James Brien Comey Jr. (born December 14, 1960) is an American lawyer, who served as the seventh Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from September 4, 2013, until his dismissal on May 9, 2017. Comey has been a registered Republican for most of his life but has recently described himself as unaffiliated.
|7th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation|
September 4, 2013 – May 9, 2017
|Deputy||Sean M. Joyce
Mark F. Giuliano
|Preceded by||Robert Mueller|
|Succeeded by||Christopher A. Wray|
|31st United States Deputy Attorney General|
December 9, 2003 – August 15, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Larry Thompson|
|Succeeded by||Paul McNulty|
|United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York|
January 7, 2002 – December 15, 2003
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Mary Jo White|
|Succeeded by||David N. Kelley|
|Born||James Brien Comey Jr.
December 14, 1960
Yonkers, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Independent (2016–present)|
|Republican (before 2016)|
|Education||College of William and Mary (BS)
University of Chicago (JD)
Comey was the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York from January 2002 to December 2003, and subsequently the United States Deputy Attorney General from December 2003 to August 2005 in the administration of President George W. Bush. Comey appointed Patrick Fitzgerald to be the Special Counsel to head the grand jury investigation into the Plame affair after Attorney General John Ashcroft recused himself.
In August 2005, Comey left the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and became general counsel and senior vice president of Lockheed Martin, based in Bethesda, Maryland. In 2010, he became general counsel at Bridgewater Associates, based in Westport, Connecticut. In early 2013, he left Bridgewater to become a Senior Research Scholar and Hertog Fellow on National Security Law at Columbia Law School. He served on the board of directors of HSBC Holdings until July 2013.
In September 2013, President Barack Obama appointed Comey to the position of Director of the FBI. In that capacity, he was responsible for overseeing the FBI's investigation of the Hillary Clinton email controversy. His role in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, particularly with regard to his public communications, was highly controversial. Some analysts feel that Comey's decisions might have cost Clinton the presidency. In one of those decisions, he reopened the investigation into Clinton's emails less than two weeks before the election. Comey also received heavy criticism from Republicans, in part after it was revealed that he had begun drafting an exoneration letter for Clinton before the investigation was complete.
President Donald Trump dismissed Comey on May 9, 2017. Statements from Trump and the White House suggested that he had been dismissed to ease the "pressure" Trump was under due to the Russia investigation. Later that month he arranged for a friend to tell the press about a memo he had written after a February 14 private meeting with the president. It said Trump had asked him to end the FBI's investigation into Michael Flynn, the former National Security Advisor. The dismissal, the memo, and Comey's subsequent Congressional testimony were interpreted by some commentators as evidence of obstruction of justice by the President, and became part of a widening investigation by Robert Mueller, the Special Counsel appointed to probe Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.
Comey was born in 1960 in Yonkers, New York, to parents Joan Marie Comey (née Herald) and J. Brien Comey. His grandfather, William J. Comey, was an officer and later commissioner of the Yonkers Police Department. The family moved to Allendale, New Jersey, in the early 1970s. His father worked in corporate real estate and his mother was a computer consultant and homemaker. Comey is of Irish heritage. He attended Northern Highlands Regional High School in Allendale. Comey graduated from the College of William and Mary in 1982, majoring in chemistry and religion. His senior thesis analyzed the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr and the televangelist Jerry Falwell, emphasizing their common belief in public action. He received his Juris Doctor (JD) from the University of Chicago Law School in 1985.
Early career (1985–1993)
After law school, Comey served as a law clerk for then-United States District Judge John M. Walker Jr. in Manhattan. Then, he was an associate for Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher in their New York office. He joined the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York, where he worked from 1987 to 1993. While there, he served as Deputy Chief of the Criminal Division and helped prosecute the Gambino crime family.
Clinton administration (1996–2001)
Assistant U.S. Attorney
From 1996 to 2001, Comey served as Managing Assistant U.S. Attorney in charge of the Richmond Division of the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. In 1996, Comey acted as deputy special counsel to the Senate Whitewater Committee. He also served as the lead prosecutor in the case concerning the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia. While in Richmond, Comey served as an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Richmond School of Law.
Bush administration (2002–2005)
Comey was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, from January 2002 to the time of his confirmation as Deputy Attorney General on December 11, 2003. Among his first tasks was to take over the investigation into President Bill Clinton's controversial pardon of Marc Rich. In November 2002, he led the prosecution of three men involved in one of the largest identity fraud cases in American history. The fraud had lasted two years and resulted in thousands of people across the country collectively losing over $3 million. He also led the indictment of Adelphia Communications founder John Rigas for bank fraud, wire fraud, and securities fraud. Rigas was convicted of the charges in 2004 and in 2005, was sentenced to 15 years in federal prison. Adelphia Corporation was forced to file for bankruptcy after it acknowledged that it took $3.3 billion in false loans. It was "one of the most elaborate and extensive corporate frauds in United States history".
In February 2003, Comey was the lead prosecutor of Martha Stewart, who was indicted on the charges of securities fraud, obstruction of justice, and lying to an FBI agent. She sold 3,928 shares of ImClone Systems, making $227,824. The next day, the Food and Drug Administration refused to accept the company's application for Erbitux. In March 2003, he led the indictment of ImClone CEO Samuel Waksal, who pleaded guilty to avoiding paying $1.2 million in sales taxes on $15 million worth of contemporary paintings. The works were by Mark Rothko, Richard Serra, Roy Lichtenstein, and Willem de Kooning. In April 2003, he led the indictment of Frank Quattrone, who allegedly urged subordinates in 2000 to destroy evidence sought by investigators looking into his investment banking practices at Credit Suisse First Boston. In November 2003, he led the prosecutions in "Operation Wooden Nickel", which resulted in complaints and indictments against 47 people involved in foreign exchange trading scams.
Deputy Attorney General
NSA domestic wiretapping
In early January 2006, The New York Times, as part of its investigation into domestic surveillance by the National Security Agency, reported that Comey, who was Acting Attorney General during the March 2004 hospitalization of John Ashcroft, refused to certify the legality of central aspects of the NSA program. In order for the program to continue, the certification was required under White House procedures.
In March 2004, Federal Bureau of Investigation Director Robert S. Mueller III and Comey threatened the Bush administration with their resignations if the White House overruled the DOJ finding that the domestic wiretapping under the Terrorist Surveillance Program (TSP) was unconstitutional, if such were done without a court warrant. On March 10, 2004, United States Attorney General (USAG) John Ashcroft was being visited by his wife as he was treated in the intensive care unit at the George Washington University Hospital. She solicited Mueller and Comey to join them, and shortly after their arrival, they were joined by Jack Goldsmith of the DOJ's Office of Legal Counsel and Patrick Philbrin. In Goldsmith's 2007 memoir, he said Comey had come to the hospital to give Ashcroft support in withstanding pressure from the White House. None of the four visitors wanted the TSP reauthorized. After the quartet's arrival, Ashcroft refused to give his consent to its extension, despite being pressured at the hospital soon afterward by Andrew H. Card Jr., White House Chief of Staff, and Alberto R. Gonzales, then-White House counsel and future Attorney General. The two were requesting that Ashcroft waive the DOJ ruling and permit the domestic warrantless eavesdropping program to continue beyond its imminent expiration date. Ashcroft additionally informed the pair that due to his illness, he had delegated his powers as USAG to Comey. Comey later confirmed these events took place (but declined to confirm the specific program) in testimony to the United States Senate Judiciary Committee on May 16, 2007. FBI director Mueller's notes on the March 10, 2004, incident, which were released to a House Judiciary committee, confirms that he "Saw (the) AG, John Ashcroft in the room (who was) feeble, barely articulate, clearly stressed."
