West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United States.[3] Located on the Hudson River in New York, General George Washington stationed his headquarters in West Point in the summer and fall of 1779 during the American Revolutionary War,[4] and later called it "the most important Post in America" in 1781 following war's end.[5] West Point also was the site of General Benedict Arnold's infamous and failed attempt at treason during the Revolutionary War.[6]

West Point, New York
Aerial view of West Point (at the center), the Hudson River, Highland Falls (on right), Cold Spring (on left) across the river in Putnam County
Aerial view of West Point (at the center), the Hudson River, Highland Falls (on right), Cold Spring (on left) across the river in Putnam County
Location of West Point in Orange County, New York (left) and of Orange County in New York state (right)
Location of West Point in Orange County, New York (left) and of Orange County in New York state (right)
West Point, New York is located in New York
West Point, New York
West Point, New York
Location in the state of New York
Coordinates: 41°23′29″N 73°57′22″W / 41.39139°N 73.95611°W / 41.39139; -73.95611
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
 • Total19.34 sq mi (50.08 km2)
 • Land18.43 sq mi (47.75 km2)
 • Water0.90 sq mi (2.33 km2)
 • Total7,341
 • Density398.21/sq mi (153.75/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code845
FIPS code36-80747[2]

West Point was first occupied by the United States Armed Forces on January 27, 1778, when Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons and his brigade, including elements of Connecticut Colony's patriot militia, crossed an iced over Hudson River and climbed to the plain on West Point.[7] From then to the present, West Point has been occupied by the United States Army.[8] It comprises approximately 16,000 acres (6,500 ha) including the campus of the United States Military Academy,[9] which is commonly called "West Point" as well.[10]

West Point is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Highlands in Orange County,[11][12] located on the western bank of the Hudson River. The population was 7,341 at the 2020 census.[13] It is part of the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area.

History edit

American Revolutionary War edit

Construction edit

The site for West Point was originally picked because of the abnormal S-curve in the Hudson River at that point during the American Revolutionary War, and was the subject of a committee reporting on fortifications in the Hudson River in November 1775, which first recommended occupying the land.[5] Construction of the fort was begun under Captain Louis de la Radiere[14] as chief engineer of the fort, however, New York Governor George Clinton thought that Radiere as "lacking" in the knowledge needed to hold his position.[5] Thus it was completed under Polish Colonel Tadeusz Kościuszko between 1778–1780; it was a key defensive fortification, overlooking the turn in the Hudson River and the Great Chain.[15]

General George Washington watched the construction of the fort closely and considered the fort to be General Alexander McDougall's "first priority".[5]

In 1778, Major General Israel Putnam wrote, "The place agreed upon to obstruct the navigation of Hudson river was at West Point." A fort there, Fort Clinton, named after the governor's brother, Colonel James Clinton[a] (whose brigade built the main fort), was built as well. The southern and western walls were nine feet high and twenty feet thick. Three redoubts and batteries on the south were named Forts Meigs, Wyllys, and Webb.[16]: 53, 55 

Map of West Point, 1780.

After construction edit

West Point was staffed by a small garrison of Continental Army Soldiers from early in 1776 through the end of the war. A great iron chain was laid across the Hudson at this point in 1778 in order to prevent British Navy vessels from sailing further up the Hudson River, which was never tested by the British.[17]

The site comprised multiple redoubts, as well as Fort Putnam, situated on a high hill overlooking the river. Named after its builder, Revolutionary War General and engineer Rufus Putnam, the fort is still preserved in its original design.[18][19]

Near losses edit
Capture of Stony Point and Verplanck's Point edit

Parliament sent instructions to General Sir Henry Clinton to force George Washington out of West Point. Clinton decided to capture the strategically important posts Stony Point and Verplanck's Point,[20] which were twelve miles south of West Point. Clinton captured the forts on June 1, 1779. To block the British advance, Washington moved his troops further up the Hudson.[5]

Betrayal of Benedict Arnold edit

Early on in May 1779, General Benedict Arnold had met with a Philadelphia merchant named Joseph Stansbury. Afterwards Stansbury had gone to Sir Henry Clinton, to whom he offered Arnold's "services". Clinton had been pursuing a campaign to take control of the Hudson River, so he had been interested in the plans and information of the defenses of West Point and other defenses on the Hudson River. Arnold wrote a series of letters to Clinton, one of which was written on July 12, making explicit the offer to surrender West Point to the British, later for a finalized offer of £20,000. On August 3, 1780, Arnold obtained command of West Point, which also gave him command of the American-controlled portion of the Hudson. Arnold then intentionally started weakening the fort's defenses, and through a letter sent to Clinton, proposing a meeting with British Major John André to discuss information on West Point. A meeting was set for September 11, however, Arnold and André did not meet until September 21. Carrying the plans for West Point, André was captured on September 23 by three militiamen, and the information to West Point was found.[6] After Arnold's betrayal, the fort, which was also known as Fort Arnold at the time, was renamed to Fort Clinton after General James Clinton.[21]

