved February 13, 2017. [Franken] summoned the name of his friend and mentor, the late Sen. Paul Wellstone, who said that winning elections is about both passion and work. 
  37. ^ Weiner, Jay (July 6, 2009). "Tuesday, Franken's Hand Will Be on Wellstone Bible, His Thoughts Likely on the Many Minnesotans He's Met". MinnPost.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  38. ^ "From Satirist to Senator". CNN.com. July 6, 2009. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2016. 
  39. ^ Morris, Vince (2004-01-27). "Al Franken Knocks Down Dean Heckler". New York Post. Retrieved 2017-02-17. 
  40. ^ Kuhn, David Paul (April 28, 2005). "Senator Franken?". Salon.com. Retrieved February 15, 2007. 
  41. ^ Cilizza, Chris (February 5, 2007). "Minnesota Senate: Is Franken the Dems' Dream Candidate?". Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2007. 
  42. ^ "Doggone It, People Like Him". Mother Jones. September 1, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2007. 
  43. ^ Scott, A.O. (2006-09-13). "Comedian Turned Activist, With His Own Campaign". New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  44. ^ "Transcript, "Scarborough Country"". MSNBC. December 7, 2005. 
  45. ^ "Coleman and Franken on Iraq: Everything You Need to Know". MinnPostcom. August 7, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2014. 
  46. ^ Shorto, Russell (2004-03-21). "Al Franken, Seriously". New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-10. 
  47. ^ Black, Eric (2014-08-26). "Franken on Fixing Social Security and Medicare — and why repealing Obamacare is a terrible idea". MinnPost.com. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  48. ^ Al on the Issues (2008). "Higher Education". Al Franken for Senate. Archived from the original on November 27, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008. 
  49. ^ Al on the Issues (2008). "Gas Prices". Al Franken for Senate. Archived from the original on November 27, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008. 
  50. ^ Duchschere, Kevin (March 12, 2008). "Franken Faces $25,000 Workers' Comp Penalty". Startribune.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  51. ^ Duchschere, Kevin (April 24, 2008). "Friday: New Round of Financial Questions Dogs Franken". Startribune.com. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
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