Enhanced interrogation techniques
When Comey was Deputy Attorney General in 2005, he endorsed a memorandum that approved the use of 13 enhanced interrogation techniques that included waterboarding and sleep deprivation for up to 180 hours, which would be used by the CIA when interrogating suspects. Comey objected to a second memorandum, drafted by Daniel Levin and signed by Steven G. Bradbury, which stated that these techniques could be used in combination. Comey was one of the few members of the Bush administration who had tried to prevent or limit the use of torture.
During his 2013 confirmation hearing, Comey stated that in his personal opinion, waterboarding was torture, the United Nations Convention against Torture was "very vague" and difficult to interpret as banning the practice. Even though the practice was legal at the time, he strongly disagreed with the techniques and as a matter of policy, he opposed implementing them. His objections were ultimately overruled by the National Security Council.
Private sector (2005–2013)
In the fall of 2005, Comey announced that he was leaving the Department of Justice. In August 2005, it was announced that Comey would enter the private sector, becoming the General Counsel and Senior Vice President for Lockheed Martin, the U.S. Department of Defense's largest contractor. Comey's tenure took effect on October 1, 2005, serving in that capacity until June 2, 2010, when he announced he would leave Lockheed Martin to join the senior management committee at Bridgewater Associates, a Connecticut-based investment management firm. Comey received a three million dollar payout from Bridgewater, and his net worth is estimated at 14 million dollars. In February 1, 2013, after leaving Bridgewater, he was appointed by Columbia University Law School as a Senior Research Scholar and Hertog Fellow on National Security Law. He was also appointed to the board of directors of the London-based financial institution HSBC Holdings, to improve the company's compliance program after its $1.9 billion settlement with the Justice Department for failing to comply with basic due diligence requirements for money laundering regarding Mexican drug cartels and terrorism financing. Since 2012, he has also served on the Defense Legal Policy Board.
Testimony before congressional committees
|Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy|
In May 2007, Comey testified before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary and the House Judiciary subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law on the U.S. Attorney dismissal controversy. His testimony contradicted that of former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, who had said the firings had been due to poor performance on the part of some of the dismissed prosecutors. Comey stressed that the Justice Department had to be perceived as nonpartisan and nonpolitical to function.
The Department of Justice, in my view, is run by political appointees of the President. The U.S. attorneys are political appointees of the President. But once they take those jobs and run this institution, it's very important in my view for that institution to be another in American life, that—because my people had to stand up before juries of all stripes, talk to sheriffs of all stripes, judges of all stripes. They had to be seen as the good guys, and not as either this administration or that administration.
Supreme Court considerations
Politico reported in May 2009 that White House officials pushed for Comey's inclusion on the short list of names to replace Associate Justice David Souter on the U.S. Supreme Court. Politico later reported liberal activists were upset about the possibility of Comey's name being included. John Brittain of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law stated, "[Comey] came in with the Bushies. What makes you think he'd be just an inch or two more to the center than [John] Roberts? I'd be greatly disappointed."
FBI Director (2013 - 2017)
May 2013 reports became official the following month when President Barack Obama revealed that he would nominate Comey to be the next Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, replacing outgoing director Robert Mueller. Comey was reportedly chosen over another finalist, Lisa Monaco, who had overseen national security issues at the Justice Department during the attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya, on September 11, 2012.
On July 29, 2013, the Senate confirmed Comey to a full ten-year term as FBI Director. He was confirmed by a vote of 93-1. Two senators voted present. He was sworn in as FBI director on September 4, 2013. Comey was dismissed by Donald Trump on May 9, 2017.
Police and African Americans
In February 2015, Comey delivered a speech at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., regarding the relationship between police and the African American community. He said that, "At many points in American history, law enforcement enforced the status quo – a status quo that was often brutally unfair to disfavored groups", mentioning as an example his own Irish ancestors, who he said had often been regarded as drunks and criminals by law enforcement in the early 20th century. He added: "The Irish had some tough times, but little compares to the experience on our soil of black Americans", going on to highlight current societal issues such as lack of opportunities for employment and education which can lead young black men to crime. Comey stated:
Police officers on patrol in our nation's cities often work in environments where a hugely disproportionate percentage of street crime is committed by young men of color. Something happens to people of good will working in that environment. After years of police work, officers often can't help be influenced by the cynicism they feel. A mental shortcut becomes almost irresistible.
In October 2015, Comey gave a speech in which he raised concerns that body worn video results in less effective policing; this opinion contradicted the President's public position. Days later, President Obama met with Comey in the Oval Office to address the issue. In an October 23 speech at the University of Chicago Law School, Comey said:
I remember being asked why we were doing so much prosecuting in black neighborhoods and locking up so many black men. After all, Richmond was surrounded by areas with largely white populations. Surely there were drug dealers in the suburbs. My answer was simple: We are there in those neighborhoods because that's where people are dying. These are the guys we lock up because they are the predators choking off the life of a community. We did this work because we believed that all lives matter, especially the most vulnerable.
Comments on Poland and the Holocaust
In April 2015, Comey spoke at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, arguing in favor of more Holocaust education. After The Washington Post printed a version of his speech, Anne Applebaum wrote that his reference to "the murderers and accomplices of Germany, and Poland, and Hungary" was inaccurately saying that Poles were as responsible for the Holocaust as Germans. His speech was also criticized by Polish authorities, and Stephen D. Mull, United States Ambassador to Poland, was called to the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Applebaum wrote that Comey, "in a speech that was reprinted in The Post arguing for more Holocaust education, demonstrated just how badly he needs it himself".
Ambassador Mull issued an apology for Comey's remarks. When asked about his remarks, Comey said, "I regret linking Germany and Poland ... The Polish state bears no responsibility for the horrors imposed by the Nazis. I wish I had not used any other country names because my point was a universal one about human nature."
In June 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) announced that it had been the target of a data breach targeting the records of as many as four million people. Later, Comey put the number at 18 million. The Washington Post has reported that the attack originated in China, citing unnamed government officials. Comey said: "It is a very big deal from a national security perspective and from a counterintelligence perspective. It’s a treasure trove of information about everybody who has worked for, tried to work for, or works for the United States government."
Hillary Clinton email investigation
On July 10, 2015, the FBI opened a criminal investigation into Hillary Clinton's use of a private email server while she was Secretary of State. On June 29, 2016, Attorney General Loretta Lynch and Bill Clinton met aboard her plane on the tarmac of the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, leading to calls for her recusal. Lynch then announced that she would "fully" accept the recommendation of the FBI regarding the probe. On July 2, FBI agents completed their investigation by interviewing Hillary Clinton at FBI headquarters, following which Comey and his associates decided there was no basis for criminal indictments in the case.
Release of information about the investigation
On July 5, 2016, Comey announced the FBI's recommendation that the United States Department of Justice file no criminal charges relating to the Hillary Clinton email controversy. During a 15-minute press conference in the J. Edgar Hoover Building, Comey called Secretary Clinton's and her top aides' behavior "extremely careless", but concluded that "no reasonable prosecutor would bring such a case". It was believed to be the first time the FBI disclosed its prosecutorial recommendation to the Department of Justice publicly. On July 7, 2016, Comey was questioned by a Republican-led House committee during a hearing regarding the FBI's recommendation.
On October 26, 2016, two weeks before the presidential election, Comey learned that FBI agents investigating an unrelated case involving former Congressman Anthony Weiner had discovered emails on Weiner's computer between his wife, Huma Abedin, and Hillary Clinton. Believing it would take months to review Weiner's emails, Comey decided he had to inform Congress that the investigation was being reopened due to new information. Justice Department lawyers warned him that giving out public information about an investigation was inconsistent with department policy, but he considered the policy to be "guidance" rather than an ironclad rule. He decided that not to reveal the new information would be misleading to Congress and the public. On October 28, Comey sent a letter to members of Congress advising them that the FBI was reviewing more emails. Members of Congress leaked the information to the public within minutes. Republican and Democratic lawmakers, as well as the Clinton and Trump campaigns, called on Comey to provide additional details.