Post-war edit

After the conclusion of the American Revolution, West Point was used as a storage facility for cannon and other military property used by the Continental Army[22] and until November 28, 1779 was used as the temporary headquarters to George Washington.[5] Viewing a standing army as "dangerous", Congress demobilized American forces but left fewer than a hundred men at West Point.[5] However, it was still the largest post in the army in the immediate years after the Revolutionary War.[23]

View of the West Point area from Fort Putnam, c. 1865

Favoring West Point due to its location and defenses, Henry Knox and Alexander Hamilton made the first official recommendation to establish a military academy at West Point in 1790. However, Congress rejected the proposal, although earlier in 1790, New York merchant and American Revolution patriot Stephen Moore sold his estate (known as "Moore's Folly") to the United States, following an Act of Congress that solidified the sale[24] which meant Congress had gained full possession of the fort.[5] The United States Military Academy was established at West Point in 1802[25][26] and is the nation's oldest service academy.[27] West Point has the distinction of being the longest continuously occupied United States military installation.[8]

Geography and climate edit

Looking north on the Hudson River from West Point (Seth Eastman, 1875)

West Point is located at 41° 23′ 42" N 73° 57' 18" W (41.395° N 73.955° W). According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 25.1 sq mi (65 km2); 24.3 sq mi (63 km2) land and 0.7 sq mi (1.8 km2) water. West Point and the contiguous village of Highland Falls are on the west bank of the Hudson River.[28]

West Point has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa),[29] with four distinct seasons.[30] Summers are hot and humid, while winters are cold with moderate snowfall.[31] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 27.5 °F (−2.5 °C) in January to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in July; on average, temperatures reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or 0 °F (−18 °C) occur on 17 and 1.4 days of the year, respectively. The average annual precipitation is approximately 50.5 in (1,280 mm), which is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year; snow averages 35 in (89 cm) per season, although this total may vary considerably from year to year. Extremes in temperature range from 106 °F (41 °C) on July 22, 1926, down to −17 °F (−27 °C) on February 9, 1934.[citation needed]

Climate data for West Point, New York (1991–2010 normals, extremes 1890–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
Average high °F (°C) 35.8
Daily mean °F (°C) 28.2
Average low °F (°C) 20.7
Record low °F (°C) −15
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.82
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.8 8.3 9.3 10.5 11.8 11.4 9.8 9.6 8.2 9.6 9.0 10.4 117.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.8 2.4 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.9 10.5
Source: NOAA[32][33]

Demographics edit

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[34]

As of the census of 2020, there were 7,341 people, and 860 households residing in the CDP, with the average household size being 3.79 persons per household. The population density was 398.2 inhabitants per square mile (153.7/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 69.3% white, 5.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.4% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, and 10.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.0% of the population. The age distribution is 23.5% under the age of 18, and 0.4% who were 65 years of age or older.[13]

View of West Point from the eastern shore of the Hudson River

There were 860 households, out of which 79.5% were a married couple family household, 16.4% had a female householder with no spouse present, and 3.3% had a male householder with no spouse present.[35] The average household size was 3.79. The median income for a household in the CDP was $121,219.[13]

About 2.3% of the population were below the poverty line.[13]

West Point Mint edit

In 1937, the West Point Bullion Depository was constructed and in 1938 opened to store silver bullion.[36] In 1988, it became the West Point Mint, as a branch of the United States Mint[37] and gained official status as a branch of the United States Mint on March 31 of that year.[38] The West Point Mint has a deep storage of 54,067,331.379 fine troy ounces of gold.[39] It sits on a 4-acre (1.6 ha) parcel of land.[40]

Notable people edit

Transportation edit

U.S. Route 9W, combined with NY Route 218 run north-south through West Point. New York Route 293 also runs northeast-southwest through the post. Running through the lower portion of the town is U.S. Route 6, combined with the upper extent of the Palisades Interstate Parkway.

The New York Central Railroad well into the 1950s operated several passenger trains a day on the West Shore Railroad through the academy's Gothic style station; both the limited stop trains bound for Albany and the local trains to Newburgh and Kingston made stops at the station. Service finally ended in 1958.[47][48]

Train station gallery edit

Education edit

Highland Falls-Fort Montgomery Central School District is the local school district.[49] James I. O'Neill High School is its high school.[50]

The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) maintains elementary and middle schools for children of military personnel on-post at USMA,[51] but sends high school aged students who are dependents of on-base military personnel to O'Neill.[50] In March 2022 USMA's contract with O'Neill was renewed.[52]

See also edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ Fort Clinton was originally named Fort Arnold, however, with Benedict Arnold's defection to the British Army, the fort was renamed to Fort Clinton.[8]