The Clinton campaign and numerous former officials and other commentators criticized his decision to announce the reopened investigation. Law professor Richard Painter filed complaints with the United States Office of Special Counsel and the United States Office of Government Ethics over Comey's letter to Congress.
The investigators received additional resources so they could complete their review of the new emails before Election Day, and on November 6, 2016, Comey wrote in a second letter to Congress that "Based on our review, we have not changed our conclusions that we expressed in July".
Comey was broadly criticized for his actions from both the right and the left. According to the Clinton campaign, the letters effectively stopped the campaign's momentum by hurting Clinton's chances with voters who were receptive to Trump's claims of a "rigged system". Statistician Nate Silver said that Comey had a "large, measurable impact on the race". Other analysts, such as Democratic strategist David Axelrod, said that Comey's public actions were just one of several cumulative factors that cost Clinton the election. On May 2, 2017, Hillary Clinton told CNN’s Christiane Amanpour: "I was on the way to winning until a combination of Jim Comey's letter on October 28 and Russian WikiLeaks raised doubts in the minds of people who were inclined to vote for me and got scared off." On May 3, 2017, Comey testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that "It makes me mildly nauseous to think that we might have had some impact on the election", but that "honestly, it wouldn't change the decision."
On January 12, 2017, the United States Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General announced a formal investigation into whether the FBI followed proper procedures in its investigation of Clinton or whether "improper considerations" were made by FBI personnel.
On July 27, 2017, the House Judiciary Committee decided to request documents related to Comey, including the FBI investigation into Hillary Clinton, Comey's conduct during the 2016 election, and his release of his memo to the press. The committee's Republicans also wrote a letter to Attorney General Jeff Sessions asking him to appoint a second special prosecutor to investigate these issues.
In September 2017, two Republicans on the Senate Judiciary Committee, Chuck Grassley and Lindsey Graham, alleged that Comey planned to exonerate Hillary Clinton in her email scandal long before the agency had completed its investigation. The story was confirmed by the FBI in October, which released a Comey memo dated May 2. Comey interviewed Clinton as part of his investigation on July 2. Former FBI official Ron Hosko reacted saying, "You tend to reach final conclusions as the investigation is logically ended. Not months before." Donald Trump called it "disgraceful." In contrast, former Department of Justice spokesman Matthew Miller wrote on Twitter, "The decision is never ‘made’ until the end, even when there’s a 99% chance it is only going to go one way."
Comey's original draft of the exoneration stated that Clinton had committed "gross negligence," which is a crime. However, the language was later changed to "extreme carelessness." In December, it was revealed that the change had been made by Peter Strozk, an FBI official who would later join Mueller's probe and be dismissed after exchanging private messages with an FBI lawyer that could be seen as favoring Clinton politically.
Russian election interference investigation
On the day of Comey's July press conference, the FBI acquired the Donald Trump-Russia dossier by Christopher Steele. In late July, the FBI opened an investigation into the Trump campaign. Comey asked President Obama for permission to write an op-ed, which would warn the public that the Russians were interfering in the election. The President denied the request. CIA Director John O. Brennan then gave an unusual private briefing on the Russians to Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid; Reid then publicly referred to the briefing. Comey, however, refused to confirm—even in classified Congressional briefings—that the Trump Campaign was under investigation. In early October, meetings were held in the White House Situation Room; National Security Advisor Susan Rice argued that the information should be released, while Comey argued that disclosure was no longer needed.
In January 2017, Comey first met Trump when he briefed the President-elect on the Steele dossier. On January 27, 2017, Trump and Comey dined alone at the White House. According to Trump, Comey requested the dinner so as to ask to keep his job and, when asked, told Trump that he was not under investigation. Trump has stated that he did not ask Comey to pledge his loyalty. However, according to Comey's associates, Trump requested the dinner, asked Comey to pledge his loyalty, twice, to which Comey replied, twice, that he would always be honest, until Trump asked him if he would promise "honest loyalty", which Comey did.
On February 14, the day after President Trump fired Michael T. Flynn, Comey met with the President during a terrorism threat briefing in the Oval Office. At the end of the meeting Trump asked the other security chiefs to leave, then told Comey to consider imprisoning reporters over leaks and that "I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go." Comey, as is usual, immediately documented the meeting in a memo and shared it with FBI officials. In his Congressional testimony, Comey clarified that he took Trump's comment to be "an order" to drop the Flynn investigation, but "that he did not consider this an order to drop the Russia investigation as a whole."
On March 4, 2017, Comey asked the Justice Department for permission, which was not given, to publicly refute Trump's claim that his phones had been wiretapped by then-President Obama.
On March 20, 2017, in testimony before the House Intelligence Committee, Comey confirmed that the FBI has been investigating possible coordination between the Trump campaign and Russia, and whether any crimes were committed. During the hearing, the White House Twitter account posted "The NSA and FBI tell Congress that Russia did not influence the electoral process", which Comey, when then read the tweet by Congressman Jim Himes, directly refuted. Comey also refuted the President's Trump Tower wiretapping allegations, testifying "I have no information that supports those tweets, and we have looked carefully inside the FBI".
Representative Chris Stewart asked Comey in the hearing: "Mr. Clapper then went on to say that to his knowledge there was no evidence of collusion between members of the Trump campaign and the Russians. We did not conclude any evidence in our report and when I say 'our report,' that is the NSA, FBI, and CIA with my office, the director of national intelligence said anything – any reflection of collusion between the members of Trump campaign and the Russians, there was no evidence of that in our report. Was Mr. Clapper wrong when he said that?" Comey responded: "I think he's right about characterizing the report which you all have read." Press Secretary Sean Spicer and a White House tweet then highlighted this testimony as proof that Clapper was "right" there was no evidence of collusion, causing Clapper to release a statement clarifying he had been referring to the evidence as gathered in January and that more investigation is needed.
On May 3, 2017, in testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Comey said that Russia is the "greatest threat of any nation on Earth ... One of the biggest lessons learned is that Russia will do this again. Because of 2016 election, they know it worked." He also said that Russia should pay a price for interfering.
In early May, a few days before he was fired, Comey reportedly asked the Justice Department for a significant increase in funding and personnel for the Russia probe. On May 11, 2017, Acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe said to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that he was unaware of the request and stated, "I believe we have the adequate resources to do it and I know that we have resourced that investigation adequately."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James B. Comey testimony videos.|
|Wikinews has related news: Former U.S. FBI Director James Comey testifies about President Trump|
Comey had been scheduled to testify before the Senate Intelligence Committee on May 11, but after he was dismissed on May 9, committee chair Senator Richard Burr said that Acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe would appear instead. Comey spoke before the Committee on June 8. His prepared opening statements were pre-released by the Intelligence Committee on their website one day before the official hearings.
Government surveillance oversight
In his July 2013 FBI confirmation hearing, Comey said that the oversight mechanisms of the U.S. government have sufficient privacy protections. In a November 2014 New York Times Magazine article, Yale historian Beverly Gage reported that Comey keeps on his desk a copy of the FBI request to wiretap Martin Luther King Jr. "as a reminder of the bureau's capacity to do wrong".
In 2016, he and his agency were criticized for their request to Apple Inc. to install a "back door" for U.S. surveillance agencies to use. Former NSA and CIA director Michael Hayden stated: "Jim would like a back door available to American law enforcement in all devices globally. And, frankly, I think on balance that actually harms American safety and security, even though it might make Jim's job a bit easier in some specific circumstances."
Comey, speaking at a cybersecurity conference in 2017, told the audience, "There is no such thing as absolute privacy in America; there is no place outside of judicial reach."
President Trump formally dismissed Comey on May 9, 2017, less than 4 years into his 10-year term as Director of the FBI. Comey first learned of his termination from television news reports that flashed on screen while he was delivering a speech to agents at the Los Angeles Field Office. Sources said he was surprised and caught off guard by the termination. Comey immediately departed for Washington, D.C., and was forced to cancel his scheduled speech that night at an FBI recruitment event. Trump reportedly called Deputy Director Andrew McCabe the next day, demanding to know why Comey had been allowed to fly back to Washington on an FBI jet after he had been fired.
On May 10, Comey sent a letter to FBI staff in which he said, "I have long believed that a President can fire an FBI director for any reason, or for no reason at all. I'm not going to spend time on the decision or the way it was executed. I hope you won't either. It is done, and I will be fine, although I will miss you and the mission deeply." In the absence of a Senate-confirmed FBI director, McCabe automatically became Acting Director.
Reasons for dismissal
The White House initially stated the firing was on the recommendation of United States Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, both men whom Comey reported to. Rosenstein had sent a memorandum to Sessions, forwarded to Trump, in which Rosenstein listed objections to Comey's conduct in the investigation into Hillary Clinton's emails. This allowed the Trump administration to attribute Comey's firing to Rosenstein's recommendation about the Clinton email controversy. It was later revealed that on May 8, Trump had requested Sessions and Rosenstein to detail in writing a case against Comey. Rosenstein's memo was forwarded to Trump on May 9 and was then construed as a recommendation to dismiss Comey, which Trump immediately did. In Trump's termination letter to Comey, he attributed the firing to the two letters from Sessions and Rosenstein. On May 10, Trump told reporters he had fired Comey because Comey "wasn't doing a good job". White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders added that the FBI rank and file had lost faith in Comey and that she had "heard from countless members of the FBI that are grateful and thankful for the president’s decision".
By May 11, however, in a direct contradiction of the earlier statements by the White House, Vice President Mike Pence, and the contents of the dismissal letter itself, President Trump stated to Lester Holt in an NBC News interview that Comey's dismissal was in fact "my decision" and "I was going to fire [Comey] regardless of recommendation [by Jeff Sessions and Rod Rosenstein]." Trump later said of the dismissal "when I decided to just do it [fire Comey], I said to myself, I said 'You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story.'" In the same televised interview, Trump labelled Comey "a showboat" and "grandstander".
On May 19, the New York Times published excerpts of an official White House document summarizing Trump's private meeting, the day after the firing, with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak in the Oval Office. Trump told Kislyak and Lavrov that he "just fired the head of the FBI. He was crazy, a real nut job." Trump added: "I faced great pressure because of Russia. That's taken off", further adding "I’m not under investigation."
According to reports, Trump had been openly talking to aides about finding a reason to fire Comey for at least a week before both the dismissal and the requesting of memoranda from Sessions and Rosenstein the day prior to the dismissal. Trump was angry and frustrated when, in the week prior to his dismissal, Comey revealed in Senate testimony the breadth of the counterintelligence investigation into Russia's effort to sway the 2016 U.S. presidential election. He felt Comey was giving too much attention to the Russia probe and not enough to internal leaks to the press from within the government. Shortly before Comey was fired, Comey had requested additional money and resources to further expand the probe into Russian interference into the Presidential election. Trump had long questioned Comey's loyalty to Trump personally, and Comey's judgment to act in accordance to a loyalty to Trump. Moreover, Trump was angry that Comey would not support his claim that President Barack Obama had his campaign offices wiretapped.
Reference to tapes
On May 12, Trump tweeted "James Comey better hope that there are no 'tapes' of our conversations before he starts leaking to the press!", which the media, political and legal analysts, as well as opposition politicians, interpreted as a threat to Comey.
On June 8, when Comey was asked by the Senate Intelligence Committee about the existence of tapes, he replied "Lordy, I hope there are tapes!" He added that he would have no problem with the public release of any recordings.
On June 22, faced with a subpoena for the tapes that Trump alluded to, Trump issued a tweet stating "I have no idea [...] whether there are ‘tapes’ or recordings of my conversations with James Comey, but I did not make, and do not have, any such recordings." Hours later, when asked to clarify the non-denial denial wording of Trump's tweet regarding the tapes, Principal Deputy White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders stated that Trump's tweet was "extremely clear" and that she did "not have anything to add". Questions raised for clarification on Trump's tweet centered principally around whether Trump ever had knowledge of said tapes having ever existed and whether he is simply no longer privy to the knowledge of whether said tapes still exist; whether Trump currently has or ever had knowledge of a person or persons other than Trump having made said tapes or recordings, and; whether Trump currently has or ever had knowledge of a person or persons other than Trump currently having or previously having had in their possession said tapes or recordings. U.S. Representative for California, Democrat Adam Schiff, stated that Trump's tweet “raises as many questions as it answers," and that in any event, the tweet did not comply with the 23 June deadline, and that Schiff would move forward with subpoenas for the tapes, adding that “[r]egardless of whether the President intends his tweets to be an official reply to the House Intelligence Committee, the White House must respond in writing to our committee as to whether any tapes or recordings exist."
Comey's termination was immediately controversial. It was compared to the Saturday Night massacre, President Richard Nixon's termination of special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who had been investigating the Watergate scandal, and to the firing of Acting Attorney General Sally Yates in January 2017. Many members of Congress expressed concern over the firing and argued that it would put the integrity of the investigation into jeopardy. Critics accused Trump of obstruction of justice.
In the dismissal letter, Trump alleged that Comey had told Trump "on three separate occasions that I am not under investigation." Fact checkers reported that while they had no way of knowing what Comey may have told Trump privately, no such assertion was on the public record at that time of Comey directly stating that Trump was not personally under investigation. However, in later Congressional testimony, Comey confirmed that on three occasions he volunteered to Trump that the latter was not personally under FBI investigation.
According to Comey associates interviewed by news organizations, Trump had asked Comey in January to pledge loyalty to him, to which Comey demurred, instead offering him "honesty". Comey has indicated he is willing to testify about his dismissal in an open hearing. He declined an invitation from the Senate Intelligence Committee to testify before a closed-door session.
On May 11, Acting Director McCabe testified before the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that "Director Comey enjoyed broad support within the FBI and still does" and that "the vast majority of FBI employees enjoyed a deep and positive connection to Director Comey". This contradicted White House spokeswoman Sarah Huckabee Sanders, who said she had heard from "countless" FBI agents in support of the firing.
On May 16, The New York Times revealed the existence of a memo Comey had written after a February 14 meeting with Trump. It said that Trump had asked him to drop the FBI's investigation into Mike Flynn, who had been fired as National Security Advisor the day before. Comey later explained that he had arranged, through a friend, for the memo to be shared with the press in hope it might prompt the appointment of a special counsel.
On June 8, 2017, Comey gave public testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee about his firing. When asked why thought he had been fired, he said he had been confused by the shifting explanations for it but that "I take the president at his word that I was fired because of the Russia investigation." He said that he had made contemporaneous notes about several of his conversations with the president because "I was honestly concerned that he might lie about the nature of our meeting so I felt the need to document it." He said he had not done so with the two previous presidents he had served.
On April 19, 2018, the Justice Department released 15 pages of documents to Congress which comprise partially declassified memos that Comey made after his meetings with Trump. The memos were released by Assistant Attorney General Stephen Boyd in both a classified and unclassified versions. The unclassified version was obtained by Mary Clare Jalonick of the Associated Press on April 19 and published the next day.  
In August 2017, Macmillan Publishers' Flatiron Books announced that it had acquired the rights to Comey's first book, to be released in spring 2018, in which he will discuss ethics, leadership, and his experience in government. Several publishers had submitted bids in an auction conducted by literary agency Javelin.
In November 2017, the title of his book was revealed to be A Higher Loyalty: Truth, Lies and Leadership with a release date of May 1, 2018. The release date was moved up to April 17 because of scrutiny faced by the FBI during the Special Counsel investigation. On March 18, presale orders of the not-yet-released book made it the top seller on Amazon. The boom was attributed to a series of Twitter attacks on Comey by Trump, in which Trump claimed that Comey "knew all about the lies and corruption going on at the highest levels of the FBI!" In response Comey tweeted, "Mr. President, the American people will hear my story very soon. And they can judge for themselves who is honorable and who is not."