References edit

  1. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 19, 2022. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  2. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 1996-12-27. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ Palka (2008), page viii.
  4. ^ Neff, page 127.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "West Point". George Washington's Mount Vernon. Archived from the original on 2023-07-05. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  6. ^ a b Randall, Willard Sterne (1990). Benedict Arnold: patriot and traitor. New York, N.Y: Morrow. ISBN 978-1-55710-034-4.
  7. ^ Crackel (1991), p. 41.
  8. ^ a b c "Fort Clinton". American Battlefield Trust. Archived from the original on 2023-07-07. Retrieved 2023-07-07.
  9. ^ "United States Military Academy at West Point". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2023-06-28. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  10. ^ Wire, S. I. "Army unveils new name, uniforms and logo in athletics rebrand". SI.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  11. ^ Highlands town, New York.[permanent dead link] U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on August 25, 2011.
  12. ^ "West Point CDP, New York".[permanent dead link] U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on August 25, 2011.
  13. ^ a b c d "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: West Point CDP, New York". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2023-10-09. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  14. ^ J. E. Kaufmann (2004). Fortress America. Tomasz Idzikowski (illus.). Da Capo Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-306-81294-1. de la radiere.
  15. ^ "West Point". A Revolutionary Day. Archived from the original on 2009-03-11. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
  16. ^ Storozynski, A., 2009, The Peasant Prince, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 9780312388027
  17. ^ Diamant, Chaining the Hudson, p. 122
  18. ^ Hubbard, Robert Ernest. Major General Israel Putnam, pp. 157–158, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, 2017. ISBN 978-1476664538.
  19. ^ Livingston, William Farrand. Israel Putnam: Pioneer, Ranger, and Major-General, 1718–1790, pp. 373–375, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, 1901.
  20. ^ "Battle of Stony Point". George Washington's Mount Vernon. Archived from the original on 2023-07-07. Retrieved 2023-07-07.
  21. ^ "Benedict Arnold". www.ushistory.org. Archived from the original on 2023-02-27. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  22. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875". memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 2023-02-23. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  23. ^ Ambrose, pages 9–10.
  24. ^ Miller, Agnes (1952). "Owner of West Point". New York History. 33 (3): 303–312. ISSN 0146-437X. JSTOR 23153463. Archived from the original on 2023-02-18. Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  25. ^ McDonald (2004), p. 184
  26. ^ Ambrose (1966), p. 22.
  27. ^ Wolf, Zachary (June 6, 2019). "West Point has an outsize importance in US history". CNN. Archived from the original on July 11, 2023. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  28. ^ Cheslow, Jerry (1994-05-15). "If You're Thinking of Living In/ Highland Falls; In the U.S. Military Academy's Shadow". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  29. ^ "West Point, New York Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  30. ^ "Overview". American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  31. ^ "Climate in West Point, New York". bestplaces. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  32. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on January 18, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  33. ^ "Station: West Point, NY". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2021-08-11. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  34. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  35. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  36. ^ "History of the U.S. Mint". United States Mint. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  37. ^ "The United States Mint at West Point". usmint.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-12-18. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  38. ^ "The West Point Mint Facility". Gold Coins Trader. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  39. ^ "U.S. Treasury-Owned Gold | U.S. Treasury Fiscal Data". fiscaldata.treasury.gov. Archived from the original on 2023-06-02. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  40. ^ Daddio, William F. (28 May 1987). "National Register of Historic Places nomination, U.S. Bullion Despository, West Point". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  41. ^ Myers, Marc (2019-03-26). "Tony Hale Turned His Childhood Anxieties Into Comic Relief". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  42. ^ "Artists in Canada". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  43. ^ "Mahan, Alfred Thayer". public2.nhhcaws.local. Retrieved 2023-07-13.[permanent dead link]
  44. ^ "Ricky Steamboat: Profile & Match Listing - Internet Wrestling Database (IWD)". www.profightdb.com. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
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  46. ^ "Gore Vidal | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 2023-07-13. Retrieved 2023-07-13.
  47. ^ 'Official Guide of the Railways,' December 1954, New York Central section, Table 80
  48. ^ "Comments On The West Shore from James Knecht". Nyc.railfan.net. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  49. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Orange County, NY" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-05-22. Retrieved 2022-07-04.
  50. ^ a b Wang, Helu (2021-09-27). "Could Highland Falls lose its West Point students?". Times Herald-Record. Archived from the original on 2022-07-05. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  51. ^ "West Point Community". Department of Defense Education Activity. Archived from the original on 2022-07-05. Retrieved 2022-07-04. - Elementary site Archived 2022-07-06 at the Wayback Machine and Middle site Archived 2022-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Randall, Mike (2022-03-21). "Highland Falls' contract to educate West Point high school students is renewed". Times Herald-Record. Archived from the original on 2022-09-23. Retrieved 2022-07-05.

External links edit