In the summer of 2017, Comey gave the convocation speech and a series of lectures at Howard University, a historically black university in Washington, D.C. During the fall of 2018, Comey will return to his alma mater, the College of William & Mary, to teach a course of ethical leadership. He will be an executive professor in education, a nontenured position at the College. Comey will join assistant professor Drew Stelljes to teach the course during the 2018-2019 academic year.
Although Comey was a registered Republican for most of his life, he disclosed during Congressional testimony on July 7, 2016, that he was no longer registered with any party. Comey donated to Senator John McCain's campaign in the 2008 presidential election and to Governor Mitt Romney's campaign in the 2012 presidential election. In an interview with ABC News on April 18, 2018, Comey said that the "Republican Party [had] left [him] and many others" and that "these people don't represent anything [he believes] in".
Comey and his wife, Patrice Failor, are the parents of five children, and a son who died in infancy. They have also been foster parents. He is of Irish descent and was raised in a Roman Catholic household. Comey subsequently joined the United Methodist Church, and has taught Sunday school. He is 6 feet 8 inches (2.03 m) tall.
- Comey, James (July 7, 2016). Hillary Clinton Email Investigation. C-SPAN. Event occurs at 01:35:57. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
I have been registered Republican for most of my adult life. Not registered any longer.
- Bump, Philip (April 18, 2018). "Analysis | Comey says he was driven from the Republican Party by Trumpian politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Gerstein, Josh. "Trump fires FBI Director James Comey". Archived from the original on May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Krieg, Gregory. "Who is James Comey: 7 things to know about the fired FBI director". CNN. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "James B. Comey, September 4, 2013 – May 9, 2017". FBI.gov. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "Former US Deputy Attorney General joins HSBC Board". HSBC Holdings plc. January 30, 2013. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Himes Congratulates Westport's James Comey as New FBI Director". Congressman Jim Himes website. July 31, 2013. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Matt Apuzzo; Michael S. Schmidt; Adam Goldman; Eric Lichtblau (April 23, 2017). "Comey Tried to Shield the F.B.I. From Politics. Then He Shaped an Election." The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Silver, Nate (May 3, 2017). "The Comey Letter Probably Cost Clinton The Election". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- McElwee, Sean; McDermott, Matt; Jordan, Will (January 11, 2017). "4 pieces of evidence showing FBI Director James Comey cost Clinton the election". Vox.
- McLean, Bethany (March 2017). "The True Story of the Comey Letter Debacle". Vanity Fair. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Kutner, Max (December 15, 2017). "Comey's Early Clinton Draft Said She Should Face 'No Charges'". Newsweek. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Karl, Jonathan; Keneally, Meghan; Fishel, Justin (May 9, 2017). "FBI Director Comey fired amid Russia probe". ABC News. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Matthew Rosenberg; Matt Apuzzo (May 11, 2017). "F.B.I. FIRING ROILS CAPITAL AS TRUMP CALLS OUT CRITICS – In Last Days as Chief, Comey Sought Aid in Russia Inquiry". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Wang, Christine. "Comey reportedly asked for more resources for Russia probe; DOJ calls reports 'totally false'". CNBC. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Liptak, Kevin. "White House: Removing Comey will help bring Russia investigation to end". CNN. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin; Rucker, Philip. "Trump said he was thinking of Russia controversy when he decided to fire Comey". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Haberman, Matt Apuzzo, Maggie; Rosenberg, Matthew (May 19, 2017). "Trump Told Russians That Firing 'Nut Job' Comey Eased Pressure From Investigation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin; Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Horwitz, Sari (June 14, 2017). "Special counsel is investigating Trump for possible obstruction of justice, officials say" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "Joan Marie Comey". geni com.
- "Comey's father: Trump was 'scared to death' of FBI director". CNN. May 20, 2017.
- Bultman, Matt (June 4, 2013). "Reported FBI Nominee Comey Is Grandson of Former YPD Commissioner". Yonkers Daily Voice. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- Boburg, Shawn (May 30, 2013). "FBI nominee Comey was held captive as a Bergen teen". North Jersey (The Record). Archived from the original on May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- "James Comey Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Alexandra Wolfe (June 16, 2003). "Meet Martha's Prosecutor". The New York Observer. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
James Comey grew up in a middle-class family in Yonkers and Bergen County, N.J. His father worked in corporate real estate; his mother was a homemaker and computer consultant. He attended the College of William & Mary and got his law degree at the University of Chicago.
- Michael S. Schmidt (February 12, 2015). "F.B.I. Director Speaks Out on Race and Police Bias". The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Weiser, Benjamin. "Man in the News; Reputation for Tenacity; James Brien Comey", The New York Times, December 2, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011. "EDUCATION: Northern Highlands Regional High School, Allendale, N.J.; B.S., College of William and Mary; J.D., University of Chicago Law School."
- "Mr. Comey Goes To Washington", New York magazine, October 2003. Retrieved May 21, 2007.
- Deputy Attorney General James B. Comey The White House. (no date). Retrieved May 18, 2007.
- "James Comey at FBI, a man who can say no". The Washington Post. May 30, 2013.
- Calabresi, Massimo. "Inside the FBI Investigation of Hillary Clinton's E-Mail". Time.
- "A worthy New York prosecutor (Op-Ed)". The New York Times,. December 1, 2001.
- wired.com, Archived December 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. 2002/11.
- Cassidy, John (September 23, 2002). "The Greed Cycle". The New Yorker. p. 64. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Stern, Christopher (September 24, 2002). "Members of Rigas Family Indicted". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Searcey, Dionne; Yuan, Li (June 21, 2005). "Adelphia's John Rigas Gets 15 Years". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Lieberman, David (September 23, 2002). "Former Adelphia execs indicted". USA Today.
- "martha", CNNMoney.com, 2003/02/06.
- "waksal", USA Today, March 3, 2003.
- "quattrone", CNN, 2003/04/23.
- "forex_031119", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2003/11/19.
- Perez, Evan (July 7, 2013). "Nominee for FBI Top Post Likely to Face Tough Questions". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2017. (Subscription required (. ))
Mr. Comey, during his tenure as deputy attorney general, endorsed a legal memo that authorized the use of waterboarding, which induces the sensation of drowning, on detainees held by the CIA.
- LIchtblau, Eric; Risen, James (January 1, 2006). "Justice Deputy Resisted Parts of Spy Program". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Eggen, Dan; Kane, Paul (May 16, 2007). "Gonzales Hospital Episode Detailed". Washington Post. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (July 9, 2013). "F.B.I. Nominee Explains How View Has Changed on Interrogation Tactic". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Mayer, Jane (May 2009). The Dark Side. New York: Anchor Books. pp. 289–290. ISBN 978-0-307-45629-8.
- Comey Senate Judiciary Committee Transcript, May 16, 2007. Congressional Quarterly, Inc.
- Isikoff, Michael; Evan Thomas (June 4, 2007). "Bush's Monica Problem: Gonzales, the president's lawyer and Texas buddy, is twisting slowly in the wind, facing a vote of no confidence from the Senate". Newsweek. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- (Editorial) (May 16, 2006). "Mr. Comey's Tale: A standoff at a hospital bedside speaks volumes about Attorney General Gonzales". The Washington Post. pp. A14. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Eggen, Dan; Amy Goldstein (May 18, 2007). "No-Confidence Vote Sought on Gonzales". The Washington Post. pp. A03. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Congressional Quarterly (May 15, 2007). "Senate Hearing on U.S. Attorney Firings – Transcript: Senate Judiciary Hearing (Transcript, Part 1 of 5)". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Lichtblau, Eric (January 2, 2006). "Bush Defends Spy Program and Denies Misleading Public". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Eggen, Dan (August 17, 2007). "FBI Director's Notes Contradict Gonzales's Version of Ashcroft Visit". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
- Eggen, Dan; Kane, Paul (May 16, 2007). "Gonzales Hospital Episode Detailed". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- Shane, Scott; David Johnston (June 7, 2009). "Lawyers Agreed on the Legality of Brutal Tactic". The New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- Serrano, Richard A. (July 9, 2013). "FBI nominee Comey signed memo allowing waterboarding". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Resnick, Brian (May 30, 2013). "James Comey, Obama's Pick to Lead the FBI, Stood Up Against the Bush Legal Opinion on 'Enhanced Interrogations'". National Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Shane, Scott; Johnston, David; Risen, James (October 4, 2007). "Secret U.S. Endorsement of Severe Interrogations". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Markon, Jerry; Horwitz, Sari (May 30, 2013). "Civil liberties groups criticize Comey, but colleagues praise him". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Yager, Jordy (July 10, 2013). "Comey: Waterboarding is torture, illegal". The Hill. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Charles, Deborah (July 9, 2013). "Nominee for FBI director says waterboarding is torture". Reuters. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Serrano, Richard A. (July 9, 2013). "Senators question FBI nominee Comey over enhanced interrogation". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- "An Investigation into the Removal of Nine U.S. Attorneys in 2006" (PDF). justice.gov. September 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Carrie Johnson, Griff Witte (August 8, 2005). "Lockheed Puts Faith in Tough Lawyer". The Washington Post.
- "Lockheed Martin Names James B. Comey General Counsel; Succeeds Frank H. Menaker, Who Will Retire". lockheedmartin.com. August 4, 2005. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013.
- David Johnston (June 2, 2010). "Comey Leaving Lockheed for Hedge Fund". mainjustice.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013.
- Columbia University School of Law (January 30, 2013). "Print Former Deputy Attorney General Joins Columbia Law School as Hertog Fellow in National Security Law James B. Comey Has Served as U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York and as General Counsel of Bridgewater Associates and the Lockheed Martin Corporation." law.columbia.edu.
- Howard Mustoe (January 30, 2013). "HSBC Hires Tax, Anti-Terror Chiefs for Controls Panel". Bloomberg L.P.
- Aruna Viswanatha, Brett Wolf (December 11, 2012). "HSBC to pay $1.9 billion U.S. fine in money-laundering case". Reuters.
- "HSBC money laundering report: Key findings HSBC operates in more than 80 countries around the world Failure after failure at HSBC led to the London-based bank being used as a conduit for "drug kingpins and rogue nations", a 300-page report compiled for a US Senate committee and has found". BBC. December 11, 2012.
- Lesley Clark; McClatchy News Service (June 20, 2013). "President Obama to name Jim Comey as FBI director". mcclatchydc.com.
- James B. Comey. Testimony Transcript. Hearing of the Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law. House Committee on the Judiciary. May 3, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2007.
(Congressional Quarterly transcripts, via the Washington Post.)
- "James Comey pushed for Supreme Court", Politico.com, May 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009
- "Some on left souring on Obama", Politico.com, May 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
- "The Pro-Freedom Republicans Are Coming: 131 Sign Gay-Marriage Brief". thedailybeast.com. February 28, 2013.
- "AP sources say ex-Bush official James Comey to be Obama's nominee to head FBI". The Washington Post. Associated Press. May 29, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- Steve Holland (May 29, 2013). "Obama expected to pick James Comey as next FBI chief: source". Reuters.
- Pickler, Nedra, "Obama's FBI pick: James Comey, challenged wiretapping by Bush White House", AP via San Jose Mercury News, June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- "Obama-to-pick-james-b-comey-to-lead-fbi", The New York Times, May 30, 2013.
- "AP Sources: Obama Preparing To Name Comey To FBI", AP via NPR, May 29, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "Now voting on confirmation of Comey nomination (FBI)". Democrats.senate.gov. July 29, 2013. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- "FBI – James B. Comey Sworn in as FBI Director". Fbi.gov. September 4, 2013. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Simio, Molly (February 13, 2015). "In Rare Move, FBI Head Addresses Race Relations". The Hoya. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Comey, James B. (February 12, 2015). "Hard Truths: Law Enforcement and Race". Washington, D.C.
- Asher-Schapiro, Avi (October 27, 2015). "The FBI Director Says Cops Are 'Under Siege' From Viral Videos". Vice News. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Lichtblau, Eric (July 6, 2016). "James Come's Rebuke of Hillary Clinton Fits a 3-Decade Pattern". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
- "Law Enforcement and the Communities We Serve: Bending the Lines Toward Safety and Justice". Fbi.gov. October 23, 2015.
- Comey, James B. (April 16, 2015). "Why I require FBI agents to visit the Holocaust Museum". The Washington Post.
- "Poland fury at Holocaust comment by FBI's James Comey". News Website (April 19, 2015). BBC News. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "Poland summons U.S. ambassador over FBI head's Holocaust remarks". Reuters. April 19, 2015.
- Anne Applebaum (April 19, 2015). "FBI director got it wrong on the Holocaust". The Washington Post.
- "US Ambassador sorry as Poles wait for apology from FBI's James Comey". Daily Mail. April 21, 2015.
- "FBI chief tells Poland's U.S. envoy he regrets Holocaust remarks". Reuters Editorial. Reuters. April 23, 2015.
- Barrett, Devlin (5 June 2015). "U.S. Suspects Hackers in China Breached About four (4) Million People's Records, Officials Say". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "U.S. gov't hack may be four (4) times larger than first reported".
- Sanders, Sam (4 June 2015). "Massive Data Breach Puts 4 Million Federal Employees' Records At Risk". NPR.
- "Hacks of OPM databases compromised 22.1 million people, federal authorities say". The Washington Post. July 9, 2015.
- Landler, Mark; Lichtblau, Eric (July 6, 2016). "STERN REBUKE, BUT NO CHARGES FOR CLINTON: F.B.I. Calls Email Use 'Extremely Careless'". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
- Johnson, Kevin (July 7, 2016). "Comey faces grilling by House panel over Clinton emails". Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- Wilber, Del Quentin Wilber (July 7, 2016). "Comey says FBI did not 'give a hoot about politics' in Clinton email probe". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- Horwitz, Sari (October 29, 2016). "Justice officials warned FBI that Comey's decision to update Congress was not consistent with department policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Horwitz, Sari (October 28, 2016). "Read the letter Comey sent to FBI employees explaining his controversial decision on the Clinton email investigation". The Washington Post.
Of course, we don't ordinarily tell Congress about ongoing investigations, but here I feel an obligation to do so given that I testified repeatedly in recent months that our investigation was completed. I also think it would be misleading to the American people were we not to supplement the record. At the same time, however, given that we don't know the significance of this newly discovered collection of emails, I don't want to create a misleading impression. In trying to strike that balance, in a brief letter and in the middle of an election season, there is significant risk of being misunderstood, but I wanted you to hear directly from me about it.
- Goldman, Adam; Rappeport, Alan (October 29, 2016). "Emails in Anthony Weiner Inquiry Jolt Hillary Clinton's Campaign". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "Open Letter from Former Federal Prosecutors and High-Ranking Officials of The U.S. Department of Justice". hillaryclinton.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Silberman, Laurence H. (February 24, 2017). "A 'Notorious' 2016 for Ginsburg and Comey". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Holder, Eric (October 30, 2016). "Eric Holder: James Comey is a good man, but he made a serious mistake". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Gorelick, Jamie; Thompson, Larry (October 29, 2016). "James Comey is damaging our democracy". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Wisner, Matthew (July 6, 2016). "Former A.G. Michael Mukasey: Comey Stepped Way Outside His Job". Fox Business. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Griffiths, Brent (October 31, 2016). "Former Bush attorney general: Comey made 'error in judgment'". POLITICO. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Painter, Richard W. (October 31, 2016). "On Clinton Emails, Did the F.B.I. Director Abuse His Power?". The New York Times. p. A21.
- Matt Apuzzo; Michael S. Schmidt; Adam Goldman (November 7, 2016). "F.B.I. SAYS REVIEW CLEARS CLINTON IN EMAIL INQUIRY – Director Tells Congress Many Messages in New Trove Were Duplicates". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Rubin, Jennifer (November 7, 2016). "James Comey should be fired". Chicago Tribune. and Constantine, Tim (November 7, 2016). "FBI chief James Comey should resign". The Washington Times. and Eichenwald, Kurt (November 7, 2016). "FBI Director James Comey Is Unfit for Public Service". Newsweek. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Przbyla, Heidi (October 31, 2016). "Prosecutors, Justice officials sign letter criticizing Comey decision". USA Today. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- Chozick, Amy (November 12, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Blames F.B.I. Director for Election Loss". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Meyer, Ken (December 10, 2016). "Nate Silver: Clinton Would've 'Almost Certainly' Become President If Not for Comey's Letter". Mediaite. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
[Silver wrote:] 'Comey had a large, measurable impact on the race' [and] 'Late-deciding voters broke strongly against Clinton in swing states, enough to cost her MI/WI/PA.'
- Silver, Nate (November 6, 2016). "How Much Did Comey Hurt Clinton's Chances?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
... while Clinton's chances were slightly declining already after she came off her post-debate peak, the rate of decline began to accelerate a couple of days after Comey, once we began to receive some post-Comey polls ... And while it isn't proof of anything, the pattern is at least consistent with a "shock" caused by a burst of negative news for a candidate, as opposed to a more gradual decline.
- "Axelrod: Comey 'didn't tell Hillary Clinton not to campaign in Wisconsin'". POLITICO. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- "Clinton aides blame loss on everything but themselves". POLITICO. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- "Hillary Clinton says she would have won the election if it was held in October; writing campaign book is 'painful'". New York Daily News. May 3, 2017.
- LoBianco, Tom (May 3, 2017). "Comey hearing: FBI chief defends 'right choice' on handling Clinton email probe". CNN. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Adam Goldman (May 4, 2017). "COMEY STANDS BY F.B.I.'S DISCLOSURE THAT JOLTED RACE – WOULD DO IT ALL AGAIN – He's 'Mildly Nauseous' at Idea He Swayed Vote, Senators Are Told". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Adam Goldman; Eric Lichtblau; Matt Apuzzo (January 13, 2017). "COMEY'S HANDLING OF CLINTON EMAILS WILL FACE INQUIRY – Justice Department Acts on Concern That Moves by F.B.I. Chief Jolted Race". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Weigel, David (July 26, 2017). "House Judiciary Committee votes to probe Comey and Clinton's 2016 campaign". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Greenwood, Max (July 26, 2017). "House Judiciary Committee votes to request documents on Comey, Clinton". The Hill. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Rosenfeld, Everett (July 27, 2017). "House Republicans call for a second special counsel - to investigate Clinton, Comey and Lynch". CNBC. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Demirjian, Karoun (September 1, 2017). "Top Senate Republicans accuse Comey of planning to clear Clinton before interviewing her". Washington Post.
- Kutner, Max (December 15, 2017). "Comey's Early Clinton Draft Said She Should Face 'No Charges'". Newsweek. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Solomon, John (November 6, 2017). "Early Comey memo accused Clinton of gross negligence on emails". The Hill. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- Jarrett, Laura; Perez, Evan (December 4, 2017). "FBI agent dismissed from Mueller probe changed Comey's description of Clinton to 'extremely careless'". CNN. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- Michael S. Schmidt (May 12, 2017). "In a Private Dinner, Trump Demanded Loyalty. Comey Demurred". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Michael S. Schmidt (May 17, 2017). "TRUMP APPEALED TO COMEY TO HALT INQUIRY INTO AIDE – Ex-F.B.I. Chief Noted Request in Memo: 'I Hope You Can Let This Go'". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Shugerman, Emily (2017-06-08). "James Comey: Trump did not ask me to drop investigation into Russian election meddling". The Independent. Retrieved 2017-07-26.
- Michael S. Schmidt; Michael D. Shear (March 5, 2017). "F.B.I. CHIEF PUSHES FOR JUSTICE DEPT. TO REFUTE TRUMP – White House Rallies Behind Unproven Claim of Obama Tapping Phones". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- CNN, Stephen Collinson (March 21, 2017). "Comey confirms FBI investigating Russia, Trump ties". CNN. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Kiely, Eugene; Farley, Robert (March 21, 2017). "Spinning the Intel Hearing". FactCheck.org. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Matt Apuzzo; Matthew Rosenberg; Emmarie Huetteman (March 21, 2017). "COMEY CONFIRMS INQUIRY ON RUSSIA AND TRUMP ALLIES – In Day of Testimony, F.B.I. Director Also Dismisses a Wiretapping Claim". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- "Full transcript: FBI Director James Comey testifies on Russian interference in 2016 election". The Washington Post. March 20, 2017.
- "FBI Director James Comey says Russia is 'greatest threat of any nation on Earth'". The Independent. May 4, 2017.
- "Russia is the greatest threat to U.S.: James Comey". The Hindu. May 4, 2017.
- "FBI has sufficient resources for Russia investigation: McCabe". Reuters. May 11, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- Harwood, John (May 11, 2017). "Acting FBI Director McCabe backs up the Trump administration on one key detail". CNBC. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- Garcia, Arturo (May 10, 2017). "Will Ex-FBI Director James Comey Speak Before Senate Intelligence Committee?". Snopes. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Guardian Wires (June 8, 2017). "Former FBI director James Comey testifies before Senate - watch live". Retrieved July 7, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Collinson, Stephen (June 8, 2017). "James Comey claims his moment at hearing". CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Smith, David; Borger, Julian; Siddiqui, Sabrina (June 8, 2017). "James Comey reveals concerns about Trump in a devastating account to Congress". The Guardian. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- "Read James Comey's explosive opening statement on Trump and Russia in full". The Independent. June 7, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- "Statement for the Record: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence" (PDF). intelligence.senate.gov. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Ackerman, Spencer. "James Comey defends US surveillance practices at FBI confirmation hearing", The Guardian. July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Gage, Beverly (November 11, 2014). "What an Uncensored Letter to M.L.K. Reveals". The New York Times.
- "Ex-NSA chief backs Apple on iPhone 'back doors'". USA TODAY. February 21, 2016.
- Mary Kay Mallonee and Eugene Scott (March 9, 2017). "Comey: 'There is no such thing as absolute privacy in America'". CNN.
- The Associated Press (May 9, 2017). "The Latest: Comey Learned of Ouster as He Spoke at FBI in LA". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Winton, Richard; Queally, James (May 9, 2017). "Comey was 'caught flat-footed' and learned of firing from TV while talking to FBI agents in L.A., source says". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Lee, Carol E. (January 29, 2018). "Trump's gripes against McCabe included wife's politics, Comey's ride home". NBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Prokupecz, Shimon (May 10, 2017). "First on CNN: Comey sends farewell letter to select FBI staff". CNN. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- "Trump fires Comey: McCabe takes over as FBI's acting director". Fox News Channel. May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Apuzzo, Matt (May 10, 2017). "F.B.I. Director James Comey Is Fired by Trump". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Smith, David (May 9, 2017). "Donald Trump fires FBI director Comey over handling of Clinton investigation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Sommer, Will (May 9, 2017). "Sessions was told to find reasons to fire Comey: reports". TheHill. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Pramuk, Jacob (May 9, 2017). "Justice Department was told to come up with reasons to fire Comey, reports say". CNBC. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Haberman, Maggie; Thrush, Glenn; Schmidt, Michael S.; Baker, Peter (May 11, 2017). "'Enough Was Enough': How Festering Anger at Comey Ended in His Firing". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Dawsey, Josh. "He got tired of him". POLITICO. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Malloy, Allie (May 10, 2017). "Trump says he fired Comey because he wasn't 'doing a good job'". CNN. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Fabian, Jordan (May 11, 2017). "Huckabee Sanders stands by claim FBI 'rank and file' lost faith in Comey". The Hill. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Vitali, Ali; Siemaszko, Corky (May 11, 2017). "EXCLUSIVE: President Trump reveals he asked Comey whether he was under investigation". NBC News. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Baker, Peter; Shear, Michael D. (May 12, 2017). "Trump Shifts Rationale for Firing Comey, Calling Him a 'Showboat'". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Buncombe, Andrew (May 14, 2017). "Donald Trump could be impeached over firing of James Comey, says professor who called election". The Independent. ISSN 0951-9467. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
- Blum, Howard (November 22, 2017). "What Trump Really Told Kislyak After Comey Was Canned". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- "Trump to Russian diplomats: Firing 'nut job' James Comey took 'great pressure' off me".
- "Trump reportedly told Russians Comey is 'nut job,' said firing relieved 'pressure'". May 19, 2017.
- Rucker, Philip; Parker,, Ashley; Barrett, Devlin; Costa, Robert. "Inside Trump's anger and impatience – and his sudden decision to fire Comey". The Washington Post.
- Haberman, Maggie; Thrush, Glenn; Schmidt, Michael S.; Baker, Peter (May 10, 2017). "'Enough Was Enough': How Festering Anger at Comey Ended in His Firing" – via www.nytimes.com.
- Hensch, Mark (May 10, 2017). "Trump angry Comey would not back wiretap claims about Obama: report".
- "A timeline of the nonexistent James Comey tapes".
- Scott, Eugene. "Trump threatens Comey in Twitter outburst". CNN.
- Naylor, Brian (June 8, 2017). "'Lordy, I Hope There Are Tapes': Highlights Of James Comey's Testimony". NPR. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- "Trump says he has no Comey tapes".
- "Donald Trump says he has no tapes of James Comey's conversations". The Washington Times.
- "Trump denies having Comey tapes — but won't deny recordings exist".
- Wilstein, Matt (May 9, 2017). "CNN's Jeffrey Toobin Goes Off on Trump for Firing Comey: 'What Kind of Country Is This?'". The Daily Beast.
- Abbruzzese, Jason (May 9, 2017). "Everyone is comparing Donald Trump to Richard Nixon". The Silicon Times.
- "Comey firing: Reaction from members of Congress on FBI director's dismissal". The Washington Post.
- Charlie Savage (May 12, 2017). "Critics Say Trump Broke the Law in Firing Comey. Proving It Isn't So Easy". The New York Times. p. A17. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- "FBI Director James Comey fired by President Trump". Fox59. Associated Press. May 9, 2017.
- Carroll, Lauren (May 10, 2017). "Did James Comey tell Donald Trump three times that he isn't under FBI investigation?". Politifact. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Comey, James (2017-06-08). "Statement for the Record Senate Select Committee on Intelligence" (PDF). United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. pp. 2, 4, 6. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
I discussed with the FBI's leadership team whether I should be prepared to assure President-Elect Trump that we were not investigating him personally. ... without him directly asking the question, I offered that assurance. ... I replied that he should give that careful thought because it might create a narrative that we were investigating him personally, which we weren't ... we had told those Congressional leaders that we were not personally investigating President Trump. I reminded him I had previously told him that.
- Carroll, Lauren; Kruzel, John (2017-06-07). "The 3 things Comey's advance testimony corroborates from press reports, Trump". PolitiFact. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
Comey’s prepared remarks bolster Trump’s claim. He says he assured Trump three different times, the first instance coming in a January 6 meeting a Trump Tower.
- "Trump asked James Comey to pledge his loyalty to him". CBS News. May 11, 2017.
Soon after he was inaugurated, President Trump asked FBI Director James Comey to pledge his loyalty to him, a request that Comey turned down. Several sources within the FBI have stated that the White House's firing of Comey was a culmination of high-level efforts to interfere in the Russia investigation.
- Cohn, Alicia (May 13, 2017). "Comey willing to testify, but only in public: report". The Hill. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
- Goldman, Adam; Rosenberg, Matthew (May 12, 2017). "Acting F.B.I. Chief Contradicts White House on Russia and Comey". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (May 16, 2017). "Comey Memo Says Trump Asked Him to End Flynn Investigation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Williams, Katie Bo (June 8, 2017). "Comey leaked memos to prompt special counsel". The Hill. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- "James Comey testifies before Senate Intelligence Committee". CBS News. June 8, 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Jalonick, Mary Clare; Tucker, Eric; Day, Chad (20 April 2018). "In Comey memos, Trump fixates on 'hookers,' frets over Flynn". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- Day, Chad. "Here are the Comey memos as obtained by @AP's @MCJalonick". Twitter. Twitter. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "James Comey, Former F.B.I. Director, to Publish a Book Next Spring". The New York Times. August 2, 2017.
- "Comey's Writing a Book, and Publishers Are Eager to Pay Big Money for It". The New York Times. July 15, 2017.
- "James Comey's new book will tell readers about 'A Higher Loyalty'". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
- Stracqualursi, Veronica (2017-11-02). "Former FBI Director Comey takes veiled swipe at Trump with book: 'A Higher Loyalty'". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
- Associated Press Published 4:59 p.m. ET February 7, 2018 (May 16, 2017). "James Comey memoir gets an earlier release date amid 'urgent conversation' about FBI". Usatoday.com. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- Stelter, Brian (March 18, 2018). "James Comey's book is already a best seller, with Trump's help". CNN Money. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Miller, Hayley (March 18, 2018). "James Comey's Book Soars On Best Sellers List As Donald Trump Attacks Him On Twitter". Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- "Comey Fesses Up, Confirms Ownership of Suspected Twitter Account" by Carrie Johnson, NPR, October 23, 2017
- Nick Anderson (January 19, 2018). "Comey to teach course on ethical leadership for College of William & Mary". Washington Post.
- Allen, Mike; Gerstein, Josh (2013-05-29). "President Obama to tap James Comey for FBI". Politico. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
- Neill Caldwell (July 31, 2013). "Next FBI director is a United Methodist". United Methodist News Service. Archived from the original on June 19, 2016.
- Page, Susan. "James Comey: Lessons he learned from the tragic loss of his infant son". USA TODAY. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Green, Frank. "Comey's new book includes personal passages about his time in Richmond, death of his newborn son". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Perkins, Madeleine Sheehan (June 23, 2017). "Photos show former FBI director James Comey entering New York Times building in Manhattan for event". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Profile, northjersey.com. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Profile, irishcentral.com. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "In his new book, James Comey compares Trump to Mob boss". CBC News. Associated Press. April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Ackerman, Spencer. "James Comey remained at Justice Department as monitoring went on". The Guardian. June 27, 2013.
- Murphy, Laura. "Let's check James Comey's Bush years record before he becomes FBI director". The Guardian. June 21, 2013.
- Roberts, Riley. "The Case Against James Comey". Politico. September 11, 2016.
- Wittes, Benjamin. "In Defense of Jim Comey: Politico's Bizarrely Shoddy Attack on the FBI Director". Lawfare Blog. September 14, 2016.[unreliable source?]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James B. Comey.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
James Brien Comey
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: James Comey|
- James Comey on Twitter
- Department of Justice Farewell Address
- James B. Comey – White House Biography
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- James B. Comey Professional Biography, United States Department of Justice
- Transcript of James Comey's testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, May 15, 2007
- "Intelligence Under the Law", a speech delivered by James Comey to the National Security Agency on Law Day, May 20, 2005
- "Corporate Counsel article – "Attention Must Be Paid"". law.com. January 1, 2008.
- Profile on Columbia Law School
- James Comey’s opening statement preceding the June 8, 2017 Senate Intelligence Committee hearing
Mary Jo White
|United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York
David N. Kelley
|United States Deputy Attorney General
Robert McCallum Jr.
|Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Christopher A. Wray